Приложение 6. Семантическое развитие слов

angel – Greek angelos ‘bringer of messages’

arena – Lat ‘sand’; Coliseum was strewn with sand to absorb the blood

arrive – Fr-Lat ‘to come by water’

assassin – Arabic orig. a sect of Oriental religious and military fanatics founded in Persia in 1090. They were called ‘Hashashashins’ (from ‘hashish’ they used before engaging in massacres)

bachelor – Fr-Lat Lat ‘baccalaria’ – herd of cows; ‘baccalarius’ – a youth who attended cows

balmy – euphemism for mentally deranged may be is a corruption of Barming Asylum (a house for the mad in Kent in 1832)

barbarian – Greek Greeks described any foreign people whose speech they couldn’t understand and which sounded to them like ‘ba-ba’

bedlam – now ‘chaos’; from the name of a famous London mental hospital once situated where Liverpool St Station now stands

beefeater – the Yeomen of the Guard at the Tower of London; in mediaeval England eater – servant; loaf-eater – a menial servant who waited on the superior servants; the highest class of servant – the fighting man, who ate beef – the beefeater

Bible – Lat biblia, a diminutive of biblos ‘the inner bark of papyrus’; orig. meant any book made of papyrus, paper

biro – now ‘a ball-point pen’ named after Laszlo Biro, its Hungarian inventor

blackleg – the sporting men of low type invariably wore black leggings or top boots

blackmail – Scottish mail – ‘rent’ or ‘tax’; orig.was a tribute paid by Border farmers (border between England and Scotland) to free-booters in return for protection from molestation from either side of the Border

bluestocking – from a literary club formed by a Mrs. Montague in 1840. Benjamin Stillingfleet who wore blue stockings, was a regular visitor, and they became the recognized emblem of membership

boor – Dutch orig. a peasant or farm worker, now ‘a rude, awkward, or ill-mannered person’

bread – orig. a fragment or a small piece

bribe – Fr lumps of bread given to beggars

budget – Fr-Celt orig. a sack full of money, the various sums appropriated to special purposes being sorted into little pouches

butler – orig. a man in charge of the wine

cab. – shortening for Fr. cabriolet (a one-horse cab)

cabinet – It cabinetto ‘a little room’ (kings took their advisors into their private rooms – their cabinet)

camp – Fr-It-Lat campus ‘exercising ground for the army’

candidate – Latcandidus ‘white’ (candere – ‘to shine’); in Roman empire whose who sought high office in the State vested themselves in white togas (emp. purity of character and intentions)

canteen – It cantina ‘a wine cellar’

cash – Fr casse a case or box in which money was kept

chap – shortening for chapman – one who sold goods in a cheap market

cheap – OE ceap ‘a purchase, a bargain’; Cf. German kaufen

churl – OE ceorl ‘a peasant, freeman’, now ‘a surly, ill-bred person, boor’

citizen – Fr orig. a native or inhabitant, esp. a freeman or burgess, of a town or city

client – Latin ancient Rome a client was a plebeian under the patronage of a patrician. He performed certain services for the patron who was thereby obliged to protect his life and interests

clumsy – Sc too cold to feel anything

corn – Lat granum ‘grain’

country – Fr-Lat contra ‘opposite, over against’

coward – Frcouard– Latcauda ‘a tail’; to turn tail – to act as a coward

damask – Arabic a rich silk brocade from Damascus

dandelion – Fr dent-de-lion ‘tooth of the lion,’ from the jagged tooth-like edges of the leaves – like the teeth of a lion

daughter – Skr ‘milker’

deer – OE deor ‘wild animal’

derrick – after Thos. Derrick, London hangman of the early 17th century, orig. applied to a gallows

drawing-room – orig. the withdrawing room to which the ladies withdrew after dinner, leaving the men to their wine and cigars

earn (one’s living) – derived from the old German word for ‘harvest’; Dutcherne; Bavarian arnen

eccentric – orig. ‘to deviate from the centre’, from the Lat ex centrum ‘otherwise, not according to rule’

economy – now is used mostly for national or international politics, orig. belonged primarily to the house, being derived from the Greek oikos ‘house’ and nomos ‘a law’

enthusiast – Greek entheos ‘one who is inspired by a God’

fare – orig. a journey for which passage money was paid; it has come to mean the money paid for the passage, and the person paying the money is also called the fare

farewell – an expression of goodwill to a traveler starting out on a fare (journey) – the wish that the journey would end in all well

fee – OE feoh ‘cattle’, which in those days was one of the principal means of making a payment (Lat pecunia ‘money’ was derived in a similar way from pecus ‘cattle’ and capital from capita ‘head of cattle’)

fellow – Scone who lays down money in a joint undertaking

field – OE feld ‘a place from which the trees had been felled, or cleared’; hence the derivational element field, feld in Sheffield, Chesterfield, Earlsfield

fond – MEcontr. of fonned‘foolish’, p.p. of fonnen ‘to be foolish’

fool – Lat follis ‘a windbag’, the plural folles ‘puffed-out cheeks’

foreign – Fr-Lat foranus ‘foreign’, orig. external; from foras ‘out-of-doors’, orig. acc. pl. of OLat fora ‘a door’

forget-me-not – the ‘remembrance’ legend of the little flower is derived from a tragedy of the Danube, which may or may not be true. A German Knight to please his lady climbed down the bank of the Danube to pick the flower, fell into the swift-flowing stream and, impended by his armour, was swept away and drowned. But not before he was able to pick the flower and throw it to his lady on the bank with the words (his last) ‘Vergiß mein nicht’ (forget me not)

fowl – OE fugol ‘any bird’

gentleman – in feudal days there was a strict class distinction between the labourer, the yeomen, and the man of ‘gentle birth’, though not noble birth. The gentle birth entitled him to bear arms

girl – OE orig. a child of either sex (gyrel ‘a long dress’)

glad – OE ‘bright, shining’

glove – OE glof ‘the palm of the hand’

good-bye – ‘God be with you’; the French say adieu (à Dieu – I commend you to God)

harem – Arabic something forbidden

hockey – the name is derived from the diminutive of hook, the club used in the game being hooked slightly at the end

holland – a linen or cotton cloth used for clothing, window shades, first made in Holland

holocaust – Greek holos ‘whole’ and kaio ‘I burn’. In its Biblical sense it was a sacrifice completely consumed by fire

honeymoon – the name is derived from the custom in Northern Europe of drinking hydromel, or diluted honey (mead), a fermented liquor made from honey, for thirty days (a moon, month) after the marriage feast

hospital – Fr-Lat orig. a place to receive guests or travelers

journal – Fr‘daily’

idiot – Greek idios ‘private,’ ‘one’s own’, the Greek idiotes signifying a man in private life, as distinguished from one holding an official position. The assumption was that the latter would be of higher education and intellect. Now it means one who is weak in mind or deficient in common sense

imbecile – Lat in ‘on’ and bacillus ‘a staff’, thus ‘one who leans on a stick’; it would be more sensibly to say it meant ‘weak in strength’ (not in mind)

infantry – Lat infans ‘an infant’; in the days of chivalry youths of good family, with their attendants, marched on foot in the rear of the mounted knights thus becoming the forerunners of the infantry of the army

khaki – Hindustani khak ‘colour of the soil, dusty’

king – OE cyn ‘a people’, or ‘a nation’. The suffix –ing meant ‘of’, in the sense of ‘son of’; thus cyning ‘son of the nation, or of the people’

knave – OE ‘a boy, esp. a boy in someone’s employ’. Cf. knight ‘a man servant’. Knight has become an honour, knave – a dishonour

lavender – Lat lavendula; from lavare ‘to wash’. Lavender was at one time used in the washing of linen which was too delicate to be beaten on the stones in the streams. It was accordingly rinsed well in soap and water, laid across a line, and beaten gently with long springs of lavender

leaf – before the invention of paper, writing was recorded on the leaves of certain plants; the name still stands for a page of writing

legend – Lat legenda, from legere ‘to read’; the Legenda was a book containing the narratives of the lives of the Saints, read in the religious houses

limousine – Fr limousine ‘cloak’, the idea was a ‘cloaked’ car, cars having previously been open

lumber-room – orig. Lombard room. The Lombards were the first pawn-brokers in England. Their rooms, packed with all manner of goods not wanted by their original owners, were known as Lombard rooms

mac – the prefix to Scottish names is Gaelic for ‘son of’; MacGregor was the son of Gregor

mackintosh – the raincoat is so called after the Scotsman who invented the waterproofing of material

marshal – Fr-Lat ‘a horse servant’: marah ‘horse’+ scalh ‘servant’

mausoleum – now the name is given to any large and stately tomb; orig. the tomb of Mausolus, a large and magnificent edifice adorned with sculpture, and built at the order of his Queen, Artemisia. Erected at Halicarnassus about 350 B.C., it is ranked as one of the Seven Wonders of the World

May – Romans called it magius, later Maius, from the Sanskrit mah ‘to grow’. Later, still, however, it was held sacred to Maia, mother of Mercury, and sacrifices were offered on the first day of the month

meat – OE food; MnEedible flesh of killed animals

melodrama – Greek melos ‘a song’ and drama ‘a play’; melodrama was originally a play in which music was used, but was of minor importance

mentor – Greek ‘adviser’; Mentor was the loyal friend and adviser of Odysseus, and teacher of his son, Telemachus; now 1. a wise, loyal adviser; 2. a teacher or coach

mesmerism – so called after Franz Anton Mesmer (1733 – 1815), an Austrian doctor, who introduced into Paris a theory of animal magnetism as a cure

minister – Fr-Lat‘a servant, attendant’

monger – is derived from the Mediaeval English mong ‘a mixture’, ‘an association’ and the OE mangere ‘one who trades’. Thus orig. it was one who traded, or sold, a mixture of commodities in association with one another

morocco – a fine soft leather made orig. in Morocco, from goatskins tanned with sumac

naughty – is composed of the OE na ‘not’ and wiht ‘thing’, and orig. meant ‘worthless, good for nothing’

nephew – Lat nepos ‘a grandson’. It meant grandchild, or descendant in Early English. Niece, from the Lat neptis ‘a granddaughter’

omnibus – Lat omnibus ‘for all’

Oxford – in Domesday Book is called Oxeneford – a ford for the passage of oxen across the River Isis

pagan – now used to describe a non-believer in Christianity. It is an adaptation of the Lat paganus ‘a villager,’ ‘rustic’. It was used of rustics chiefly by the Roman soldiery, and expressed their contempt of people, who being so far removed from the cities, had little knowledge of Roman mythology

panama (hat) – after Panama (city), once a main distributing center

parlour – Fr parler ‘to talk’; orig. a room set apart in a monastery where conversation was allowed and visitors admitted

patient – Lat patiens, the present participle of patior ‘I suffer,’ ‘I endure’

pen – Lat penna ‘a feather’; the earliest pens were quills – feathers cut into the form of pens with a pen-knife

pencil – Lat penicellum ‘a paintbrush’

perfume – Lat per fumum ‘from smoke’; the original perfume was obtained from the combustion of aromatic wood and gums to counteract the offensive smell of burning flesh of old-time sacrifices

person – Lat persona ‘actor’s face mask’

philander – today is a reproach of a man who always makes love to all women, but never seriously; orig. Greek philos ‘love’ and aner (Gen. andros) ‘a male’, ‘a husband’, meaning ‘lover-of-a-man’, a dutiful and loving wife

pipe – orig. a musical instrument

poacher – OE poke ‘a sack or bag’; orig. ‘a person who bagged or pocketed somebody else’s property’

poison – Fr-Latpotio ‘any drink’

pretty – OE‘crafty, wily’

purchase – Fr pour-chasser ‘to hunt for’; it belongs to the days when there were no shop windows with goods on show, and goods required had to be hunted for

quasi – Latquasi ‘as if it were’

queen – OE cwen ‘a woman’

queue – Fr ‘tail’

quick – OE cwic ‘living’

quisling – after Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945), Norwegian politician who betrayed his country to the Nazis and became its puppet ruler; now – a traitor

raglan – a type of overcoat, after Lord Raglan (1788-1855), British commander-in-chief in the Crimean War

ransack – Danish rann ‘a house’ and saikja ‘to seek, search’; orig. ‘to search a house thoroughly’

ready – OE orig. prepared for riding

reduce – orig.‘to bring back’Lat re ‘back’ and duco ‘I lead’

rendezvous – Fr rendez ‘betake’ and vous ‘yourself’: ‘go to …’ (the place appointed)

reply – Lat replicare ‘to turn back’

rival – Lat rivalis ‘one living on the opposite bank of the river’ (from rivus ‘a stream’)

room – OE rum ‘space’

sad – OE orig. firm, heavy, resolute; Cf. ‘sad bread’

salad – orig. green vegetables seasoned with salt, salad meaning ‘salted’

scenery – Greek skene ‘a covered place’; so the painted scenery of the stage was applied to the scenery of Nature

school – Greek scole ‘leisure’

science – Lat scire ‘to know’; the present participle is sciens (scientis)

scissors – Lat cisorum (from caedere ‘to cut’)

scoundrel – OE scunner, scunean ‘to loathe, to shun’

search – Lat circare ‘to go about in a circle’

shahid – Arabic a Muslim martyr

shilling – OE scyllan ‘to divide’; the original shilling was marked with a deeply indented cross, dividing it into halves or quarters, which could be broken off to the amount desired

shrew, shrewd – both come from ME shrew ‘a type of mouse with a long sharp nose, whose bite was believed in those days to be poisonous’

silhouette – so named after Etienne de Silhouette, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Louis XV He was the first to have his photograph outlined, side view, on black paper

sinister – Lat sinister ‘left’; from the ancient days left side has been regarded with superstitious fears. Nothing good could ever come from the left. An illegitimate child was said to have been born on the left side of the bed. A morganatic marriage (one between a royal person and a woman of less station, in which the wife does not acquire her husband’s rank, and neither she, nor any of her issue, have any claims to his title or inheritance) was described as a left-handed marriage. To step over a doorway with the left foot was as ill omen. Thus, left became sinister side, and was thus looked upon all through the ages

sky – Sc cloud

snob – the word is invented by Thackeray to describe George IV; he is said to have coined it from the entry against the names of ‘commoners’ in the lists of colleges – ‘s.nob’ (which stood for sine nobilitate ‘not of noble blood’). In Cambridge, snob is still the college word for a townsman as distinct from a gownsman (a member of the University)

soldier – Lat solidus ‘a piece of money’; orig. the Roman soldier was a hireling, or mercenary, engaged with money to fight

son – Skrsunu, derived from su ‘to beget’

speculate – Lat speculari ‘to spy from a watch-tower’

spinster – OE ‘one who span’; the women of the Anglo-Saxon household span, in winter, the fleeces which had been taken from the sheep during the summer. That was their expected task. It was a recognized axiom that no woman of that period was fitted to be a wife until she had spun for herself her body, table and bed linen. Thus the task of spinning was generally delegated to the unmarried women of the house who were the spinners or the spinsters

starve – OE steorfan ‘to die, perish’

stepmother, stepfather – the prefix indicating that the person referred to is not a blood relation, but a relative only marriage; OE steop, which is connected with astieped ‘bereaved’

steward – OE stigweard: stigo ‘a sty’ and weard ‘ward’. It dates back to the days when most of England was forest, and the chief wealth of the Saxon landowner was pigs. The pigs were driven home from the forest feeding grounds at night and penned in their sties, stig-weard a man being employed to keep watch and ward over them

stock – OE stocc ‘a stick’ or ‘wood’, because wood had to be accumulated and stored for the winter. Thus, anything stored came to be known as stock

style – Lat a pointed stick for writing

suicide – Lat sui ‘of oneself’ and cidium ‘a slaying’ (caedere ‘to slay’)

supercilious – Lat super ‘over’ and cilium ‘eyebrow’; literally ‘having an elevated eyebrow’

surname – Lat super (through Fr sur) ‘over, above’ and nomen ‘name’

swindle – German Schwindler ‘a cheating company promoter’

taboo – the Maori (New Zealand) tapu, tabu ‘sacred’; it was a religious ceremony which could be imposed only by a priest

tailor – Lat taleare ‘to cut’

teach – OE ‘to show, demonstrate’

tête-à-tête – Fr tête ‘head’; ‘a conversation head-to-head’

thing – OE ‘that which is said’

tide – OE tid ‘time’

token – OE ‘a mark’; in ME ‘the evidence’

torment – Lat tortus, past participle of torquere ‘to twist’, from which also torture, extort are derived

town – OE tun ‘an enclosure’

trousers – Fr trousser ‘to truss, to girt in’

trousseau – Fr trousse ‘a bundle’

tumbler – the name for a drinking glass, has existed from the glasses of the sixteenth century – the earliest glasses. They had a rounded or pointed base and could stand only on being emptied and inverted. Any other way they ‘tumbled over’

ugly – Scfrightening

umbrella – Lat umbra ‘shade’

university – Latuniversitas ‘the whole’; when the word was first coined in the twelfth century, it was done so because of the entire, and the whole, range of literature taught in the colleges – the universitas literarum

utopia – Sir Thomas More, in 1516, wrote a romance of that title. Utopia was an island enjoying the utmost perfection in life, society politics and law; the name comes from the Greek ou ‘not’ and topos ‘a place’, so the meaning is ‘no place’

valet – Fr vaselet, an abbreviation of vassalet ‘vassal’

verdict – Lat vere dictum ‘a true saying’

veto – Lat ‘I forbid’

villain – orig. a serf attached to the villa of his lord

volume – Lat volumen ‘a wreath’ or ‘a roll’. Historically, a volume was a roll of parchment, papyrus, etc., containing written matter. Before the days of books and poems the records of history were written on sheets of paper. These were fastened together lengthways and rolled up

week – the days of the week are of Anglo-Saxon origin, as follows: Sunday (OE Sunnandaeg) ‘the day of the sun’; Monday (OE Monandaeg) ‘the day of the moon’; Tuesday (OE Tiwesdaeg) ‘the day of Tiw, God of War’; Wednesday (OE Wodnesdaeg) ‘the day of Woden, God of Storms’; Thursday (OE Thunresdaeg) ‘the day of Thor, God of Thunder’; Friday (OE Frigendaeg) ‘the day of Freya, Goddess of Marriage’; Saturday (OE Saterdaeg) ‘the day of Saturn, God of Time’

wife – OE wif ‘a woman’; now – a married woman

Рекомендуемая литература:

  1. Амосова Н.Н. Английская контекстология. Л., 1968.
  2. Амосова Н.Н. Основы английской фразеологии. Л., 1962.
  3. Амосова Н.Н. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. М., 1956.
  4. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка. М., 2000.
  5. Апресян Ю.Д. Лексическая семантика. Синонимические средства языка. М., 1974.
  6. Арбекова Т.И. Лексикология английского языка (практический курс). М., 1977.
  7. Арнольд И.В. Семантическая структура слова в современном английском языке и методы ее исследования. Л., 1966.
  8. Ахманова О.С. Словарь лингвистических терминов. М., 1966.
  9. Дубенец Э.М. Лингвистические изменения в современном английском языке. Спецкурс. – М.: Глосса-Пресс, 2003.
  10. Каращук П.М. Словообразование английского языка, М., 1977.
  11. Караулов Ю.Н. Лингвистическое конструирование и тезаурус литературного языка. М., 1981.
  12. Котелова Н.З. Значение слова и его сочетаемость. Л., 1975.
  13. Кубрякова Е.С. Основы морфологического анализа. М., 1974.
  14. Кубрякова Е.С. Типы языковых значений. Семантика производного слова. М., 1981.
  15. Кунин А.В. Курс фразеологии современного английского языка. М., 1986.
  16. Медникова Э.М. Значение слова и методы его описания. М., 1974.
  17. Медникова Э.М. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка, М., 1978. /на англ. яз./
  18. Мешков О.Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М., 1976.
  19. Никитин М.В. Основы лингвистической теории значения. М.,1988.
  20. Ретунская М.С. К истокам английского слова. Учебные материалы по этимологии английскогоязыка. Горький. 1987.
  21. Стернин И.А. Проблемы анализа структуры значения слова. Воронеж, 1979.
  22. Ступин Л.П. Лексикография английского языка. М., 1985.
  23. Уфимцева А.А. Лексическое значение. М., 1986.
  24. Хидекель С.С. и др. Английская лексикология в выдержках и извлечениях. Л., 1969 /на англ. яз./.
  25. Беляева Т.П., Хомяков В.А. Нестандартная лексика английского языка. Л., 1985.

26. Языковая номинация: Общие вопросы. М., 1976.

27. Языковая номинация: Виды наименований, М., 1977.

28. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986.

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