The Present Perfect Tense
Exercise 1. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative.
1. I’ve already posted the letter. 2. She has already started her new job. 3. He’s gone to America. 4. They have visited India twice. 5. He has smoked five cigarettes today. 6. My mother has always worked hard. 7. I’ve seen a lot of my former classmates recently. 8. Tom has lost all his money. 9. Oh, I have forgotten about my Dad’s birthday! 10. Mr. Jenkins has just retired from his job. 11. They’ve always been too strict with their children. 12. I have written ten postcards (and he has never answered).
Exercise 2. Paraphrase the following sentences using Present Perfect with FOR and SINCE.
Pattern: a) I saw Tom last on his wedding day. – I haven’t seen Tom since his wedding day. b) It’s three years since I wrote her a letter. – I haven’t written her a letter for three years.
1. it’s ten years since I last was in Paris. 2. I last smoked three years ago. 3. It’s years since I wrote any poetry. 4. He last drank wine at his wife’s birthday. 5. He last ate caviar when he was in Russia. 6. It’s years since Tony last spoke Chinese. 7. It’s ages since I last had a good night’s sleep. 8. They last paid me six months ago. 9. I was last abroad in winter 1983. 10. My father last took photographs in summer. 11. It’s a year since I had my last holiday. 12. We had a family reunion five years ago.
Exercise 3. Ask questions to the underlined parts of the sentences.
1. I have read that book twice. 2. I have known himfor three years. 3. I have only received two lettersfrom him since September. 4. He has finished his breakfast already. 5. She’s typed two letters since morning. 6. I haven’t heard from him since 1992. 7. He has gone to the USA. 8. He has been in the USAsince spring. 9. She hasn’t written to him for years. 10. I’ve been late several times this month, I think.
Exercise 4. Use the Present Perfect Tense instead of the infinitives in brackets.
1. Where’s your father? – I don’t know. He just (go out). 2. Do you want to watch this film? – Oh, no. I already (see) it. 3. What are you looking for? You (lose) your glasses. Let me help you. – Oh, thanks. I (find) them already. 4. She (be) here several times, but she never (buy) anything. 5. I (know) you for many years, but I never (hear) you speak like that before. What (happen)? 6. He (come back) how long he (be) away? 7. Do you remember this story well? – Yes, I just (read) it. 8. She ever (conceal) anything from you? 9. She never (lose) her temper. 10. The news (spread) like fire. 11. Where you (be)? – I (do) shopping. 12. Jack (move) into his new house yet? – I don’t know. I (not see) him lately. 13. I (send) him three letters, but he (not answer) me yet. 14. You (finish) those letters yet? – I (do) the first letter already, and now I’m doing the second, but I (not start) the one to Mr. Brown yet.
Exercise 5. Use the Present Perfect or the Past Simple Tense instead of the infinitives in brackets.
1. Where you (be) since you (come) to Britain? – I (be) to London, Oxford and Brighton. – When you (go) to Brighton? – Yesterday. 2. How long you (know) Jack? – I (know) him for two years. – Where you (see) him first? – At his sister’s wedding. 3. I just (have) my first French lesson. – You (enjoy) it? – Yes, I … 4. I (buy) a new car last summer, but (not sell) my old car yet, so now I’ve got two cars. 5. I (not see) your brother for some time. – he (be) ill. He (collapse) a week ago. He (not come) back to work yet, but he (recover) already. 6. Father (come back) yet? – Yes. He (go) straight to his room. – Oh, I (not hear) him. 7. I just (buy) a copy of The Dangerous Corner. You (read) it? – Oh, no I even (not see) the film. 8. I can’t find my pen. You (see) it? – Yes, you (leave) it in the study. I (put) it back on your table. 9. You ever (try) to give up smoking? – Yes, I (try) last year, but then I (find) that I was getting fat so I (start) again. 10. I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? – I’ll get you one. How it (happen)? – I was chopping some wood and the axe (slip). 11. The clock is slow. – It isn’t slow, it (stop). 12. At 7 a.m. Charles (ring) Peter and (say), “I’m going fishing peter. Would you like to come?” “But it’s so early,” (say) Peter. “I (not have) breakfast yet. Why you (not tell) me last night?”
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Мы познакомились месяц назад, но с тех пор я о нем ничего не слышал. 2. Я не смотрела этот фильм, как окончила школу. 3. Я еще не говорил с ним об этом. Я не видел его с утра. 4. Мы только что познакомились. 5. Вы когда-нибудь были в Австралии? – Нет, но я всегда мечтала там побывать. 6. Вы опаздываете уже третий раз за эту неделю. 7. Том еще никогда не бывал в Нью-Йорке. 8. Кто разбил эту чашку? – Не знаю, я с утра не был на кухне. 9. Вы уже попробовали этот пирог? 10. Она уже сообщила родителям о своем отъезде? 11. Сколько ваш племянник пробыл в Англии? – Он пробыл там два года. 12. Сколько лет они женаты? – Десять или одиннадцать, не помню точно. 13. Концерт уже начался? – Да, десять минут назад. 14. Ты уже дал им наш новый номер телефона? – Да, неделю назад. – Почему же они нам еще не позвонили? 15. Статья уже готова? – Да. Она была готова еще вчера, но я забыл отдать ее Вам. 16. Где твой велосипед? – Я продал его. – Кому? – Фреду. Он купил его еще в пятницу. 17. Ты уже купил все новогодние подарки? – Да, почти все. – А на Рождество? – еще нет. Я ходил покупать подарки вчера и позавчера. – А кому ты еще не купил подарки? – Родителям и двоюродной сестре. 18. Почему вы все собрались здесь? Что-нибудь случилось? 19. Спасибо вам за все, что вы сделали для меня. 20. Почему ты еще не ушел? – Я еще не допил чай.
The Past Perfect Tense
Exercise 1. Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the Past Perfect Tense.
1. The typist had typed the article by five o’clock. 2. He told me that he had almost finished translating the text. 3. By the end of the year he had learnt to speak French. 4. When he had written and sent the letter he felt better. 5. I was at the party but I didn’t talk to Tom. When I came he had just left. 6. As I hadn’t got an answer, I sent him another letter. 7. The whole family had gone to bed when Tony returned. 8. After the guests had gone, Liz sank into an arm-chair and drew a long breath. 9. They hadn’t completed the test when the teacher came. 10. We reached the village before it had grown dark. 11. They had agreed upon the plan before I arrived, so I couldn’t interfere. 12. It was not until they both had signed the papers that he managed a smile. 13. This man had been ill for weeks when the doctor came; nothing could be done for him. 14. We had hardly left home when it began to rain heavily. 15. Hardly had he answered the phone when his brother came. 16. By the end of that year he had almost recovered. 17. The clock had no sooner struck five than the first guests appeared. 18. No sooner had I come than the lecture began. 19. He waited until the rider had disappeared and started on his way home.
Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect Tense of the verbs suggested in brackets.
1. When she left she remembered that she (not lock the kitchen window). 2. I was sorry to hear that he (leave) 3. When we got to the University, the lecture (start already) 4. When he came home from work, the family (start watching TV) 5. He didn’t return to his work until he (spend all his money). 6. When I met her I understood why David (refuse to marry her). 7. I didn’t know what to do when I understood that I (leave my purse at home) 8. He didn’t start watching TV until he (walk his dog) 9. She managed to grasp the main idea of the article only after she (read it twice) 10. They never started eating until they (wash their hands) 11. We didn’t meet Lucy because she (go away the day before). 12. By the end of that year we (forget our quarrels). 13. Betty didn’t speak until everyone (stop chattering). 14. They suddenly remembered that they (not send the parcel to its owner). 15. She returned to the hotel after she (visit her old friend). 16. He didn’t get anything until he (pay for it) 17. She was tired because she (walk too much).
Exercise 3. Join the following pairs of sentences using the conjunctions given in brackets.
Pattern:They went for a walk. They did their homework. (after) – They went for a walk after they had done their homework.
1. He left the room. I turned on the TV. (after) 2. She didn’t talk to him. He finished revising for his exam. (until) 3. She worked as a flower-girl. She owned a flower-shop. (before) 4. She looked at the sky. The sun set. (until) 5. She cooked dinner. She called her family to the dining-room. (after, as soon as) 6. Alan read the article in the newspaper. He went downstairs to tell the news to his wife. (after) 7. Alice didn’t think about time. She understood she was late. (until) 8. They reached the mountain top. The sun set. (when, as soon as) 9. She tore up the note. He read it carefully. (as soon as) 10. I didn’t understand him. He repeated his words twice. (until) 11. She looked at him. He disappeared in the darkness. (until) 12. The Browns left their house. They sold it. (when) 13. John opened the parcel and looked up. The messenger disappeared. (before) 14. Larry got that job. He managed to buy a new car. (after) 15. Margaret read the contract. She signed it. (after, before)
Exercise 4. Supply the beginnings for the following sentences using the conjunctions HARDLY … WHEN, SCARCELY … WHEN, NO SOONER … THAN.
Pattern:… when the guests came.
a) Hardly had she finished cooking when the guests came.
b) She had hardly finished cooking when the guests came.
1. … the doorbell rang. 2. … the washing mashing broke down. 3. … pipe started leaking. 4. … she spilt some coffee on the carpet. 5. … some strange noise began. 6. … it started to rain. 7. … he felt tired.
Exercise 5. Use the Past Perfect or the Past Simple Tense instead of the infinitives in brackets.
1. He (sit) in the park until the light (fade). 2. He (remember) so well that house, where he (spend) his youth and first (meet) Mabel! 3. When he (rush) into the room he (see) at once that she (burn) the letter which he (hope) so much to read. 4. As soon as he (understand) it he (quiet) down. 5. David (look up) at his friend and (see) that he just (get) a bad news. 6. ‘Why you (go) there before I (come)?’ he asked. ‘You (promise) to wait for me’. 7. After the sun (rise), they (start) walking slowly towards the lake. 8. ‘What (happen) here before I (come)?’ she asked. Nick (explain) that he (want) to play with the dog and they (break) the vase. After he (try) to clean the carpet he (decide) to tell the truth. 9. She (not remember) the place. But suddenly it all (come back) to her: how they (be afraid of) their teacher, how they (quarrel) , how they (share) their secrets… 10. There (be) a rule in their house. They never (start) eating and even (not sit down) at the table until everyone who (be able) to do so (gather) in the dining-room. 11. As soon as everyone (come) and (sit down) Mr. Hull (open) the will. Everyone (expect) something different from what he (read out), so they (return) home really disappointed. 12. When the tourists (come back) to the hotel, they (discover) that a new guest (arrive). Some of them (know) him before, and they (not like) it. But of course they (not show) their disappointment, while the newcomer (prefer) not to notice those he (meet) before. 13. He (be) happy. He (be over) with the article at last! It (be) good. After he (read) it through again, he (see) it even more clearly. The editor, who (not praise) him for his last article, was going to be pleased this time. He (dial) the number and the secretary (tell) him that the editor (go out). 14. He (be) so angry that he (not be able) to speak until he (count) to fifteen… Then he (start) to explain that he even (not be present)at the Board meeting and (have) nothing to do with that decision. 15. After the plane (land) and he (pass) the customs and the luggage control, Mr. Jenkins (take) a taxi and (go) to the hotel. 16. When he (come) he was surprised by the unusual silence in the typing pool. The one remaining typist (explain) that everyone (go out). 17. Hardly he (open) the door when he (notice) some changes in the house. 18. No sooner Dave (start) to read than the phone (ring). He (get up) and (take) the receiver. It (be) his friend Pete. He (tell) Dave that his favourite team (win). After Dave (hear) the news he (go) to tell it to his father. He (be sorry) he (miss) the match but glad that the Rovers (lose). He (not return) to the book until he (tell) about it to the family.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. После того, как вечер закончился и гости разошлись, усталые хозяева приступили к уборке. 2. Не успел я начать подготовку к экзамену, как выяснилось, что формулировки вопросов изменились. 3. Мы не приступали к работе, пока не выяснили все подробности. 4. К началу июня все было готово к переезду. Новый дом был гораздо просторнее и удобнее того, в котором мы жили раньше. Мы закончили переезд к десятому июня и позвали гостей на новоселье. 5. Когда я приехал в город, Дэвид уже уехал в Лондон. Я столь многого ожидал от разговора с ним! 6. Джейн была не голодна, так как только что позавтракала. 7. Этот режиссер получил приз, после того как снял свой лучший фильм. 8. Не успела эта семья снять дом, как начала искать новый из-за причуд старшего брата. 9. До того как поселиться в нашем городе, он много путешествовал. Он побывал во многих городах и странах. 10. Наш город был маленьким. После того как к нам приехала новая семья, все захотели познакомиться с ними. 11. К Рождеству мы устроились на новом месте и познакомились почти со всеми соседями. Только моя сестра еще не приехала, но ее комната уже была готова. 12. Она старалась не напоминать ему о том, что он рассказал ей. 13. Когда Энтони и Кейт вошли в зал, там собралось уже человек двадцать. 14. Он едва успел начать свой рассказ, когда его прервал телефонный звонок. 15. Они вернулись в родной город, где жили с родителями в детстве. 16. Прошло только полчаса с тех пор, как ушел последний гость. 17. Я не знала, когда она ушла. Я не знала, почему она ушла. 18. Я не помнил этого человека и не думал, что встречал его раньше. 19. Не успел он пройти и десяти шагов, как вернулся, потому что забыл портфель 20. Как только мы упаковали все вещи, приехало такси, и мы отправились на вокзал.