Ex. 4. Read paragraphs A-D of the text and answer questions given below. Choose no more than 3-5 words from the passage for each answer

a) When is it difficult to consider a hypothesis correct?

b) What does success in a scientific career require?

c) Which of the two competing theories is better?

d) What plan usually leads to failure?

e) What must an answer to a scientific question be?

f) How do scientists usually behave?

Ex. 5. Scan paragraphs E-H and complete the sentences below with words or phrases from the text.

a)Creative scientists can design … .

b) Being stubborn means … .

c)Being excellent communicators the best scientists are able to relate … .

d) Communication skills are significant for … .

e) Researchers are different people as they … .

f)In my opinion, the best scientists share … .

Ex. 6. Choose no more than 4-7 words from the reading passage for each answer to complete the summary below.

Personality traits of scientists are usually over-emphasized and dramatized in the movies. The aim of this is to distinguish scientists … . But scientists aren’t like … . The best scientists possess … . Sometimes this can cause problems … There a son for being critical thinkers is in the way answers to … . In addition to being critical thinkers, scientists see … . Answers to scientists questions must … . Scientists are often compared to children as they … . The common perception of scientists is that … . Although it is true scientists are … . Moreover, they are … . They can communicate as well as … . Last but not least is their ability to be stubborn which means … . To sum up, it is necessary to point out that there is no absolute …

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Study the table where suffixes that are used to form nouns, verbs and adjectives are given.

Noun forming suffixes Verb forming suffixes Adjective forming suffixes
- hood - ism - ity - ment - ness - ship - tion/sion - ist - er/or - y - ate/iate - en - ify - ise/ize   - ic(al) - al - ful - ive - less - able/ible - ous - ent/ant

Complete the table below by adding either the adjective or the noun. Make use of the suffixes given above.

Noun Adjective

Ex. 2. Choose appropriate suffixes from the table above to complete the words given in sentences a) - j).

a) One of the most import… trait for the scientist is creativ….

b) People usually think that scient… lack imagination.

c) Scientists communicate their results in interesting and imaginat… ways.

d) Stubborn… is another essential personal… trait shared by scientists.

e) One can think that scientists are bad communicat… .

f) Scientists can explain their ideas in a simple, access… way.

g) Science relies on objective, impersonal, reproduce… and verify… data.

h) Solutions to scientif… problems are found in the simplest ways.

i) It is need… to say that complicated steps lead to failure.

j) Curios… and amaze… with the complexity of the world of nature, love for discover… are other fundamental personality traits of scientists.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) There’s Sheldon from “The Big Bang Theory” who is a scientific genius.

b) Sometimes scientists are so critical that this causes problems within interpersonal relationships.

c) The answer to a question is the simplest one if it doesn't involve extraneous steps of unnecessarily complex theories.

d) Explanation for the data must be coherent, rational, and it must take into account all previous theories in the field.

e) Scientists have an almost innocent, naive love for their work.

f) Scientists are thought to lack imagination and are only interested in cold hard facts.

g) Be patientand don’t give up if your experiment goes wrong.

h) Sometimes scientists are not able to persevere along the difficult road of research success and failure.

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