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meal їжа, приймання їжі еда, приём пищи
to gather збирати собирать
although хоча хотя
fluid рідина жидкость
smooth гладкий гладкий
safe безпечний безопасный
chain ланцюг цепь
belt ремінь ремень
pulley шків шкив
gear пристрій приспособление
heat теплота теплота
brakes гальма тормоза
ignition запалювання зажигание
to fix встановлювати крепить,

Завдання З.Проаналізуйте подані нижче слова щодо їх форми, значення, належності до певної частини мови та перекладіть їх рідною мовою:

scientist, input, output, feedback, to press, to process, thermal, chemical, complex, fan, to absorb, hydraulic, a press, a process, a processor, to order, an order, to frustrate, frustrated, frustration, hydraulics, chemistry.

Завдання4. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По­дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

millions of people, to have no idea about something, what to do about it, a dead battery, technology - related devices, the fact is, a rocket scientist, complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems, to work as a whole, this fits every system, a general model, a system model, computer system, final results, a fast food restaurant, to place an order, energy system, a complete product, in combination, a complex machine, door latch, fan belt, water pump, shock absorber, hydraulic brakes, air conditioner, a complicated system, to fix a problem.

Завдання 5. Поставте дієслова в дужках у потрібну часову фор­му активного чи пасивного стану:

1. The first Industrial Revolution (to take place) between the years 1760 and 1860.

3* 51

2. New sources of power, new processes, new materials (to come)
into use with such bewildering speed in the present century
that it is hard to keep track of them all.

3. The first industrial revolution (to give) us machines to do the
work that used to have been done by men's hands.

4. The second industrial revolution (to produce) machines that
can do the work of men's brains.

5. The new forms of power (to use) in new engines: the electric
motor, the petrol engine, the diesel engine and the steam turbine.

6. In fact nearly all the electricity which (not to produce) by water
(to produce) by steam turbines, even when the steam (to make)
by atomic energy.

7. The first revolution (to bring about) by the inventions of
engineers. The second (to rely) heavily on the scientists.

Завдання б.Перекладіть подані нижче речення, звертаючи ува­гу на використання неособових форм дієслова, пасивного стану та ступенів порівняння прикметників та прислівників:

1. People see some of the changes introduced by technology as being
good and some as being bad._

2. Some people just don't like any change at all. But one thing is
for sure: change keeps happening.

3. Your job is to constantly evaluate how technology can be used
with the most benefits to people and the environment.

4. Thousands of people work in the communications industry to
bring you up - to date information or entertainment.

5. Most of us watch television every day. But do you ever stop to
think about how the TV show is made or how it gets to your

6. Technology is a combination of knowledge, ideas, and resources
put to work for us.

7. Most of the products of technology such as lasers, robots, and
satellites were invented to meet the needs of people.

8. It is easier to solve problems that involve technology if you have
a problem - solving strategy and if you work with others to
find the best solution.

9. Creative thinking is important when you are developing new
technologies and evaluating their uses.

10. Doctors use technology to save the lives of sick or injured people.

11. Research is also done by experimenting to find out how things

12. Most inventions are just other inventions used in a different way.

13. The microchip makes everyday items: digital watches,calculators,
and computers, smaller and less expensive.

14. A research and development team worked together to make the
first carbon - dioxide laser in 1966.Since that time, many new
lasers have been found.

15. People working in research and development departments are
always looking for new ideas.

16. Getting across wide rivers has always been a problem to solve.

17. The problem of producing products quickly in a hazardous
(dangerous) workplace is often solved by using a robot.

18. Producing TV shows that inform, educate, and entertain people

is a problem.

19. Using a problem - solving strategy is helping students to find
a solution by exploring many different ideas.

20. We depend on technology to make our lives more comfortable.

21. Most people think that technology is related only to science and
math. While this connection is easy to see, technology is just as
much a part of social studies and other subjects.

22. Technology and science are closely tied together, but they are


23. Science usually gives you the theories (ideas about how nature
works), while technology lets you use your knowledge and
resources to solve different problems.

24. Everything in our world is made up of atoms and combinations
of atoms called molecules.

25. Technology is sometimes divided into job-related groups called
career clusters. Four common career clusters are: communication,
construction, manufacturing, and transportation.

26. Technology lets you use many different ways to communicate
with others.

27. Math is often used to solve problems related to technology.

28. Future technologies are being developed according to the
products we want and think will benefit us most.

29. Careers involving technology are exciting and offer you new

30. Computers are valuable tools used to help solve problems in
technology and to run our world.

31. Today, researchers use very fast computers to help design our


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авдання 7.

Уважно вивчіть схеми 1-3 і таблиці 1-2 щодо формування, ви­
користання та значення зворотів з інфінітивом. Проаналізуйте
та перекладіть подані речення, які містять ці звороти.
12 3 4

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INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница -



INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница - 2 Не

is said


INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница -

to test



З this plane

to test


this plane.

4 this pilot

Перекладається підрядним додатковим реченням із сполуч­никами що, щоб, як, підмет якого відповідає іменнику в за­гальному відмінку (чи займеннику в об'єктному відмінку), а присудок відповідає інфінітиву цього звороту.


Перекладається підрядним додатковим реченням зі спо­лучником що(іноді щоб), причому підметом підрядно­го речення стає при перекладі підмет всього речення, а присудок відповідає інфінітиву цього звороту.

2 2а З

що він випробовував цей літак.


хочуть, щоб


• цей льотчик

випробував цей літак.

Схема 2. Зворот «Називний відмінок з інфінітивом» (складний підмет)

Схема 1. Зворот «Об'єктний відмінок з інфінітивом» (складний додаток)

Таблиця 2. Дієслова, після яких вживається зворот «називний від­мінок з інфінітивом *

Таблиця 1.

1. to assume to believe to consider to choose to hold to suppose to think to expect to find to know to maintain to show

Дієслова, після яких вживається зворот «об'єктний від­мінок з інфінітивом»

to prove 2. to desire to require to wish to want 3. to feel to hear to see to watch to observe to make to cause







думати, вважати очікувати знаходити знати стверджувати показувати








2 (присудок в активному стані)

1 (присудок у пасивному стані)

to say говорити, сказати to happen траплятися
to report сповіщати, доповідати to seem здаватися
to announce сповіщати, оголошувати to appear ^  
to know знати to prove L виявлятися
to believe "i   to turn out J  
to think L думати, вважати to chance траплятися
to suppose J   to be likely ^  
to find виявляти to be sure >■ схоже, що
to see бачити to be certain J  
to hear чути to be unlikely несхоже, що
to make змушувати    

Примітка Після дієслів 3-ї групи частка to перед інфінітивом відсутня.

INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница -

INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница -

f ДРУГОРЯДНІ ^\/ у іменник


РЕЧЕННЯ J\^ ^ займенник

INPUT —► PROCESS —► OUTPUT 4 страница - ( другорядні 1 присудок ) члени

^ речення j

Перекладається підрядним реченням, причому іменник чи займенник цього звороту стає підметом підрядного речення, а інфінітив - дієсло-вом-присудком (в особовій формі).

Не explained the scheme once more for us to understand it better. Він пояснив схему ще раз, щоб ми краще її зрозуміли. Fora wire to be a good conductor it has to be made of low resistance metal. Для того щоб провід був непоганим провідником, він повинен бути ви­готовлений з металу, що має невеликий опір.

Схема 3. Інфінітивний зворот «For 4- іменник (займенник) +

+ інфінітив»

1. The ancients thought electricity to be invisible fluid.

2. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.

3. The early discoveries in nuclear science showed the atomic nucleus
to be a vast source of energy.

4. What makes a satellite go around the Earth and stay in its orbit?

5. The air flowing over and under a wing causes the pressure to be
less than atmospheric on the upper side of the wing.

6. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.

7. The first Earth's satellites were expected to stay on their orbits
for a month or two.

8. Heat was thought to be a material substance.

9. The circle where the earth and the sky seem to meet is the horizon.

10. Stars appear to be made of the elements that have been found in
our Sun.

11. The neutron was shown to be a magnet by simple experiments.

12. The rocket may be said to work on the reaction principle.

13. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to the

14. For ions to be formed, a considerable amount of energy must be
given to the parent atoms.

15. Certain conditions are necessary for the existence of life to be
possible on planets.

16. In order for a proton or neutron to leave the nucleus much
energy is required.

17. Four years are required for light to travel from the nearest star

to the Earth.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою подані нижче речення: l.His being invited to take part in this conference is natural as

everybody knows of his having made interesting experiments

in physics. 2.1 remember having seen this film.

3. The new device was put into mass production on having been
carefully tested.

4. The engineer having constructed a new type of this device was
not known to us.

5. The workers succeeded in completing the construction of the
plant in time because of their having introduced new methods

of work.

6. Having received the necessary equipment we finished our


7. Having determined amperes and volts one can find the resistance

by using Ohm's law.

8. Having been tested on the stand the engine was put into operation.

9. Travelling into space has always been one of the greatest dreams
of man.

10. For ages mankind has dreamed of reaching the top of the world,

the North Pole.

11. After studying theory we can begin experimenting.

12. Before finishing the experiment we could not write the report.

13. An instrument for measuring current is called an ammeter, and
for measuring voltage г. voltmeter.

14. Think before speaking.

15. The engineers invited to our plant are well-known specialists.

16. The lecture followed by an experiment was interesting.

17. Having solved this important problem, the scientist made a report.

18. He likes reading such kinds of books.

19. After finishing the experiments the students left the laboratory.
20.1 succeeded in having finished my work in time.

21. The problems being discussed at this conference are of great importance for the development of chemistry.

22. The metals being used in our work possess many important

23. Technical and scientific problems being solved by our scientists
are of great importance for the development of world science
and technology.

24. Being heated to the proper temperature the metal will melt.

25. He is sorry to have been given so little time for this important

26. We are happy to have been included in the research group.

27. Our engineer has used the recommended method.

28. The report followed by the discussion showed the importance of
this problem.

29. The amount of the heat produced depended upon the quality of
the fuel used.

30. The two problems of the fuel used were widely discussed at the

31. If dropped directly above the target the bomb will never damage it.

32. When asked he did not answer.

33. To know everything is to know nothing.

34. The machine was to be tested in our laboratory.

35. The machine to be tested in our laboratory was constructed by
our students.

36. The main task of Faraday's work was to find out the nature of
electricity and magnetism.

37. The power station to be built on this river is to supply the town
with electric energy.

38. To achieve better results we must repeat the experiment.

39. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the electron.

40. Billions of stars are assumed to exist in the universe.

41. The electric rocket is likely to remain a low-thrust device.

42. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth.

43. To observe the artificial satellite optically it is necessary for
him to be illuminated by the Sun.

Завдання 9. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро­зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 6 What Is a System?

Many people don't know how the machines they commonly use work. Stereos, televisions, automobiles, and bicycles are examples of machines used by millions of people every day. We expect them to

work perfectly. If they break, we often have no idea about what could be wrong or what to do about it. Something as simple as a dead battery can often make us frustrated with technology-related devices. Rather than try to learn something about how a machine works, some people say, «Well, I'm just not good with machines.»

The fact is, you don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand the basic operation of machines and devices. Even the most complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.


To make it easy for you, there is a general model that fits almost every system. The system model has only four parts: input, process, output, and feedback. Inputs are things that go into a system. It's easy to remember because you are putting things in. For example, in a computer system, you press keys to put instructions into the computer. The next step is to process the input instructions. In a computer system, the instructions are processed by the CPU. The process is what is done with your inputs. The final results of the process are called the output. Again, it's easy for you to remember this part because it is what comes out of the process. In our computer example, the output might be sound or graphics. If the system is working right, the output will be what you wanted from your input. Feedback is information about the output. It can be used to change the output so the result is what you want.The problem-solving strategy introduced in Text 4 is really just a system. You solve problems systematically. Systematically means simply that you are using a system. Even eating at a fast-food restaurant is systematic. For example, first you wait in line. Then you place your order, which is the input. Your order is processed by the workers. The output is your meal. Hopefully, it is what you ordered! If not, you might send it back. That's feedback!



The process of solving a problem is similar to the general system model.

Though there are many different kinds of systems, in technology you often use five basic energy systems to make a complete product. The energy systems are mechanical systems, electrical systems, fluid systems, thermal systems, and chemical systems. The five basic sys­tems can be used independently or in combination to make something work.

Almost any machine has one or more of these systems that make it work. A car, for example, is a complex machine made up of all five systems. Here are some examples of how the five systems work together to make your car run:

- mechanical: door latches, fan belts, pulleys, gears;

- fluid: water pump, shock absorbers, hydraulic brakes;

- electrical: battery, lights, radio, ignition;

- thermal: radiator, air conditioner, heater;

- chemical: fuel, battery fluid, antifreeze.

These systems work independently and together to make a car run smoothly and safely. When a car isn't working right, the problem is found by carefully checking each system.

Engineers, designers, technicians, and architects must know how all five systems work alone and how they work together. People who understand technology can break these complicated systems down even further into smaller systems called subsystems. Subsystems make it even easier to understand how things work. For example, a bicycle is made mostly of parts in a mechanical system. You can divide that mechanical system into subsystems such as brakes, steering, chains, gears, and so on. If you understand how each bicycle subsystem works, it is easier to find and fix a problem.

Завдання10. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 6 речення.

Завдання 11.Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповіда­ють змісту тексту:

1. The system model has only three parts: the input, process, and

2. Every day a lot of people use the stereos, televisions, automobiles
and others things, which incorporate different kinds of systems.

3. If you want to understand the basic operation of machines and
devices you have to be an expert in this field.

4. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

5. The output is information about the input.

6. In technology, there are many different kinds of systems, but
four of them are basic energy systems to make a complete product.

7. A car is a complex machine, and all the basic systems work
together to make it run.

8. Engineers, designers and technicians do not have to know all the
systems and how they function alone or all together.

9. The process of solving a problem might serve as an example of
a general system model.

10. Complex systems can be broken down into subsystems.

Завдання 12.Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. How many parts does the system model have?

2. What are these parts?

3. What do we call the things that go into a system?

4. What do we call the step that follows putting things in?

5. How do we call the information about the output?

6. How can we use feedback information?

7. What is given in the text as an example of a system model?

8. How many basic systems do you know?

9. What systems work together to make a car run?

10. Do you think all engineers should know how the five systems work alone and together?

Завдання ІЗ.Розташуйте подані нижче речення в потрібній по­слідовності:

1. The result of the action is the output.

2. Something must be put in,

3. Feedback provides information about the results.

4. The general model of a system is simple to understand,

5. Then some action is taken.

6. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

7. This information can be used to change the output if it is not
wThat you want.

8. There is a general model that fits almost every system.

Завдання 14.Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення, використовуючи вивчену раніше лексику та граматич­ні конструкції:

1. Багато різноманітних приладів використовується кожним
із нас у повсякденному житті.

2. Кожен з цих приладів є системою.

3. Існує загальна модель, яку ми використовуємо, щоб описати

4. Щоб ввести інформацію в комп'ютер, ви натискаєте клавішу

5. Введена інформація обробляється спеціальним пристроєм

6. Використовуючи екран монітора, ви одержуєте результат об­
робки введеної інформації.

7. Працювати в групі більш цікаво, ніж самому.

8. Використовуючи ідеї кожного члена групи, ми маємо більпгЄ
шансів знайти кращу ідею.

9. З'ясувавши всі плюси та мінуси запропонованих ідей, ми
знаходимо потрібне рішення.

10. Щоб бути творчою людиною, вам потрібно розвивати свою уяву.

Завдання 15.Наведіть приклади різних систем, використовуй), чи схему:


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авдання 16.

а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись яко-, мога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

Текст 6А

Problems are often easier to solve with the help of other people. Knowing how to work in a group is an important skill that will help you in school and later in a job. The old saying «Two heads are better than one» is really true. When you are working to solve a problem you need as many different ideas as possible. Having people with different experiences and backgrounds in your group gives you more information to explore. As you move through the problem - solving strategy, you can put each person's talents to good use. Some of us are better at tossing out new ideas. Others are better at putting ideas into action. You will have a chance to do both as part of a group.

Many people judge an idea as soon as they hear it. Many good ideas are lost because someone puts the idea down before it has a

chance to be discussed. When you brainstorm ideas, you list as many ideas as possible without people saying anything good or bad about any of them. Everyone in the group has a chance to contribute to the idea bank. From that idea bank your group selects the best idea. The ability to work both independently and as part of a group is important to you in solving problems.

Sometimes people make excuses for not doing things by saying «I'm just not creative». But everyone can be creative. You just have to learn how. First, to be a creative thinker you need to use facts, feelings, experiences, knowledge, and some basic concepts.

You're much more likely to find something original if you try different things in different ways. Many good ideas were discovered when someone looked in unusual places, found some ideas, and then applied the ideas to their own field. For example, military designers in World War I borrowed from the style used by Pablo Picasso, a famous artist, to make more effective camouflage patterns for guns and tanks. In another case, an «unbreakable code» used by World War II military leaders was based on the Navajo language.

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