Exercise 2. A) Make up collocations using the words from both columns
b) Fill in the gaps with the words from the table above.
1. After entering the nose the air passes through the … where it is filtered by the nasal hairs, warmed and humidified.
2. Thin walls of alveoli enable air exchange with the equally … of the circulatory system.
3. The air flows through the pharynx or throat, a passage that carries both food and air, to the larynx where the … is located.
4. The tissue lining the … produces mucus.
5. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller bronchioles that spread throughout the lungs to carry air to the alveoli (minute …).
6. Respiration occurs in all … (humans, animals, plants).
Exercise 3. Speak about the respiratory system using the diagram. Questions can help you to make up a story.
|NOSE||How does the air enter the body of a mammal?|
|NASAL CAVITY||What happens to the air when it passes through the nasal cavity? Where does the air flow from the nasal cavity?|
|PHARYNX||What can pharynx carry (air, food or both)?|
|LARYNX||What is located in the larynx? Where do the passages for food and air separate?|
|TRACHEA||What prevents food from entering trachea? How does trachea divide at its bottom?|
|BRONCHI||How many bronchi are there in the body? What are bronchioles?|
|ALVEOLI||What are alveoli?|
|LUNG CAPILLARIES||Where does oxygen combine with the red blood cells?|
Exercise 4. Translate the derivatives. Make up your own sentences with some of these words.
1. To involve, involvement, involving, involved.
2. To interrupt, interruption, interrupting, interrupted.
3. To occur, occurrence, occurring, occurred.
4. Humid, humidity, to humidify, humidifier.
5. Oxygen, to oxygenate, oxygenated, deoxygenated.
Exercise 5. Give the English equivalents of the Russian words in brackets. 1. The trachea (делиться) at its bottom end into two smaller tubes, bronchi, one is going to each lung. 2. Respiration (происходить) in all living beings (humans, animals, plants). 3. After entering the nose, the air passes through the (носовая полость), where it is filtered by the nasal hairs, warmed and humidified. 4. Any dust that (вдыхается) into the respiratory system immediately gets trapped in the mucous, and the cilia move it towards the mouth or nose where it can be (откашлять). 5. To prevent food from entering (трахея), a small flap of tissue called the epiglottis closes the opening (во время глотания).
Exercise 6. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Дыхательная система животного вовлечена в газообмен между организмом и окружающей средой. 2. Кислород распространяется (diffuse) из области высокой концентрации (в альвеолах) в область низкой концентрации (в капиллярах). 3. Ткань, выстилающая дыхательные проходы, покрыта мельчайшими волосками. 4. Бронхи делятся на более мелкие бронхиолы, которые распространяются по всем легким.
Exercise 7. Test yourself by answering the following questions to see how much you remember and understand.
1. What do we mean by the phrase “gas exchange”?
2. Where does gas exchange take place?
3. What is the process by which oxygen moves from the alveoli into the blood?
4. Why does this process occur?
5. How does the structure of the alveoli make gas exchange efficient?
6. How is oxygen transported around the body?
7. List the structures that air passes on its way from the nose to the alveoli.
8. What is the function of the mucus and cilia lining the respiratory passages?
9. What is the function of the epiglottis?
VOCABULARY LIST TO TEXT B
|abdominal (cavity) n||[æbˈdɒmɪnəl]||брюшная полость|
|depth n (of breathing)||[depθ]||глубина (дыхания)|
|due prep||[djuː]||из-за, благодаря|
|expel v||[ɪkˈspel]||вытеснять, выталкивать|
|hindbrain n||[ˈhaɪn(d)-breɪn]||задний мозг|
|medulla oblongata n||[məˈdʌlə]||продолговатый мозг|
|pons n||[ˈpɒnz]||варолиев мост|
|thoracic (cavity) n||[θəˌræsɪk]||грудная полость|
The term “respiration” means the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) which takes place between the living organism and the environment. In air-breathing vertebrates respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called lungs. The lungs fill most of the chest or thoracic cavity, which is completely separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. The lungs are actively ventilated due to inhalation and exhalation. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with oxygen is known as inhalation and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation. When mammals breathe in, the muscle below the rib cage (called the diaphragm) is pulled down, and air gets sucked into the rib cage, filling the lungs. Blood cells circulating through tiny blood vessels near the lungs pick up oxygen and carry it around the body. Then air is forced out of the lungs as the diaphragm moves up. The air animals breathe in consists of 21% oxygen and 0.04% carbon dioxide. Expelled air consists of 16% oxygen and 4.4% carbon dioxide. Gas exchange occurs in the pulmonary alveoli by passive diffusion of gases between the alveolar gas and the blood in lung capillaries. Thus, the wastes are removed and the oxygen is taken up by the blood.
Breathing is usually an unconscious activity that takes place whether you are awake or asleep. Two regions in the hindbrain called the medulla oblongata and pons control the rate of breathing. These are called respiratory centers. They respond to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood. When this concentration rises during some kind of activity nerve impulses are automatically sent to the diaphragm and rib muscles that increase the rate and the depth of breathing. Increasing the rate of breathing also increases the amount of oxygen in the blood to meet the needs of this increased activity.
Exercise 8. How do movements of the ribs and diaphragm bring about inspiration? Circle the correct statement below. (For the right answer look at the picture below.)
a) The diaphragm domes up into the thorax and ribs move in and down.
b) The diaphragm flattens and ribs move up and out.
c) The diaphragm domes up into the thorax and the ribs move up and out.
d) The diaphragm flattens and the ribs move in and down.
A diagram of ventilation in most mammals. The left image shows inhalation with a flattened diaphragm. The right side shows the dome shaped diaphragm forcing the air out during exhalation.