Exercise 2. Make the most suitable collocations.

1. regular 2. human 3. water 4. noise 5. loud 6. major 7. dumping 8. synthetic 9. industrial 10. key a) factor b) contamination c) sound d) issue e) material f) question g) pollution h) use i) basis j) waste k) life l) spectrum

Exercise 3. Match the definition and the term.

1. The introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. 2. The state of being contaminated. 3. The way of living of people, families and societies. 4. Something that makes a place or a substance no longer suitable for use. 5. The branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment. 6. A loud or unpleasant sound. 7. The science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding animals. 8. Something unnecessary which cannot be used anymore. a) Lifestyle b) Noise c) Wastes d) Agriculture e) Contamination f) Contaminant g) Pollution h) Solution i) Ecology


Types of environmental pollution

Pollution is the result of progression and development that is occurring on a regular basis. With the growth of technology more and more developments are taking place in order to improve the quality of human life. This series is certainly giving high level of comfort and a rich lifestyle to all humans but is sadly diminishing the worth of human health; the need to have a good and healthy environment is ignored. Many new inventions and introductions are causing a danger to human life which are done artificially. This artificial and unsystematic way of generating high level of comforts is producing components that are inevitable to human life. Be it anything including the basic needs of life like clothing and even food is now being produced synthetically. Just one insight into the depth of ecology will make us realize that the increasing need of the present day lifestyle is eventually creating an imbalance in the ecology. Here are some of the most common types of environmental pollution that are gradually bringing people to a morbid stage:

Noise Pollution

Any kind of noise that is unpleasant to human ears is considered as noise pollution. Loud and hard sounds coming from factories, machinery, automobiles, trains, fire crackers, and explosives are also contributing to noise pollution. It is also caused by some natural calamities like harsh winds and volcanic eruptions. Both natural and artificial factors contributing to noise or sound pollution have their impact on human health. This kind causes irritation, hearing issues, and headache. However, these are not major issues but extremely unpleasant sounds can be very harmful as they can cause an increase in the cholesterol, constrict arteries, an increase in the flow of adrenaline, and also forces the heart to function at a faster pace. All these can be life threatening as these factors can lead to heart attacks and strokes.

Water Pollution

Any kind of harmful components or contaminants entering the water bodies like river, oceans, lakes, ponds, and streams cause water pollution. Many human activities like washing cleaning, and dumping waste significantly contribute to water pollution. The soaps and detergents used these days are also made of harmful chemicals and synthetic materials that produce more contaminants in water. Furthermore, dumping waste like cans, bottles, and plastic materials also pose danger. It not only destroys marine life and it is also hazardous to human life. This kind of polluted water is not safe for drinking, agriculture or even industrial use.

Air Pollution

Air pollution is caused by discharge of harmful substances in the air. One of the key contributing factors is automotive pollution. With the growing technology, the number of vehicles on road is dramatically increasing which is eventually giving a pushing up the level of air pollution. Apart from this, industries indulged into thermal power plant, cement, steel, mines, petro-chemicals, and steel also generate harmful substances that are released into the atmosphere. This kind of pollution has caused harm to the protective ozone layer in the atmosphere. This layer protects the earth from the harmful effects of ultra-violet rays but thinning of this layer is causing a danger to human life.

Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution is a rare kind but is detrimental. It is caused by accidents in the nuclear power plant, improper disposal of nuclear waste, and operations of uranium mining. Radioactive pollution causes cancer, various kinds of birth defects, and many other serious health issues.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution, also known as land pollution, is defined as the contamination of soil. These days many artificial substances and synthetic pesticides are used for agriculture. Such substances release contaminants that create an imbalance in the soil and also prevent natural growth of the plants cultivated on polluted land. Key factors contributing to soil pollution are sewage pills, hazardous waste, non-sustainable agriculture practice, use of inorganic pesticides, deforestation, strip mining, and certain human activities like dumping and littering.


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