Match the words to make collocations from the text.

1. to sustain a. evidence
2. to pronounce b. a case
3. to overrule c. an obection
4. to present d. a sentence
5. to summarize e. a verdict
6. to reach f. an objection
7. to discharge g. a jury

Exercise 10

a) Write the correct words in the blanks.

The convicted person can appeal to a higher ___________(rtuco) against the sentence or conviction.

The prosecution proves that there is a case against the ___________ (tnafdeedn).

The jury passes a __________ (crdevti).

The parties make their _____________(gicosln) arguments.

b) Complete the sentences.

The jury is instructed by ______________________________.

Witnesses are examined and cross-examined by _______________________.

The evidence is presented by __________________________________.

The accused is formally charged with a crime by ______________________.

c) Choose the right word and fill in the blanks.

held selected made sentenced

The jury is __________________by the prosecution and defence.

Opening statements are _________________from each side.

The trial is _________.

The defendant is ________________by a judge.

d) Use a)-c) and write the stages in the correct order.

Exercise 11

Are these statements true or false?

  statement   true   false
1. At the beginning of the trial the prosecution counsel and the defence counsel present their views of the case.    
2. Evidence at the trial may only take the form of physical exhibits.    
3. During the trial the judge may make objections to evidence presented by both parties.    
4. The main function of the jury is to reach the verdict.    
5. At the end of the trial both counsels summarize the case from their point of view.    
6. The judge elects the foreman before the jury goes to the jury room.    

Exercise 12

Answer the questions:

1. What are the steps of the trial?

2. What can be considered evidence?

3. When can objections be made?

4. Who can sustain or overrule an objection?

5. What does the judge say in the instruction?

6. Who presents closing arguments?

7. What does the jury do during the jury deliberation?

Section II

Exercise 13

Pronunciation practice.

Practise saying the words.

[ɛə] swear

[au] found; doubtful

[a:] charge; ask; after

[ai] identify; biased

[i] witness; prison; evidence; defence; victim

[ei] aim, say may

[gz] re-examine; cross-examination; examination-in-chief

[i:] proceed; leading

[ɔ:] manslaughter; assault; fraud; order

[ə:] perjury; murder; further

[əu] oath; show; own

[ɔ] honour; cross-examination;

There are many silent letters in English words. Cross out the silent letters in the following:

doubtful; honour; manslaughter; would; highest; unwritten

Exercise 14

a) Match the English words to their Russian equivalents.

1. witness box a. клятва
2. oath b. главный допрос
3. leading questions c. лжесвидетельство
4. perjury d. повторный допрос свидетеля
5. examination-in-chief e. место для дачи свидетельских показаний
6. re-examination f. наводящие вопросы

b) Match the terms to their definitions

1. witness a. questioning of a witness by the party which has called that witness to give evidence, in support of the case being made.
2. to cross-examine b. the case presented by or on behalf of the party accused of a crime or being sued in a civil lawsuit
3. to re-examine c. the party instituting or conducting legal proceedings against someone in a lawsuit
4. prosecution d. to examine (one's own witness) again, after cross-examination by the opposing counsel
5. defence e. to question (a witness called by the other party) in a court of law to challenge or extend testimony already given
6. examination-in-chief f. someone who appears in a court of law to say what they know about a crime or other event.

c) Fill in the gaps with the terms from part b).

The prosecuting counsel calls his ……. They come into the court and 'take the stand' in the witness box. They swear an oath and if they have lied to the court at any time during the trial, they may be charged with perjury and sent to prison.

Then the prosecuting counsel begins his ……. and asks the witness questions in order to identify him/her to the court.

When prosecuting counsel has finished his ……… , the judge asks the defence, "Does the defence have any questions to this witness?" The defence counsel may ……… the witnesses. The aim is to show that the evidence the court has just heard is inaccurate, biased, irrelevant or doubtful. Cross-examining counsel can ask as many leading questions as he likes.

After the defence counsel has finished with the witness, he says, "I have no further questions, Your Honour." The judge then says to prosecuting counsel, "Do you wish to … ?" The prosecutionmay then re-examine the witness, but only on matters which have arisen in cross-examination. He may not ask leading questions. At the end of the re-examination the judge says, "The witness may stand down."

When the ……has finished making out its case, the defence begins to make its own and calls the defendant first. The defendant is called before the other ……….. witnesses.

The case proceeds as for the prosecution witnesses. Only the defence conducts examination-in-chief and the prosecution cross-examines the defence witnesses.

Exercise 15

a) Fill in the table with the information from exercises 7-14.

participant of the trial functions
  to listen to the evidence, to pass a verdict
bailiff to look after the defendant, ……
  to give evidence
prosecuting counsel  
defence counsel  
court clerk to read the charge,………

b) Writes 8-10 sentences about the functions each participant of the trial has.

Exercise 16

Grammar focus 10. Conditional II.

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