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Ancient Steel-Making Secret
When two metallurgists at Stanford University were trying to produce a «superplastic» metal they became interested in the secret of Damascus steel, the legendary material used by numerous warriors (воины) of the past, including Crusaders (крестоносцы). Its formula had been lost for generations.
Analyses of a new steel revealed properties almost identical to those they found in Damascus steel, although their own plastic steel had been produced by present-day methods.
The remarkable characteristics of Damascus steel became known to Europe when the Crusaders reached the Middle East in the 11th century. They discovered that swords (меч) of the metal could split (рассечь) a feather (перо) in air and at the same time retain their edge sharp through many battles.
The secrets of Damascus steel were known in many parts of the ancient world, especially in Persia, where some of the finest specimens were produced. For eight centuries the Arab sword makers kept the secret about their techniques and methods. And with the invention of firearms (огнестрельное оружие), the secret was lost and it was never fully rediscovered.
The two metallurgists carried out a lot of researches. When they realized that they might be close to the discovery of a new material, a sword fancier (знаток), at one of their demonstrations, pointed out that Damascus steel, like their own product, was very rich in carbon. This led them to conduct a comparative analysis of their steel and those of the ancient weapons. As a result, it was found that a basic requirement was a high carbon content. The two metallurgists believed it had to be from 1 per cent to 2 per cent, compared to only a part of 1 per cent in ordinary steel. Their research showed how to make steel of even greater hardness than Damascus steel.
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски, чем примечателен читальный зал Библиотеки Британского музея и какие отделы имеются в Британском музее.
The British Museum
The British Museum consisting of the National Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the National Library is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. Built in the middle of the last century it is situated in central London which consists of quiet squares and streets.
The British Museum was founded by Act of Parliament in 1753 to bring together the collection of Sir Robert Cotton, some others and future addition to them.
Anthony Panizzi designed the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum. The first thing that strikes a visitor on entering the Reading Room is its unusual shape. It is a perfect circle. The superintendent (управляющий) and his assistant sit in the centre of the room and they issue (выдавать) and collect books. Long rows of reading desks radiate to the outer walls, like the spokes (спицы) of the wheel.
Many famous people have used the Reading Room at the British Museum. Of the many distinguished people who have used the Reading Room no one was perhaps more regular and more intent (целеустремленный) than the German philosopher and socialist Karl Marx. Soon after he arrived in England in 1849, Marx became a daily visitor of the Reading Room, where he used to remain from nine in the morning till closing time.
The British Museum has a department of ethnography. Ethnography is concerned with primitive people and their cultures in various stages of development as revealed by their tools, ritual objects and various crafts (ремесло). This collection is so vast that only a
tiny percentage is on show to the general public. Then there is a department of prints and drawings. There are also departments devoted to maps, coins and medals. Visitors interested in chronology can see a large collection of clocks and watches. Those who are interested in philately can find a magnificent collection of postage stamps.
Упражнение 1. А.Прочитайте следующие выражения из текста 6А и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов и словосочетаний.
1. this label«Made in Space»
2. in the not so distantfuture
3. with peculiarmagnetic properties
5. The Archimedes principal is no longer valid
6. the theoretical basisfor space industry
7. on boardthese vehicles; on boardorbital station
8. preparatorywork for industrial production in space
9. replace the specimens
В. Подберите к каждому выделенному в А слову соответствующее ему по значению.
a. well based, correct, effective
b. needed for preparing; introductory
с continuing for a long time
e. in a ship
f. not so far away in time
g. special, particular
h. piece of paper, metal or other material used to describe what smth. is, where it is to go, etc. i. one as an example of a class
Упражнение 2. А.Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значении терминов shape memory alloy, suggest, remember, piston, contract, expand, engine.
Shape memory alloys (SMA) are in general usage today. What exactly is a SMA? As the name suggests, this alloy can remember its original shape or form. Essentially it is a metal which can be deformed when cold and will return to its first shape when hot.
The particular alloy we are speaking about is nickel titanium. We can see here one application in a conventional piston. When
the piston is cold, the SMA coil or spring contracts and so the piston does not move. Heat causes it to expand and consequently the piston moves up. The advantage is that the device can work without any mechanical power, just from the heat which is supplied by the engine itself.
В. Найдите в приведенном выше тексте 5 пар синонимов и 3 пары антонимов.
Упражнение3. Замените выделенные словосочетания соответствующими глаголами expand, remember, contract, suggest, deform.
The name SMA causes us to thinkthat such an alloy can keep in memoryits original shape. In other words it can change its shape.When cold it gets smaller.When hot it gets bigger.
Упражнение 4.Составьте возможные словосочетания из глаголов в колонке А и существительных из колонки В, переведите их и запомните.
a. the basis, foundation
b. application, a way
с an operation
d. an advantage over, influence on
e. data, results, access to
f. information, a message, signal
g. an experiment, a TV program
h. a law
i. a decision, mistake, calculation j. equipment, a device, design, system k. requirements
Упражнение5. Составьте, переведите и запомните словосочетания с глаголом to be.
famous for, of great importance, in general (common) use (usage), of great help, interested in.
Упражнение 6.Заполните таблицы на словообразование.
|use thought care||• • ♦ thoughtful||• • • • • • hopeless|
|Adjective||-— Noun||—-~-^——— ................................. Noun, Adjective||Noun|
|• • •||uselessness||• • •||metallurgist|
|hopeful||...||active||• • •|
|...||hopelessness||• • •||humanist|
Упражнение7. А.Назовите 10—15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Advanced materials».
В. Speak about:
A new alloy or advanced composite material you have recently read or heard about, its properties and possible uses.
REVISION OF LESSONS 4-6
Упражнение 1.Повторите способы выражения определения. Найдите определения и переведите предложения.
A. 1. This is an excellent computer which will give you many
years of service. 2. The number of men present was small. 3. Per
sonal laser printers cost less than ordinary laser printer. They also
weigh less and require less space. 4. Do you know the total number
of colours available on this graphics system? 5. Supercomputers ca
pable of performing billions of operations a second will have to be
developed soon. 6. Ten miles is a long distance to walk. 7. Any me
chanic could do that job. 8. Digital television has many features
that are absent from conventional TV, such as easy connection to
computers and telecommunication networks. 9. E-mail is a very
fast data communication service. For e-mail to get a message to the
other side of the world is a matter of a second or two. 10. The fac
tory has computer controlled production equipment.
B. 1. Tell me about the report you are preparing now. 2. A new
radio set Ted has is a Zenith. 3. Ten hours of work a day is the
maximum you should do. 4. Do you know about the disco the Uni
versity is organising? 5. The news we have heard this week is of
great importance. 6. You have been given all the information you
need. 7. I collected all the information I could find on the Internet
about this subject. 8. With the new system you will be able to gen
erate statistics any time you want. 9. Writing letters and reports are
the purposes most people use computers for. 10. Composite mate
rials we learnt about are the combination of metals, ceramics,
glasses and polymers produced without chemical reactions. 11.
Weightlessness the production of new materials depend on cannot
be created on the earth for a long period of time. 12. The TV sets
people saw at the New York Fair in 1939 were not available for a
long time because of World War II. 13. Metals, ceramics, glasses,
polymers composite materials consist of have properties different
from those of the obtained composite material.
Упражнение 2.Прочитайте и переведите тексты, обращая внимание на проработанную грамматику и лексику 4, 5, 6 уроков.
We interact with computers by entering instructions and data into them. After the information has been processed (обрабаты-
вать), we can see the results (i.e. the output) on the visual display unit (VDU — устройство виртуального отображения) or the monitor. In this interactive process with the computer, the screen plays an important part.
The pictures and the characters (символы) we see on the screen are made up of picture elements which are also called pixels. The total number of pixels the display is divided in (both horizontally and vertically) is known as resolution. When the number of pixels is very large, we obtain a high resolution display and therefore a sharp image. If the number of pixels is small, a low resolution is obtained. Thus, pixel density or resolution affects the quality of the image: a larger number of pixels gives a much clearer image.
The cathode ray tube of the monitor is very similar to that of a TV set. Inside the tube there is an electron beam which scans the screen and turns on or off the pixels that make up the image. The beam appears in the top left corner, and scans the screen from left to right in a continuous sequence, similar to the movement of our eyes when we read, but much faster. This sequence is repeated 50, 60 or 75 times per second, depending on the system.
In a colour monitor, the screen surface is coated (покрывать) with substances called phosphors. Three different phosphor materials are used — one each for red, green and blue. A beam of electrons causes phosphor materials to give coloured light from which the picture is formed. Colour monitors are capable to display many different colours at the same time.
Portable computers use a flat liquid-crystal display (LCD) instead of a picture tube.
Not long ago it became known that cell phone manufacturers were experimenting with several different designs for the handheld devices that would be linked to the advanced wireless networks of the future. If these machines really are to become digital companions, they will have to be versatile, adaptable and fashionable (модный). Companies such as Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola are working on the third-generation «super phone» that will look quite different from existing cell phones. In fact, calling them phones seems absurd (неразумный). They will have built-in colour screens several inches square for presentation of high resolution graphics and video. Some may have a keyboard and a miniature mouse for data input, but most of them will use touch-sensitive
(сенсорный) screens and styluses (перо, пишущий узел) like those employed now by the handheld computers.
In addition to carrying voice communication, the super phone will also be able to play music files that are circulating on the Web in the most popular MP3 format (or in whatever format may replace it).
Упражнение 3.Объясните значение следующих словосочетаний.
Например: material properties — the properties of a material;
colour monitor — a monitor that works in colour;
company's database — the database which belongs to the company.
1. light beams
2. pixel number, pixel density
3. eye movements
4. director's computer
5. printing device
6. new generation computer
7. pocket-sized computer
8. handheld phones
9. high resolution display
10. high speed electronic circuits
11. computer controlled production equipment
Упражнение 4.Подберите к словам из колонки А их объяснение из колонки В.
1. pixel a. the maximum number of pixels in the horizontal
and vertical directions of the screen
2. monitor b. the results produced by a computer
3. resolution с the smallest element of a display surface
4. character d. read the image as a series of pixels to enter infor-
mation into the computer's memory
5. computer e. the picture tube of the display which is made of
glass and contains a vacuum
6. CRT f. a CRT device which displays the computer output
7. image g. a symbol available on the keyboard
8. scan h. the machine that stores and processes data
9. output i. a picture or what is seen on a television or com-
Упражнение 5. А.Заполните пропуски словами:
pixel certain Web stylus chip perform CPU mouse
1. A ... is a tiny piece of silicon containing a set of integrated circuits. 2. The ... directs and coordinates the operations taking place within the computer system. 3. The arithmetic logic units ... calculations on the data. 4. The common name for picture elements is .... 5. On colour systems, each pixel is a ... combination of the three primary colours: red, green, and blue. 6. ... is a system by which one can navigate through the Internet and find news, pictures, virtual museums, electronic magazines — any topic you can imagine. 7. What makes the ... especially useful is that it is a very quick way to move around on a screen. 8. A ... is a pen-like input device used to write directly on the screen to enter data.
B. Speak about:
The next generation mobile phones.
Независимый причастный оборот
Значения слова since
Суффиксы -age, -ate
Text 7 A. Transport for Tomorrow Text 7В. Car of Future Text 1С. Talking Instrument Panels Text ID. Testing Times
Упражнение 1.Прочитайте, обращая внимание на употребление времен.
«Have you seen a copy of Magna Charta: collection of old English Laws?» «I haven't seen all of it. I have seen parts of it many times. I saw three or four articles from it yesterday. I read them in the translated form. Old English is almost as difficult to read as a foreign language». «Where did you see them?» «I saw them at the Public Library». «I saw you there. Did you see me?» «No, I didn't see you. I didn't see anyone whom I knew except the librarian. I didn't see any of my school friends, I mean». «I have seen you at the library many times, but you don't see anyone. The teacher says she has seen you there too, but you see only the books which you are reading».
Упражнение 2.Заполните пропуски глаголом to see в соответствующем времени.
I ... a friend in the library yesterday. I ... him there many times before, but he was so busy that I did not speak to him. When I spoke to him he said that he ... never ... me at the library. He concentrates on his work. He ... only his book. The teacher ... him
there many times, but he doesn't ... even her. He ... many important facts in books, however, and tells the class about them. He ... and read more important documents than all the rest of our class put together.
Упражнение 3.Переведите следующие словосочетания с Participle I и Participle II:
developing industry, developed industry;
changing distances, changed distances;
a controlling device, a controlled device;
an increasing speed, an increased speed;
a transmitting signal, a transmitted signal;
a reducing noise, a reduced noise;
a moving object, a moved object;
heating parts, heated parts.
Упражнение 4.Найдите причастия, переведите предложения.
A. 1. We need highly developed electronics and new materials
to make supercomputers. 2. New alloys have appeared during the
last decades, among them a magnesium-lithium alloy developed by
our scientists. 3. We are carried by airplanes, trains and cars with
built-in electronic devices. 4. Computer components produced
should be very clean. 5. Many countries have cable TV, a system
using wires for transmitting TV programs. 6. The fifth-generation
computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become
available in the near future. 7. A video phone has a device which al
lows us to see a room and the face of the person speaking. 8. New
technologies reduce the number of workers needed.
B. 1. Driving a car a man tries to keep steady speed and watch
the car in front of him. 2. Having stated the laws of gravity, Newton
was able to explain the structure of the Universe. 3. Being more effi
cient than human beings, computers are used more and more exten
sively. 4. Having graduated from Cambridge, Newton worked there
as a tutor. 5. Having been published in 1687, Newton's laws of mo
tion are still the basis for research. 6. Being invented the digital tech
nology solved the old problems of noise in signal transmission.
7. Having published his book about space exploration in 1895, Tsiol-
kovsky became known all over the world. 8. Built in the middle of
the last century, the British Museum is situated in central London.
Упражнение 5.Определите, какую функцию выполняет слово с окончанием -ed, и переведите предложения.
1. The first television set produced quite a sensation in 1939. The first television set produced in 1939 was a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box. 2. Newton's great work published in 1687 is called
«Principia». Newton published his great work «Principia» in 1687. 3. The Russian Chemical Society organized more than a century ago is named after Mendeleev. The Russian Chemical Society organized an international conference devoted to the latest achievements in organic chemistry. 4. The energy possessed by the body due to its position is called the potential energy. The new material possessed good properties. 5. The equipment required to carry out laboratory experiments was very complex. The equipment required further improvement. 6. The car model developed a speed of 50 miles an hour. The car model developed by our student design bureau will be shown on TV.
Упражнение 6.Переведите выделенные словосочетания.
1. When completedin 1897, Jefferson's building was the largest and costliest library in the world. 2. Though beinga school teacher of mathematics all his life, Tsiolkovsky concentrated his attention on man's travel into space. 3. If comparedto today's TV program, the first black-and-white pictures were rather bad. 4. While beinga teacher of deaf people Bell became interested in sound and its transmission. 5. Though discovered,Newton's mistake had no influence on his theory. 6. While working ata new transmitter for deaf people Bell invented a telephone. 7. If heatedto 100 °C, water turns into steam.
Упражнение7. Найдите подлежащее независимого причастного оборота, переведите предложения.
A. 1. The room being dark, we couldn't see anything. 2. The
book being translated into many languages, everybody will be able
to read it. 3. Peter having passed his exams, we decided to have a
rest in the country. 4. We went for a walk, our dog running in front
of us. 5. The testwork having been written, he gave it to the teacher
and left the room. 6. They having arrived at the station early, all of
us went to the cafe. 7. My friends decided to go to the park, the
weather being warm and sunny. 8. Our library buying all the new
books, we needn't buy them ourselves. 9.The fuel burnt out, the en
gine stopped. 10. Many scientists worked in the field of mechanics
before Newton, the most outstanding being Galileo.
B. 1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the or
bital stations, it became possible to develop new methods of indus
trial production of new materials. 2. President Jefferson having
offered his personal library, the foundation of the Library of Con
gress was laid. 3. Anthony Panizzi designed the Reading Room of
the British Museum, the Reading Room being a perfect circle. 4. A
beam of light being transmitted forwards, it is possible to measure
the distance between the car and the other cars in front of it. 5. The distance having been measured, the computer adjusts the car's speed. 6. Two metallurgists produced a new superplastic metal, the new steel showing properties identical to Damascus steel. 7. The young physicist having discovered Newton's error, other scientists confirmed it. 8. The first TV sets having been shown in New York, the news about it spread throughout the world.
С 1. With the first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories. 2. The inventor was demonstrating his new device, with the workers watching its operation attentively. 3. With his numerous experiments being over, Newton was able to write his work very quickly. 4. With the current being switched on, the machine automatically starts operating.
Упражнение 8.Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Читая книгу, он обычно делает заметки (make notes). 2. Прочитав текст, мы обсудим его. 3. Отвечая на вопросы, он сделал несколько ошибок. 4. Ответив на вопросы преподавателя, мы начали переводить новый текст. 5. Являясь хорошим проводником электричества, медь широко используется в промышленности. 6. Увидев зеленый свет, мы перешли (cross) улицу. 7. Покупая газету, он потерял деньги. 8. Купив газету, он пошел к метро.
Упражнение 9.Переведите предложения. Запомните значения выделенных слов.
1. The Reading Room of the Library of Congress housesa great collection of reference books. 2. The Housesof Parliament are situated in the centre of London on the banks of the Thames. 3. The fuselage of a new cargo aircraft can houselarge-size equipment. 4. Solar power can be used as a source of heat.5. When we heatwater, it turns into steam. 6. Heatenergy may be of a kinetic form. 7. A new computerized system monitorsthe production processes of this plant. 8. This plant is equipped with video and television monitors.9. Our laboratory is developing an electronic monitoringsystem for cars. 10. In new cars instrument panels will have a means to displaydifferent objects on the road. 11. Liquid-crystal displaywas used in the first colour television set. 12. A special electronic device signalsthe engine to stop. 13. Now it is possible to send signalsover long distances.
Упражнение 10.Определите, в каких предложениях only — наречие, а в каких — прилагательное.
1. The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but as a process which trains
the mind to think, analyze and make decisions. 2. Halley's Comet is the only comet which has been regularly observed for more than 200 years. 3. Many experts now question the idea that environmental problems began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century. 4. Since their first appearance in 1939 only few people owned television sets. 5. The collection of ethnography in the British Museum is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. 6. When we speak about the further development of computers, we mean not only quantity, but also high technology and high speed.
Упражнение 11. А.Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний.
one thing is certain, public transport, the time is coming, from home to office, a modern vehicle, in common use, to get into a car, a pack of cigarettes, how far one can drive, various objects ahead, directly above the bumper, get out of a car.
различные объекты впереди, общественный транспорт, современное транспортное средство, приходит время, сесть в машину, пачка сигарет, от дома до работы, одно явно, в повсеместном использовании, выйти из машины, сколько (как далеко) можно проехать, непосредственно над бампером.
В. Переведите словосочетания.
to go out into the street, a usual means of transport, to get information, to get the best economy, a decade ago, to play a part, the size of a pack of cigarettes, the vehicle's carburetor, an electronic instrument panel, the car's position on a road, objects ahead of the vehicle, stationary objects ahead, ten miles an hour.
Упражнение 12.Переведите производные слова согласно образцу:
прилагательное существительное > + -age = существительное
short — короткий -> shortage — нехватка, недостаток mile — миля -» mileage — расстояние в милях to use — использовать -» usage — использование advantage, breakage, blockage;
суффикс глагола -ate illuminate — освещать; sophisticate — усложнять regulate, demonstrate, concentrate, separate, indicate;
префикс en- Л- прилагательное = глагол rich — богатый -> to enrich — обогащать to enable, to ensure, to enlarge, to enclose.
Упражнение 13.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
public ['рлЬкк], transport, future ['fjir.tfe], pilot ['pallet], role ['reul], carburetor Lkaibju'rete], control [ken'treul], display, component [кэт'рэипэт], model ['modi], characteristics ^kaerakte'ristiks], diagonally [dai'aegeneli], automatic [pitem'aetik], automatically, automobile ['o:t9m9ubi:l], motor ['meute], decade ['dekeid], gasoline ['gaeseulhn], nature ['neitje.], to project [pre'dbekt], Sahara [se'hcr.re], ceramic [si'raemik], radar ['reide].
Упражнение 14.Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов.
vehicle ['vi:ikl], drive [draw], driver, arrive [e'raiv], arrival [e'raivel], guidance ['gaidens], private ['praivit], motorway, motorcar, lane [lein], luxury ['1лк/эп], exhaust [ig'zo.st], device [di'vais], adjust [a'c^ASt], fuel [fjuel], calculate ['kaelkjuleit], average ['aevends], since [sins], feature ['fi:tje], aerial ['serial], directly [di'rektli], danger ['deindje], observe [eb'zeiv], warn [wo:n], buzzer [Ългэ], Japan [фэ'рэеп], Japanese [^aepe'ni.z], angle ['aei\gl], axis ['aeksis], data ['deite], impassable [im'pcr.sebl], valve [vaelv], 5 °C [faivdi'gri.z'sentigreid], engine ['endbin].
СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
adjustv — регулировать angleп — угол applyv — применять avoidv — избегать axisп — ось
currentа — современный, текущий
destinationп — пункт назначения detectv — обнаруживать
guidanceп — управление, наведение
ignitionп — зажигание indicatev — указывать, показывать
makev — делать, заставлять mountv — монтировать, устанавливать
onlyа — единственный; adv — только
directlyadv — прямо, непо- placev — помещать
средственно selectv — выбирать
enginen — двигатель sizen — размер
ensurev — обеспечивать, га- sophisticatedp.p — сложный
рантировать valven — клапан
equipv — оборудовать warnv — предупреждать
exceedv — превышать withstandv — выдерживать
exhaustn — выхлоп
in many respects— во многих отношениях
to look like— быть похожим
to turn on/off— включать/выключать
Text 7 A
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
Какой вид автомобиля наиболее перспективен для общественного транспорта будущего?
Какие примеры применения электроники в автомобиле приводятся в тексте?
Transport for Tomorrow
One thing is certain about the public transport of the future: it must be more efficient than it is today. The time is coming when it will be quicker to fly across the Atlantic to New York than to travel from home to office. The two main problems are: what vehicle shall we use and how can we plan our use of it?
There are already some modern vehicles which are not yet in common use, but which may become a usual means of transport in the future. One of these is the small electric car: we go out into the street, find an empty car, get into it, drive to our destination, get out and leave the car for the next person who comes along. In fact, there may be no need to drive these cars. With an automatic guidance system for cars being developed, it will be possible for us to select our destination just as today we select a telephone number, and our car will move automatically to the address we want.
For long journeys in private cars one can also use an automatic guidance system. Arriving at the motorway, a driver will select the lane1 he wishes to use, switch over to automatic driving, and then relax — dream, read the newspaper, have a meal, flirt with his passenger — while the car does the work for him. Unbelievable? It is already possible. Just as in many ships and aircraft today we are pi-
loted automatically for the greater part of the journey, so in the future we can also have this luxury in our own cars.
A decade ago, the only thing electronic on most automobiles was the radio. But at present sophisticated electronics is playing a big part in current automotive research. For example, in every gasoline-powered2 car that General Motors Corporation makes there is a small computer continuously monitoring the exhaust. The device, about the size of a pack of cigarettes, adjusts the vehicle carburetor fuel intake3 to get the best fuel economy. Ford cars are equipped with an electronic instrument panel that, among other things4, will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. It will also estimate the time of arrival at destination and tell the driver what speed he has averaged5 since turning on the ignition.
According to specialists these features made possible by microelectronics are only the beginning. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions, and a display screen may show the car's position on the road. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. The radar aerial looks like a third headlight placed directly above the bumper. Having summed up the information about the speed and distance of various objects ahead, the computer detects all possible dangers and their nature. A third component in the system is a monitor on the instrument panel. The radar only observes objects ahead of the vehicle. It is automatically turned on when the speed exceeds ten miles an hour. The green light on the panel indicates that the system is on. The yellow light warns of stationary objects ahead, or something moving slower than the car. The red light and buzzer warn that the speed should go down. Another red light and sound signal make the driver apply the brakes.
A Japanese company is designing a car of a new generation. When completed, the new model will have a lot of unusual characteristics. The car's four-wheel control system will ensure movement diagonally and even sideways, like a crab, at right angles to the longitudinal axis. This is especially important when leaving the car in parking places. To help the driver get information while concentrating on the road, the most important data will be projected on the wind screen. A tourist travelling in such a car will not lose his way even in Sahara with its impassable roads: a navigation Earth satellite will indicate the route.
A new ceramic engine has been developed in Japan. Many important parts as pistons, pressure rings6, valves and some others
have been made of various ceramic materials, piston rings7 made of silicon materials being in many respects better than those of steel. They withstand temperatures up to 1,000 °C. Therefore, the engine does not need a cooling system.
Notes to the Text
1. lane — ряд
2. gasoline-powered — с бензиновым двигателем
3. fuel intake — впрыск топлива
4. among other things — кроме всего прочего
5. what speed he has averaged — какова была его средняя скорость
6. pressure ring — уплотнительное кольцо
7. piston ring — поршневое кольцо
Упражнение 15.Просмотрите текст 7А и ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is the text about? 2. What kind of a car may be in common use in the near future? 3. How will a public electric car operate? 4. How will it operate on a motorway? 5. What electronic devices are there in a modern car? 6. What electronic devices does General Motors Corporation offer for a car? 7. What electronic devices are Ford cars equipped with? 8. Can a radar be used in a car? What will its functions be? 9. What functions will a Japanese car of a new generation have? 10. What materials do the Japanese offer to use for car motors?
Упражнение 16.Укажите, какие из приведенных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста 7А.
1. An automatic guidance system was developed for the electric car. 2. Small electric cars are in common use. 3. Many ships and aircrafts are piloted automatically for the greater part of the journey. 4. Usually having arrived at a motorway, a driver switches over to automatic control and relaxes. 5. A decade ago there were many electronic things in the cars. 6. There is no future for microelectronics in automobiles. 7. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. 8. A new ceramic engine has been developed in France.
Упражнение 17.Найдите и тексте 7А причастия в функциях определения и обстоятельства (см. 3, 5 и 6-й абзацы), независимые причастные обороты (см. 2-й и 7-й абзацы).
Упражнение 18.Найдите причастия и переведите предложения.
1. Studying Newton's work «Principia», a young physicist discovered a mistake in the calculations. 2. Having designed a car radar, the engineers started complex tests. 3. While driving a car one should be very attentive. 4. A new electronic instrument will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. 5. The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement. 6. Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. 7. The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel efficiency of a car. 8. Having been tested, the computer system was installed at a plant. 9. Soon the night-vision system designed will be available. 10. The synthetic magnet has a lot of valuable qualities that can be changed, if desired. 11. Recently there have appeared battery-powered cars. 12. The radar used was of a completely new design. 13. Having been heated, the substance changed its properties. 14. Being provided with batteries an electric car can develop a speed of 50 miles an hour. 15. When mass produced, electric cars will help solve ecological problems of big cities. 16. A defect undetected caused an accident. 17. Though first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars.
Упражнение 19.Найдите предложения с независимым причастным оборотом, переведите.
1. The first engines appeared in the 17th century and people began using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented, a self-propelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars began in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a supply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began to develop rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million, no other industry having ever developed so quickly.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 20.Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова.
dangerous, automotive, longitudinal, automatically, present, nature, motorist, enrol, enrolment, guidance, average, current, ignition, diagonally, calculate, impossible, graduate, village, public, garage, useful, usefulness.
Упражнение 21.Переведите слова, обращая внимание на значение суффикса -ег/-ог.
driver, sensor, starter, monitor, microprocessor, detector, transistor, carburetor, user, transmitter, lecturer, generator.
Упражнение 22.Назовите производные слова от глаголов, переведите.
navigate, generate, stimulate, estimate, innovate, investigate, regulate.
Упражнение 23.Напишите исходную форму, по которой нужно искать следующие слова в словаре:
companies, easier, accordingly, better, creating, biggest, cried.
Упражнение 24.Сгруппируйте из слов пары:
regulate, modern, want, select, use, current, wish, average, adjust, choose, mean, apply;
unbelievable, cooling, continuous, passable, heating, believable, discontinuous, impassable.
Упражнение 25.Переведите предложения и запомните различные значения слова since.
1. Since 1770 there were many brilliant inventions in the automobile industry. 2. The production of motor cars in Great Britain was stopped since there were severe speed limits. 3. In early days many of the cars broke since transmissions were still unreliable and often went out of operation. 4. Since conventional headlights are not very effective, a new system has to be developed. 5. Since the French engineer Gugnot invented the first self-propelled vehicle in 1770, the automobile industry developed very rapidly. 6. The number of chemical elements known to science has grown considerably since Mendeleev created his Periodic Table in 1871.
Упражнение 26.Переведите предложения и запомните значение слова too (слишком) перед прилагательным.
1. The task is too difficult for them. 2. The size of the device is too big now. 3. The difference in temperatures was too great. 4. The old system is too complicated. 5. A sensor mechanism for a car is too large at present.
Упражнение 27.Переведите предложения и запомните значения слов future и further.
1. In the future it will be possible to use more channels on every TV set via satellite and cable TV. 2. Scientists throughout the world were quick to realize the importance of the radio and contributed much to its further development. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and the second years are very important for their future speciality. 4. The use of computers in cars is a further step in improving safety on the road. 5. I'll give you further instructions tomorrow.
Упражнение 28.Заполните пропуски словами only или the only, переведите предложения.
1. The Earth is ... planet having liquid water. 2. It is useful to remember that the industrial revolution began ... at the end of the
18th century. 3...... way to achieve good results is to apply one's
knowledge to practical work. 4. The revolution in science and technology affects not ... economically developed countries, but also developing countries. 5. Multi-cylinder engines came into use ... after World War II. 6. The motor car has not ... brought mobility to millions of people, but also has polluted the atmosphere. 7. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but... for a few seconds. 8 .... requirement for plastic steel is that it must be rich in carbon. 9. The Library of Congress serves not... to Members of the Congress, but also to libraries throughout the US and the world.
Упражнение 29.Заполните пропуски соответствующими формами глагола to have (has, have, had, hasn't, haven't, hadn't).
«I ... a good car for sale. It ... many extra parts. It ... a good speedometer and four new tires. It ... a new spare (запасная) tire too.» «... it its original paint (краска)?» «No, it... its original paint. It... new paint on it. It looks new.» «I .... a good offer for it yesterday, but the man ... very little cash. I want cash (наличные деньги).» «... it a good engine?» «Yes, it ... an excellent engine. It ... any weak places in it. Engines that... weak places in them are al-
ways in the garage.» «I ... an idea you will sell your car.» «I ... two good offers yesterday. One man ... all cash. But he doesn't look like an honest man. I ... no desire to do business with him.»
Упражнение 30.Замените придаточные предложения причастным оборотом.
1. While Boris was driving home, he saw an accident. 2. After we had talked with Peter, we felt much better. 3. When John arrived at the station, he saw the train leave. 4. After he had left the house, he walked to the nearest metro station. 5. When I looked out of the window, I saw Mary coming. 6. As we finished our part of the work, we were free to go home. 7. As Ann had had no time to write us a letter, she sent a telegram.
Упражнение 31.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. driven, learning, said, setting, buy, ridden, break.
Упражнение 32.Прочитайте и переведите без словаря.
A new vacuum-controlled constant velocity carburetor developed by an American company offers several advantages over ordinary carburetors, including 25 per cent gasoline economy, improved engine performance and easier starting. The device having only 54 parts compared with some 300 in conventional carburetors has no choke (дроссель). It constantly adjusts the mixture of fuel and air, which cannot be done in usual carburetors. Provided with special mechanism the carburetor helps the engine turn on at once in cold weather. Though developed quite recently, it is already being used by cars and other kinds of public transport. With diesel engine becoming almost standard equipment, the vacuum carburetor will never be used on new cars. It may be said that present-day carburetors are dinosaurs and in 20 years there won't be any more. But there are some countries which are interested in importing the device as a replacement for existing carburetors.
Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
1. What are the main problems of public transport? (a new type of vehicle and its much more efficient use) 2. What type of modern vehicle may become a usual means of transport in the future? (a small electric car) 3. What is the possible development in private cars? (the use of an automatic guidance system) 4. What electronic
devices are used in modern cars? (a computer, fuel adjusting devices, an electronic instrument panel for indicating the speed, time, distance covered and fuel left) 5. What is the main function of a radar for a car? (detecting all possible dangers ahead of the vehicle on a road) 6. What unusual feature will a new generation car have? (four-wheel control system ensuring diagonal and side movements) 7. What materials are used in current automotive design? (ceramics)
Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts.
1. There are already some modern vehicles
2. For example, a small electric car can solve
3. A passenger
4. With an automatic guidance system for cars,
5. It will be possible
6. All these innovations will become possible because of
7. Computers, electronic instrument panels, radars, adjusting devices, etc. are playing
1. goes out into the street, finds an empty car, gets into it, drives to his destination, gets out and leaves the car for the next passenger.
2. there may be no need to drive these cars.
3. which may become a usual means of transport in the future.
4. increasingly wide use of modern microelectronics in cars.
5. many problems of public transport.
6. an important part in current car design.
7. to switch over to automatic
driving, as we do in ships and air-
Exercise 3.Read and learn.
Bob's New Used Car
John: This is the car that Bob bought from Mr. Adams.
Bill: I didn't even know that he had bought a car. When did he tell
you that he had bought it? J: He told me yesterday that he had bought it two days earlier. B: Do you know how much he paid for the car? J: Well, he said he had paid 800 dollars for it. В.: I wonder why he bought an old car? I didn't think he needed a
car. J.: Well, I suppose he will use it for his new job.
В.: Do you think the car is in good condition?
J.: He told me that the car was in perfect condition. The tires are
practically new. The new generator works perfectly. Frankly
(откровенно говоря), I think that it was a good bargain
(выгодная покупка, хорошая сделка). В.: I believe you are right. J.: I haven't mentioned that the car had been driven only 25,000
miles. Also, the covers (чехлы) which are on the front seats are
new. They are made of material that can be washed. В.: Now I want to see how well the car really runs. J.: O.K. Let's ask Bob when he is going for a ride. Then we can see
whether or not the car runs well. В.: Do you know if Bob is going to come back here soon? J.: Yes, I'm sure he'll be back right away (сразу, немедленно). В.: By the way (между прочим), can you tell me where Bob is
keeping his car? J.: He is using the garage of the people living next door.
Exercise 4.Speak about:
1. Public transport of the future.
2. The application of electronics in modern cars.
3. The latest innovations in car design.
Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: one thing is certain, to be much more efficient, to be in common use, to select a destination, to monitor, the size of a pack of cigarettes, to look like, to warn of objects ahead of the vehicle, to design, to get information, while driving, to make of.
Exercise 5.Comment on the following statement.
It is natural that everybody should want to have a car.
One point of view : It is convenient, saving time, avoiding crowded buses and other city transport, independent, comfortable, useful at weekends, contact with nature, developing the sense of responsibility, improving the level of technological culture.
A contrary point of view : Expensive, traffic jams (пробки в уличном движении), difficulties with repairs and maintenance, pollution, lack of physical exercise, takes more time than it saves, road accidents, waste of energy resources, the unbearable situation in many cities, especially in supercities.
Exercise 6.Read and smile.
On the Bus
It was during the rush-hour (часы пик). As usual, all the seats in the bus were occupied. When a good-looking young lady got in,
an elderly man sitting near the door wanted to rise, but the lady at once pressed him to keep his seat. «Thank you», she said, «I don't mind standing.» «But, madam, permit me ... ». «I insist upon your sitting down,» she stopped him, and putting her hands on his shoulders she almost forced him back into his seat.
The man tried again to stand up and said, «Madam, will you allow me to ... » But once more the lady said, «I don't wish to take your seat, sir!» and forced him back with another push.
With a great effort the man finally pushed her aside. «Madam», he called out, «I don't care whether you take my seat or not. The bus has already taken me two stops beyond my destination, and now I wish to get out.»
A good-looking lady-motorist was speeding through the sleepy village when a policeman stepped out on the road in front of her and forced her to stop. «What have I done?» she asked. «You were travelling forty miles an hour», replied the policeman. «Forty miles an hour!» cried the lady-motorist in surprise, «I left my house only 20 minutes ago».
Прочитайте текст и заполните следующую таблицу:
|Саг design innovations since 1770||The latest car electronic systems||Their advantages||Their disadvantages|
Используя таблицу, расскажите по-английски о наиболее важных усовершенствованиях в конструкции автомобиля с момента его изобретения. О каких последних достижениях в области конструирования автомобилей вы знаете? Какая информация в тексте наиболее интересна с вашей точки зрения и почему?
Саг of Future
Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770, there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their efforts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless tires (бескамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes (тормоз с антиблокировочным устрой-
ством), these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today.
Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новейший) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This «night vision» system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That's five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An image-processing system scans the information from the sensors, creating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode-ray screen built in a car's instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be reducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism which is too big now.
One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but adjusts it automatically. In addition this system enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the instrument panel display which houses the system's main microprocessor, programming buttons (кнопка включения программы) and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль привода) which is essentially four microchips attached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component — a programmable transducer (программируемый преобразователь). The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly.
However, some automobile experts think this system is too complicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost.