Give the main idea of the text. Write down one phrase
1. ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА…………………4
2. Do You Think Mass Media Play an Important Part
in the Life of the Society?.........................................5
3. Public Relations Dependence on the Media..............6
4. Tabliod Journalism ...................................................8
5. Effective Media Relations..........................................10
6. Media Etiquette .........................................................12
7. Are You Influenced by Advertising? ........................14
8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising.........16
9. Methods of Advertising..............................................19
10. Advertising Strategy .................................................21
11. Types of Public Relations of Advertising ..................22
12. Image-building ...........................................................23
13. The Basics of a Print Ad ............................................25
14. Using an Advertising Agency ....................................27
15. Posters .......................................................................28
16. T-shirts and Buttons (part 1) .....................................31
17. T-shirts and Buttons (part 2) .....................................32
18. How to Control Nonverbal Communications ............34
19. The Nature of a Speech ..............................................34
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II-IV курсов специализирующихся в области рекламы. Целью данного пособия является отработка навыков чтения и понимания текста по специальности, усвоения терминологической лексики данной области специализации и грамматической структуры текста.
Пособие содержит оригинальные тексты по рекламе, отражающие специфику лексики данного подъязыка и грамматические структуры типичные для специального текста. Терминологический слой текста отражает понятия, присущие данной области знаний. Под термином понимается слово (или словосочетание), языковой знак которого соотнесен с соответствующим понятием в системе данной области науки. Термину свойственно наличие у него строгой, точной дефиниции и однозначности содержания. В целях правильного понимания синтаксических структур текста необходим аналитический подход к переводу текста на базе грамматических основ навыка чтения специального текста.
Для обучения навыкам чтения и понимания специального текста, лексическим и грамматическим основам чтения рекомендуются следующие виды упражнений:
1) Прочитать текст и понять общее содержание прочитанного, передать содержание текста в виде пересказа на русском или английском языке.
2) Прочитать текст и понять основную идею текста.
3) Найти в тексте определенные факту, описания, высказывания.
4) Поставить вопросы к тексту.
5) Ответить на вопросы к тексту
6) Найти в тексте определенные грамматические структуры и проанализировать их.
7) Выписать термины и найти их эквиваленты.
Разнообразие упражнений позволяет использовать их выборочно по каждому тексту с учетом его содержания и структуры.
DO YOU THINK MASS MEDIA PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART IN THE LIFE OF THE SOCIETY?
It goes without saying that mass media has become part and parcel of any contemporary society. The press, the radio and television play a very important part in the life of the society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. As sociologist say news is not what happens, it is what you see or read about in mass media. In other words, mass media plays a very important role in molding public opinion.
Millions of people watch TV and read newspapers in their spare time. The daily paper dominates family life at breakfast. Most of people can't do without a newspaper in the underground or during the lunch break. Say, my family subscribes to Izvestiya and Komsomolka, because they are informative, interesting and objective. Pretty often I buy ... at the newsstands, as I'm interested in ... .
TV also dominates the life of the family most of the time. It's needless to say that the TV set is not just a piece of furniture. It is someone who is "one of the family". It is also a habit-forming drug impossible to resist. The radio is turned on most of the time, creating a permanent background noise. In fact it does not interfere with your activities. I can easily listen to the radio while doing Maths, peeling potatoes or doing the washing up.
Generally I'm not very keen on politics, but I do watch news and various commentary and discussions called forums. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social, economic and political problems, as well as on books of common interest. A number of sides is represented so that the listeners or the viewers could hear various opinions. In fact suchbroadcasts are very popular with the Russian audience. as people are able to see their leaders, deputies and presidents.
Various radio and TV games, such as a panel game or a quiz programme also attract a large audience. During a radio panel-game people send questions to the studio to be answered by the members of the panel, who compete for the best results. I personally adore watching "Brain Ring," because I do believe that quick-minded intellectuals should be able to earn proper money. Besides, it's both exciting and educative.
It's no secret that some of the TV and radio stations are owned by big corporations, thus the owners can advertise whatever they choose. Very often the firms and joint ventures sponsor shows and programmes, thus giving common people a good chance to make a fortune or to win a valuable prize.
I dare say that mass media stimulates science and progress. To advertise their goods commercial firms buy TV and radio time. So most of the up to-date goods, new inventions and technologies become popular and well known with the help of mass media. So mass media promotes quality and progress into our every day life.
Of course advertising promotes business and benefits businessmen. However it annoys the general public. The play you are watching on TV may be interrupted several times by an appeal to use a new perfume or detergent, or drink a certain beer. And though we are used to everything being advertised, watching such programmes gives one a headache instead of providing relaxation.
I would say that it's a great pity that such immense cultural possibilities of Russian mass media are used mainly for the purpose of selling more things... Some critics declare that advertising allows great commercial firms to pull the rest of the people down to their own intellectual level.
However it wouldn't be fair to say that our mass media do not try to raise the cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. I'm generally too short of time to attend an exhibition or to go to the theatre, but I watch a play or a ballet on TV with great pleasure. Thus mass media can save us a lot of time, money and efforts, keeping people aware of what is happening in the world around us.
part and parcel - неотъемлемая часть
mould - формировать
habit - привычка
resist - сопротивляться
background – фон, задний план
be keen – сильно желать чего-либо
adore - обожать
joint venture – совместное предприятие
annoy – досаждать, надоедать
immense – огромный, громадный
Answer the questions.
1. Why do mass media become partof any contemporary society?
2. What part do mass media play in the life of society?
3. Why does TV dominate the lives of the most families?
4. What is a forum?
5. What kind of programmes attract vast audiences?
6. How do mass media stimulate science and progress?
7. Why are the people annoyed by TV commercials?
8.How can mass media raise the cultural level of the people?
PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPENDENCE ON THE MEDIA
The purpose of public relations is to inform, shape opinions and attitudes, and motivate. This can be accomplished only if people receive messages constantly and consistently.
The media, in all their variety, are cost-effective channels of communication in an information society. They are the multipliers that enable
millions of people to receive a message at the same time. Through the miracle of satellite communications, the world is a global village of shared information.
On a more specialized level, the media are no longer just mass communication. Thousands of publications and hundreds of radio, television, and cable outlets enable the public relations communicator to reach very specific target audiences with tailored messages designed just for them. Demographic segmentation and psychographics are now a way of life in advertising, marketing, and public relations.
The media's power and influence in a democratic society reside in their independence from government control. Reporters and editors make independent judgements about what is newsworthy and what will be disseminated. They serve as screens and filters of information, and even though not every one is happy with what they decide, the fact remains that media gatekeepers are generally perceived as more objective than public relations people who represent a particular client or organization.
This is important to you because the media, by inference, serve as third-party endorsers of your information. Media gatekeepers give your information credibility and importance by deciding that it is newsworthy. The information is no longer from your organization.
Consequently, your dependence on the media requires that you be accurate and honest at all times in all your public relations materials.
be designed for smb. – быть предназначенным для кого-либо
channels of communication – каналы связи
cost-effective - рентабельный
disseminate - распространять
endore information – поддерживать, распространять информацию
gate-keeper - редактор
inference – заключение, вывод
make a judgment – сделать заключение
reside in smth. – принадлежать чему-либо, заключаться в чем-либо
satellite communications – спутниковая связь
shape opinions and attitudes – сформировать точку зрения, мнение
tailored message – сообщение, составленное с учетом ситуации, рассчитанное на определенную аудиторию
target audience – целевая аудитория variety – разнообразие
Write down the questions for these answers:
1. The purpose of public relations is to inform, shape opinions and attitudes, and motivate.
2. The media’s power and influence in a democratic society reside in their independence from government control.
3. Media gate-keepers give your information credibility and importance by deciding that it is newsworthy.
Can you explain the following?
1. Through the miracle of satellite communications, the world is a global village of shared information.
2. Demographic segmentation and psychographics are now a way of life in advertising, marketing and public relations.
3. The media, by inference, serve as third-party endorsers of your information.
Newspapers and broadcast shows are not all alike, and the level of commitment to journalistic standards ranges from wholehearted to nonexistent. Some periodicals are highly praised for their objective and fair reporting, whereas others are famous for headline stories based on hearsay
The same situation exists in television . Some shows are known as "tabloid television" and "trash TV" because they concentrate on the sensational and have used the facade of traditional journalism on what is pure entertainment. This has been called "journaltainment".
The proliferation of tabloid television means that you have to be very careful.
In the race for ratings, some shows have started to offer more sensationalism and the manipulation of events for greater effect.
Such lapses of journalistic standards are a major concern for the media because the antics of an isolated few affect the credibility of all journalists.
Your challenge is to make sure you don't paint all media with the same brush. You should continue to give service to responsible journalists and provide information. However, if a reporter has a reputation for sensationalism, you are probably better off if you simply refuse to be interviewed or provide information.
If you do decide to work with a tabloid television reporter, there are some points that can help you keep control of the situation:
• Never do an adversarial interview alone. One option is to have a lawyer sit in on the interview.
• Research the interviewer's record before facing the camera. Know his or her method of questioning.
• Don't accept any document on camera. Surprise documents can be used to trip up subjects and make them look foolish.
• Get a commitment that you will be able to respond to accusations made by others as part of the story.
• If cornered, counterattack. Take the offensive and accuse the reporter of unprofessional conduct, incompetence, or a lack of understanding of the subject.
accuse smb.of smth. – обвинять кого-либо в чем-либо
adversarial – враждебный, недоброжелательный
commitment to smth.- преданность, верность, обязательство
corner smb.- «загнать в угол», «припереть к стене»
lack of smth. – отсутствие чего-либо
lapse – падение
make accusations – выдвигать обвинение
hearsay – слухи
antics – проделки, кривляние, шутовство
proliferation – распространение
race for ratings – погоня за рейтингом
sensationalism – сенсационность
tabloid – низкопробный, бульварный
tabloid press – бульварная пресса
take the offensive – перейти в наступление
trash – чтиво, макулатура, дешевка
trip up – запутать
Match the words, translate them and use in sentences of your own:
Agree or disagree with the tips concerning handling tabloid reporters. Do you think it will really help you keep control of the situation? Start your sentences with:
It’s no use. No, it’s no good doing it. What’s the use of ...
It is worth while ...
Well, I could do that, I suppose ...
Yes, I think it’s advisable to do that ...
Give the main idea of the text. Write down one phrase.
EFFECTIVE MEDIA RELATIONS
There will always be areas of friction and disagreement between public relations people and journalists, but that doesn't mean that there can't be a solid working relationship based on mutual respect for each other's work, including journalists
A good working relationship with the media is vital for a public relations writer. Indeed, one definition of public relations is the building of relationship between the organization and its various publics.
Dealing with the Media
Many guidelines for dealing effectively with the media have been compiled. Most of them are well tested and proven, but you must always remember that there are no ironclad rules. Media people are also individuals to whom a particular approach may or may not be applicable. Here's a list of general guidelines.
1. Know your media.Be familiar with the publications and broadcast outlets that are regularly used. Know their deadlines, news format, audiences, and needs. Do your homework on other publications and broadcast shows before sending a pitch letter or news material.
2. Limit your mailings.Multiple news releases are inefficient and costly, and they alienate media gatekeepers. Send releases only to publications and broadcast outlets that would have an interest in the information.
3. Localize.Countless surveys show that the most effective materials have a local angle. Take the time to develop that angle before sending materials to specific publications.
4. Send newsworthy information.Don't bother sending materials that are not newsworthy. Avoid excessive hype and promotion.
5. Practice good writing.News materials should be well written and concise. Avoid technical jargon in materials sent to nontechnical publications.
6. Avoid gimmicks.Don't send T-shirts, teddy bears, balloon bouquets, or other frivolous items to get the attention of media gatekeepers.
7. Be environmentally correct.Avoid giant press kits and reams of background materials. Save trees.
8. Be available.You are the spokesperson for an organization. It is your responsibility to be accessible at all times, even in the middle of the night. Key reporters should have your office and home telephone numbers.
9. Get back to reporters.Make it a priority to respect your promises and call reporters back in a timely manner. They have deadlines to meet.
10. Answer your own phone.Use voice mail systems as a tool of service, not as screening device. Reporters (like other people) hate getting bogged down in the electronic swamp of endless button pushing.
11. Be truthful.Give accurate and complete information even if it is not flattering to your organization. Your facts and figures must be clear and dependable.
12. Answer questions.There are only three acceptable answers: "Here it is", "I don't know but I'll get back to you within an hour" and "I know but I can't tell you now because..." "No comment" is not one of the three alternatives.
13. Protect exclusives.Ifa reporter has found a story, don't give it to anyone else.
14. Be fair.Competing media deserve equal opportunity to receive information in a timely manner.
15. Help photographers.Facilitate their work by getting people together in a central location, providing necessary props, and supplying subjects' full names and titles.
16. Explain.Give reporters background briefings and materials so that they understand your organization. Tell them how decisions were reached and why.
17. Remember deadlines.The reporter must have enough time to write a story. One good rule is to provide information days or weeks in advance. In addition, don't call a media outlet to make a pitch at deadlines time.
18. Praise good work.If a reporter has written or produced a good story, send a complimentary note. A copy to the editor is also appreciated.
19. Correct errors politely.Ignore minor errors such as misspellings, inaccurate ages, and wrong titles. If there is a major factual error that skews the accuracy of the entire story, talk to the reporter who wrote the story. If that doesn't work, talk to the editor or news director.
alienate - отдалять
angle – точка зрения, подход
applicable - применимый
avoid - избегать
compile - составить
concise – краткий, сжатый
deadline – крайний срок
definition - определение
facilitate - облегчать
flatter - льстить
guidelines - правила
ironclad rules – «железные» правила
meet the deadline – выполнить в срок
pitch letter – рекламно – информационное письмо
priority - приоритет
props - реквизит
ream - груда
skew - искать
take the time – не торопиться
vital – жизненно важный
voice mail system – автоответчик
Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian. Make up sentences of your own:
1. To meet a deadline
2. To miss a deadline
3. To set a deadline
4. To work under a tight deadline
5. At deadline time
1. To establish priorities
2. A top/high/first priority
3. To have/take/get priority
4. To get one’s priorities straight/right
Answer the following questions:
1. What should be done to know your media?
2. How can you limit your mailings?
3. Why is it important to localize your materials?
4. What sort of information should be sent?
5. How should news materials be written?
6. Why should gimmicks be avoided?
7. What does “o be environmentally correct” mean?
8. Why should you be always accessible for the media?
9. Why can’t “no comment” be one of the possible answers to reporters’ questions?
10. In what way should you be fair to competing media?
11. How can you help photographers?
12. In what way should you react to errors?
In addition to the foregoing guidelines, there are several matters of media
etiquette that should be observed. A failure to observe the following points often leads to poor media relations.
Irritating Phone Calls Don't call a reporter or an editor to ask if your news release was received. Simply assume that it was if you used a regular channel of distribution such as first-class mail, a courier service, or fax.
Unfortunately, the practice of phoning reporters with such an inane question is widely done as a pretext for calling attention to the news release or making a pitch for its use.
Although the approach seems logical, it is better to call a reporter to offer some new piece of information or a story angle that may not be explicit in the news release. The telephone call then becomes an information call instead of a plea to read the news re lease and use it.
Inappropriate Requests It is not appropriate to ask a publication or broadcast station to send you a clipping of the story or news segment. If you want such materials you should make arrangements with a clipping service or a broadcast monitoring firm.
It also is not a good idea to ask if you can check a story before it runs. Publications rarely give such permission and consider the request an infringement on their First Amendment Rights. From a practical standpoint, news is timely, and there often isn't time for outside sources to check stories. It is permissible to ask a reporter if you can check any quotes attributed to you. In many cases, however, you will still get a frosty no.
assume – предположить , допустить
attributed to smb.- приписываемый к. –л.
call attention to smth.- привлечь внимание к ч. - л
channel of distribution – канал распространения
courier service – курьерская служба
explicit – ясный, чёткий, точный
foregoing – вышеупомянутый
infringement – нарушение
irritating – раздражающий
Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
В добавление к ч.-л , привести к ч.-л, обычный канал, подход (к проблеме), аспект сообщения, радиостанция, фирма звукозаписи, проверить сообщение, точка зрения, внешние источники, газетные вырезки.
Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:
1. a request that is urgent or full of emotion -
2. to try to make a business agreement, or to sell smth.by saying how good it is -
3. a reason given for an action, used in order to hide your own intentions –
Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian. Use them in sentences of your own:
to permit smb.to do smth
to give/ask a travel/work/export etc. permit
to give a permission
Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. He was glad to have a pretext to leave the party early.
2. The movie is inappropriate for children.
3. A health inspector gave explicit instructions on how to correct the problem.
4. It is assumed that they will eventually join the EU.
5. Doctors attributed his quick recovery to his physical fitness.
Match the words which are close in their meaning:
ARE YOU INFLUENCED BY ADVERTISING?
It goes without saying that all of us are influenced by adverts, commercials, brochures, bright pictures, sample sales and free gifts that are used to advertise goods, service and I’d say a certain way of life. In fact advertising has become part and parcel of our every day life. Advertisements are all around us, not just on TV, radio and in the press, but also at sports grounds, in shop windows, and on posters, carrier bags, badges, T-shirts, trams and buses and even hot air balloons. Whether we like it or not, advertising is a powerful force, and all countries have different ways of persuading people to buy something. Nevertheless, they have much in common.
If you don’t mind, I’m going to dwell upon some of the gags that use and tell you how they influence personally me.
To begin with, I’d like to say that advertising often uses the language and pictures to make us believe that we should be ashamed of ourselves for not buying
a certain product for our families or ourselves. They play on our feelings, emotions and especially our wish to be up-to-date and knowledgeable. Frankly speaking I can only tell one shampoo from the other by the effect it produces on my hair. It sometimes leaves it silky, manageable, shiny or heavy, greasy or dull. But I’m flattered to hear that I’m buying the one that is “scientifically developed” or “has been scientifically approved by experts” and is “a revolution in scalp skin care”.
The numerous ads exploit our wish to be as good as others. They challenge us to “keep up to date”, “keep up with the neighbors”, or even “keep one jump ahead". The message is to buy the product if you don’t want to be left behind. I must tell you that it’s very tempting to buy a TV set of the new millennium or a coffee maker that every other family in all European countries uses. But here an average Russian consumer inevitably faces two problems: what’s to be done with a previous one that is in perfect working order and, secondly, how to earn as much money as every other European family. I find those ads humiliating and try to ignore the information about weekends on Hawaii’s cottages, Italian kitchens and posh cars.
The third trick they use is to say: be attractive. Pictures of sexy women and strapping young fellows are often used to draw attention to a product, and the suggestion is that we will be desirable and socially successful if we use it. That’s ridiculous! An untidy woman is repulsive and vulgar no matter whether she uses a brand famous new French perfume or not. In my opinion a man smoking “Camel” on a high mountain cliff doesn’t look romantic and brave. It’s totally absurd to climb that high so that to inhale nicotine instead of fresh mountain air. Besides, he pollutes the global atmosphere and risks cancer.
However, there are some ads, which I find very instructive. These ads persuade us to do things well. The idea is that you must buy the product if you want to do your job properly. Many soap powders are sold through the idea that they “wash whiter than white”, “remove stains” and so on. That’s how I discovered “Tide” and “Ariel” washing powders. It would have cost me a pretty penny to buy and try dozens of others.
The ads which I really like and approve of are those that tell us to be responsible or act responsibly. These are adverts for health foods, environmentally friendly products, and even charities. They really appeal to the caring side of human nature. They aim to make us feel guilty if we ignore the appeal. I do want my children and grandchildren to live on a healthy green planet without polluted forests or harmful wastes from nuclear plants and reactors.
To finish with, I’d like to say that I’m not entirely influenced by adverts like “millions of satisfied users”. I don’t believe that it is possible to become special by using a spray the pop-stars use, or become a VIP by driving a posh Rolls Roy’s car. I remember Robert Burns’ epigram about the flea that still remained a flea after spending a day with a king. I’m not going to seek “unique experience”, tasting new Fanta or Cola. LIFE itself is a unique experience and it doesn’t need any advertising.
Advertising – реклама
Be part and parcel of – неотъемлемая часть
Influence – оказывать влияние
Sample – образец
Goods – товар(ы)
Persuade – убеждать
Dwell – подробно останавливать на чем-либо
Gag – (разг.) хохма
Be ashamed – стыдиться
Up-to-date – современный
Scientifically – научно
Numerous – многочисленный
Challenge – бросать вызов
Consumer – покупатель
Previous – предыдущий
Cancer – рак (болезнь)
Properly – по существу
Be responsible – быть ответственным
Guilty – виновный
Seek – искать, разыскивать
Unique – уникальный, единственный в своем роде
Answer the following questions:
1. Why has advertising become a part of our life?
2. Why is advertising a powerful force?
3. How can advertising influence you?
4. What kind of adverts are instructive?
5. What adverts can be helpful?
6. Why doesn’t life need any advertising?
What do you think? Give a reason for your opinion.
1. Ads are everywhere.
2. Advertisers use lots of tricks.
3. Some ads help us choose right things.