Task 1. Give the main idea of each paragraph you have just read.

Task 2. Match the questions to the answers based on information taken from the text.

1. What do businesses always need? 2. What kind of businesses are in constant danger? 3. Who would win in a competition? 4. How many strategies are in the field of product development? 5. What is the role of marketing research? a) The first company to create a product for waiting market should be well placed to make very good profit. b) Businesses need a steady flow of profitable products. c) There are two main strategies. d) Businesses which rely on one product and one product alone are in constant danger. e) This is known as reactive product development. f) Marketing research should help develop many new ideas. g) The highest cost is in electronics.

Task 3. Complete the sentences with a suitable part according to the information in the text.

1. … is often the basis of a new product.

a) Giving a good idea

b) Having a good idea

c) Offering a good idea

2. Good idea or bad, all products … with an original idea.

a) start off

b) begins

c) are ready

3. … should help develop new ideas.

a) Competition

b) Planning and control

c) Marketing research

4. R&D is an area of … in certain companies.

a) high cost and employment

b) competition and control

c) brainstorming and thought provoking way

5. The concept of…relationship is an interesting one.

a) forced

b) independent

c) fraternal


Task 4. Study the following information.

Emerging technologies are new technologies that are currently developing or will be developed over the next five to ten years, and which will substantially alter the business and social environment. These include information technology, wireless data communication, man-machine communication, on-demand printing, bio-technologies, and advanced robotics.

Task 5. Put in the missing prepositions.

1. Banking provides the liquidity needed… families and business to invest for the future.

a) on

b) at

c) for

2. Online banks are banks that you primarily use …the Internet.

a) in

b) on

c) out

3. A lot of people are familiar… retail banks.

a) with

b) in

c) out

4. The work of banks is connected… the process of banking.

a) at

b) with

c) in

5. … the absence of banking business, saving would be idle, the entrepreneurs would not be in position to raise money.

a) in

b) at

c) with


Translate the text “Types of innovations” into Russian, write out the key words of the paragraphs and give the explanation of the following terms: groups of innovation, continuous innovation, dynamic continuous innovation, breaking innovation.

Innovation is an idea, action or product that is perceived by consumer or a group of consumers as new one. Newness of a product is defined by perception of the potential market and not objective measure of technological change. Even if consumers consider new technical achievement as a change in a product, they can not react on it as a significant innovation. Product innovation for consumers is directly linked with changes in their buying patterns.

There are three groups of innovations:

- Continuous innovation that requires minimum changes in consumers’ buying patterns: new types of biscuits, chips, nonalcoholic beer, change in newspapers print design, etc. Majority of new products presented to the market are continuous innovation.

- Dynamically continuous innovation is supposed to be more but not fundamental changes in consumers’ buying patterns. Examples are: mobile telephones, CD players etc. Major theoretical and empirical researches are related with dynamically continuous innovations whose distribution on the market requires special conditions.

- Breaking innovation supposes significant changes in consumers’ buying patterns. Examples are: a car, a computer, radial keratotomy etc.


1. What do you think nowadays are the chances of coming up with something truly original using the methods described in the text?

2. Which do you think is the most likely source of new ideas? Tell your plans about promotion of new ideas.



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