Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the international words. Theoretical, metrology, Bureau, fundamental, standard, instrument, result, international, laboratory
Theoretical, metrology, Bureau, fundamental, standard, instrument, result, international, laboratory, technology, to base.
Exercise 3. Give English equivalents for:
Охоплювати, загальне обладнання, займатись, раціональна система одиниць (вимірювання), прогрес, сучасна система, вимірювальні прибори, встановлені посилання, зміщення трасувальності, Міжнародне Бюро вимірювання маси та інших значень, законодавча метрологія.
II. Reading and comprehension.
Exercise 4. Read the text A. Translate it with the dictionary.
Metrology (from Ancient Greek metron (measure) and logos (study of)) is the science of measurement. Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement.
Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) as "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology."
Metrology is a very broad field and may be divided into three subfields:
- Scientific or fundamental metrology concerns the establishment of measurement units, unit systems, the development of new measurement methods, realization of measurement standards and the transfer of traceability from these standards to users in society.
- Applied or industrial metrology concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing and other processes and their use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control of measurements.
- Legal metrology concerns regulatory requirements of measurements and measuring instruments for the protection of health, public safety, the environment, enabling taxation, protection of consumers and fair trade.
A core concept in metrology is (metrological) traceability, defined as "the property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references, usually national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties." The level of traceability establishes the level of comparability of the measurement: whether the result of a measurement can be compared to the previous one, a measurement result a year ago, or to the result of a measurement performed anywhere else in the world.
Traceability is most often obtained by calibration, establishing the relation between the indication of a measuring instrument and the value of a measurement standard. These standards are usually coordinated by national laboratories: National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), National Physical Laboratory, UK, etc.
Traceability, accuracy, precision, systematic bias, evaluation of measurement uncertainty are critical parts of a quality management system.
Metrology Basics. Mistakes can make measurements and counts incorrect. If there are no mistakes, all counts will be exactly correct. Even if there are no mistakes, nearly all measurements are still inexact.
Metrology Standards. Standards are objects or ideas that are designated as being authoritative for some accepted reason. Whatever value they possess is useful for comparison to unknowns for the purpose of establishing or confirming an assigned value based on the standard. The design of this comparison process for measurements is metrology. The execution of measurement comparisons for the purpose of establishing the relationship between a standard and some other measuring device is calibration.
Exercise 5. Find in the text the following word-combinations and translate them to your native language:
Practical aspects of measurement, theoretical determinations, fundamental metrology, measurement instruments, regulatory requirements of measurements, protection of consumers, core concept, value of a measurement standard, evaluation of measurement uncertainty.