Ex.1. Find the answers to these questions in the following text.
- What tool is other used in data mining?
- What AI method is used for the following processes?
a. Separate data into subsets and then analyse the subsets to divide them into further subsets for a number of levels.
b. Continually analyse and compare data until patterns emerge.
c. Divide data into groups based on similar features or limited data ranges.
- What term is used for the patterns found by neural networks?
- When are clusters used in data mining?
- What types of data storage can be used in data mining?
- What can an analyst do to improve the data mining results?
- Name some of the ways in which data mining is currently used.
Ex.2. Match the terms with the statements.
| || |
- Storage method of archiving large amounts of data to make it easy to access.
- Data free from duplicate and erroneouse information.
- A process of filtering through large amounts of raw data for useful information.
- A computing tool that tries to operative in a way similar to the human brain.
Ex.3. Mark the following as True or False.
- Data mining is a process of analysing known patterns in data.
- Artificial intelligence is commonly used in data mining.
- In data mining, patterns found while analyzing data are used for further analyzing the data.
- Data mining is used to detect false insurance claims.
- Data mining is only useful for a limited range of problem.
Ex.4. Complete the following description of the data mining process using words from the text:
Large amounts of data stored in data _______ are often used for data _______. The data is first _______ to remove _______ information and errors. The ______ is then analysed using a tool such as _____ _____. An analysis report is then analysed by an _____ who decides if the _____ need to be refined, other data _____ tools need to be used, or if the results need to be discarded because they are _____ . The analyst passes the final results to the ______ makers who decide on the _________ action.
Ex.5. Complete the gaps in this summary of the text on operating systems using these linking words and phrases:
|Although Because but||In addition Such as therefore|
The user is aware of the effects of different applications programs _____ operating systems are invisible to most users. They lie between applications programs, ______ wordprocessing, and the hardware. The supervisor program is the most important. It remains in memory, _______it is referred to as resident. Others are called non-resident _____ they are loaded into memory only when needed. Operating systems manage the computer’s resources, ______ the central processing unit. ______, they establish a user interface, and execute and provide services for applications software. ______ input and output operations are invoked by applications programs, they are carried out by the operating system.
Ex.6. Try to find the commands from the lists below which will have these actions.
|VMS Help Directory Search Copy Rename Print Show users Show time Create / directory Phone delete||Unix Write Cp Lpr Ls Mkdir date Rm Man Grep Rwho Mv|
|Action||UMS command||Unix command|
|List all the files in a directory Delete a file Copy a file Send a file to a printer Obtain help Create a directory Show date and time Show users on system Talk to other users on system Search for a string in a file|
Linux has its roots in a student project. In 1992, an undergraduate called Linus Torvalds was studying computer science in Helsinki, Finland. Like most computer science courses, a big component of it was taught on (and about) Unix. Unix was the wonder operating system of the 1970s and 1980s: both a textbook example of the principles of operating system design, and sufficiently robust to be the standard OS in engineering and scientific computing. But Unix was a commercial product ( licensed by ATEtT to a number of resellers), and cost more than a student could pay.
Annoyed by the shortcomings of Minix (a compact Unix clone written as a teaching aid by Professor Andy Tannenbaum) Linus set out to write his own ‘kernel’ – the core of an operating system that handles memory allocation, talks to hardware devices, and makes sure everything keeps running. He used the GNU programming tools developed by Richard Stallman’s Free Software Foundation, an organization of volunteers dedicated to fulfilling Stallman’s ideal of making good software that anyone could use without paying. When he’d written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux kernel on the Internet.
Source code is important. It’s the original from which compiled programs are generated. If you don’t have the source code to a program, you can’t modify it to fix bugs or add new features. Most software companies won’t sell you their source code, or will only do so for an eye-watering price, because they believe that if they make it available it will destroy their revenue stream.
What happened next was astounding, from the conventional, commercial software industry point of view – and utterly predictable to anyone who knew about the Free Software Foundation. Programmers (mostly academics and students) began using Linux. They found that it didn’t do things they wanted it to do – so they fixed it. And where they improved it, they sent the improvements to Linus, who rolled them into the kernel. And Linux began to grow.
There’s a term for this model of software development; it’s called Open Source.
Anyone can have the source code – it’s free (in the sense of free speech, not free beer). Anyone can contribute to it. If you use it heavily you may want to extend or develop or fix bugs in it – and it is so easy to give your fixes back to the community that most people do so.
An operating system kernel on its own isn’t a lot of use; but Linux was purposefully designed as a near-clone of Unix, and there is a lot of software out there that is free and was designed to compile on Linux. By about 1992, the first ‘distributions’ appeared.
A distribution is the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit, complete with the utilities and applications you need to make it do useful things – command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools, and graphical user interfaces based on the X windowing system. X is a standard in academic and scientific computing, but not hitherto common on PCs; it’s a complex distributed windowing system on which people implement graphical interfaces like KDE and Gnome.
As more and more people got to know about Linux, some of them began to port the Linux kernel to run on non-standard computers. Because it’s free, Linux is now the most widely-ported operating system there is.