Practice Infinitive as subject, complement of subject

I. Transform according to the model.

eg To skate here is pleasant. It is pleasant to skate here.

1. To swim on a hot summer day is marvellous. 2. To learn a foreign language is difficult. 3. To rest there was pleasant. 4. To be given such an opportunity is important. 5. To look after the children was her duty. 6. To marry him was her ambition. 7. To have spent a month at the seaside was very useful. 6. To be fishing now is too cold. 9. To have bought such a useless thing was stupid.

10. To be treated rudely is unpleasant.

11. Make sentences with the same meaning by usingit + infinitive.

eg Having good friends is important. It is important to have good friends.

I. Playing tennis is fun. 2. Being polite to other people is im­portant. 3. Learning about other cultures is interesting. 4. Walk­ing alone at night in this part of the city is dangerous. 5. Is learning a second language difficult? 6. Is riding a motorcycle easy? 7. Ha­ving a cold isn't much fun. 7. Learning a second language takes a long time. 8. Cooking a soft-boiled egg takes three minutes.

III. Answer the questions.

Student A: Use it + infinitive. Student В: Use gerunds.

1. Which is easier: to make money or to spend money?

A: It is easier to spend money than (it is) to make money. B: Spending money is easier than making money.

2. Which is more fun: to study at the library or to go to a movie?

3. Which is more difficult: to write English or to read English?

4. Which is easier: to write English or to speak English?

5. Which is more expensive: to go to a movie or to go to a con­cert?

6. Which is more interesting: to talk to people or to watch people?

7. Which is more comfortable: to wear shoes or to go barefoot?

8. Which is more satisfying: to give gifts or to receive them?

9. Which is more dangerous: to ride in a car or to ride in an air­plane?

10. Which is more important: to come to class on time or to get an extra hour of sleep in the morning?

IV. Student A: Complete the sentence with an infinitive phrase. Student B: Give a sentence with the same meaning by using a gerund phrase as the subject.

1. It is fun...

A: It is fun to ride a horse. B: Riding a horse is fun.

2. It's dangerous... 5. It is important... 8. It's a good idea...

3. It's easy... 4. It's impolite...

6. It is wrong... 7. It takes a lot of time.

9. Is it difficult...?

V. Restate the sentences by changing a sentence with a gerund as the subject to a sentence with it + an infinitive phrase, and vice-versa.

1. Teasing animals is cruel. — It is cruel to tease animals.

2. It wasn't difficult to find their house. — Finding their house wasn't difficult.

3. Voting in every election is important.

4. It was exciting to meet the king and queen.

5. Hearing the other side of the story would be interesting.

6. It is unusual to see Joan awake early in the morning.

7. If you know how, it is easy to float in water for a long time.

8. Mastering a second language takes time and patience.

9. Driving to Atlanta will take us ten hours.

10. It takes courage to dive into the sea from a high cliff.

VI. Match columns A and В to make sentences: eg It's not easy for old people to climb stairs.

It's not easy for old people

It's quite easy for Dutch people

It's not safe in some cities for women

It's dangerous for inexperienced people

It's not difficult for young children

It can be difficult in a big city


to learn English.

to climb mountains.

to learn languages.

to climb stairs.

to make friends.

to go out alone at night.

VII. Use the given information to complete each sentence. Use for(someone) and an infinitive phrase in each completion.

1. Students should do their homework. It's important... It is important for students to do their homework. 2. Teachers should speak clearly. It's important... 3. We don't have to hurry. There's plenty of time. It isn't necessary... 4. A fish can't live out of water more than a few minutes. It is impossible... 5. Students have to budget their time carefully. It's necessary... 6. A child usually can't sit still for a long time. It's difficult... 7. My family always eats turkey on Thanksgiving Day. It's traditional... 8. People can take vacation trips to the moon. Will it be possible... within the next fifty years? 9.1 usually can't understand Mr Alien. It's hard... He talks too fast. 10.1 can understand our teacher. It's easy... 11. The guests usually wait until the hostess begins to eat. At a formal dinnerparty it's customary... 12. The bride usually feeds the groom the first piece of wedding cake. It's traditional...

VIII. Identify exactly who the speaker is talking about using the phrase for(someone). Add for (someone) to the following sen­tences 'and any other words to give a more specific meaning.

1. It's important to take advanced math courses. It's important for science students to take advanced math courses. 2. It isn't easy to speak Spanish. 3. It's important to learn English. 4. It's unusual to be late. 5. It is essential to get a visa. 6. It is dangerous to play with matches. 7. It's difficult to communicate. 8. It's quite easy to do this exercise. 9. It's useful to go jogging. 10. It must be interesting to study at the Linguistic University. 11. It is necessary to be present.

IX. Student A: Complete the sentence with an infinitive phrase. Student B: Give a sentence with the same meaning by

using a gerund phrase. eg Her ambition is...

A: Her ambition is to become an actress.

B: Her ambition is becoming an actress. 1. My hobby is... 2. Your duty is... 3. His favourite pastime is...4. The main thing to do is... 5. The first thing to do is...6. Her dream is... 7. The only way out was...

Verb + infinitive

I. Robert is talking about the day he bought a second-hand car. Complete Robert's story using the to-infinitive form of the verbs in the boxes.

buy be not like test-drive

"When I got to the garage, I managed to have a quick look at the car before the salesman came out of his office. It seemed... in very good condition and was worth about £1000, although the garage was asking £1400 for it. When the salesman came out, I arranged... the car straight away. The salesman and I got in and we drove off. I liked the car immediately and decided that I wanted... it, but, of course, I didn't say this to the salesman. Instead, I pretended... the car very much."

| try get accept pay |

"When we had finished the test-drive and had pulled up outside the garage, I told the salesman that I couldn't afford... more than £750. The salesman, of course, refused such a miserable little offer. He told me that he expected at least £1200 for the car. I tried offering£800, £850, £875, but he wouldn't change his mind. Then I decided to do something different."

| give be sell accept

"I thanked the salesman politely, said goodbye, got out of the car and started to walk away. It worked! The salesman got out of the car too and hurried after me. He told me that he wanted... fair and was prepared ... a reasonable offer for the car. In the end, he agreed... it to me for £ 1100. He even agreed... me £ 200 for my old car!"

II. Make up short dialogues.

seem/appear/happen/is said/is supposed + infinitive

Mr X has recently come to live in the area, but seems to wish to avoid people. This of course arouses interest and his neighbours

observe him closely. Two of them are talking about him. The first speaker makes confident assertions; the second is more cautious.


A: He wishes to avoid us.

B: Well, he seems to wish to avoid us.

1. is afraid of someone.

2. suspects everyone.

3. distrusts his neighbours.

4. dislikes children.

5. likes dogs.

6. avoids people.

7. reads a lot.

8. prefers to be alone.

9. thinks he is in danger. 10. lives on pills.

1 1 . eats very little.

12. feeds his dogs well.

13. writes a lot of letters.

14. works at night.

15. has plenty of money.

16. knows several languages.

17. takes a lot of photos.

Two people keep a close eye on Mr Smith, who lives opposite. The road is wide and busy so they do not see exactly what is happening, but they have a general idea.

A: He doesn't usually watch television. B: Well, he seems to be watching it today. A: He doesn't usually get letters. B: Well, he seems to be getting some today. He doesn 't usually...

1 . talk to his mother-in-law.

2. help his wife.

3. use the public phone box.

4. try to please his wife.

5. play with the children.

6. bring his wife flowers.

7. take photographs. ,

8. do the shopping.

9. carry his wife's parcels.

10. leave the car at home.

11. let his wife drive.

12. quarrel with his neighbours.

13. walk to work.

14. pay cash.

15. collect the children from school.


Two people are visiting a "stately home" built in the eighteenth " century by a famous duke. One asks questions about the duke, which the other, who has just bought the guide book, does his'best to answer.

A: Was he rich? (very)

(a) B: Yes, he seems to have been very rich.

(b) B: Yes, he appears to have been very rich.

(c) В: Yes, he is said to have been very rich.

(d) B: Yes, he is supposed to have been very rich.

1 . Did he live here? (most of his life) 2. Did he marry? (several times) 3. Did he have children? (a lot of) 4. Did he build any other houses? (several) 5. Did he own (large) estates? (enormous) 6. Did he employ a large staff? (huge) 7. Was he a good landlord? (excellent) 8. Did his tenants like him? (very much) 9. Did he entertain? (lavishly) 10. Did he drink? (heavily) 1 1 . Did he hunt? (when he was a young man) 12. Did he keep racehorses? (all his life) 1 3 . Did they win races? (quite a lot of) 1 4. Did he lose money gambling? (a fortune) 15. Did he sell his other houses? (two of them) 16. Did he quarrel with his neighbours? (some of them) 17. Did he fight duels? (two) 18. Did he kill his opponent? (both times) 19. Did he leave the country? (after the second duel) 20. Did he die abroad? (in Paris)

The first speaker is very suspicious.

A: You asked him the time. Was it part of a plan?

В: No, I just happened to ask him the time.

A: You were looking out of the window when I passed.

Was this part of a plan? B: No, I just happened to be looking out of the window.


1. were in the phone box when I passed. Were you watching me? 2. looked at your watch. Was that a signal of some kind? 3. were sitting by the window when I passed. Were you watching me? 4. were leaning against your gate when I passed. Were you watching me? 5. were waiting for a bus when I passed. Were you watching me? 6. gave him a lift. Was this part of a plan? 7. were standing in your doorway when I passed. Were you watching me? 8. travelled on the same train as Peter. Was that part of a plan? 9. were watering your window-box when I passed. Were you watching me? 10. got out at the same station as Peter. Was this part of a plan? 11. had your tape recorder with you. Was this part of a plan? 12. waved at Jack. Was this a signal? 13. sat at the same table as Jack. Was this part of a plan? 14. were wearing dark glasses when I saw you. Was this part of a plan? 15. and Peter exchanged briefcases. Was this intentional?

III. This time you have to make sentences with seemand appear.

eg Is he waiting for someone? He appears to be waiting

for someone

Has she lost weight? She seems to have lost


1. Is Tom worried about something? He seems...

2. Does Ann like Jack? She appears...

3. Is that man looking for something? He appears...

4. Has the car broken down. It seems...

5. Have they gone out? They appear...

6. Is Dick looking for his gloves? He seems...

7. Have they been sitting here long? They seem...

IV. Read each sentence. Then make two new sentences in the passive, beginning with the words in brackets.

eg People expect that taxes will be reduced soon. (It) (Taxes)

It is expected that taxes will be reduced soon. Taxes are expected to be reduced soon.

1. People say that the monument is over 2000 years old. (It) (The monument)

2. People expect that the president will resign. (It) (The president)

3. People think the fire started at about 8 o'clock. (It) (The fire)

4. Journalists reported that seven people had been injured in the fire.

(It) (Seven people)

5. They say that prices will rise again this month. (It) (Prices)

6. People consider that he is honest and reliable. (It) (He)

7. We suppose that he is an expert in financial matters. (It) (He)

8. People know that this place is famous for its lakes. (It) (This place)

V. Read each sentence. Then make a new sentence with be+ supposed to,as in the example.

eg People say that Whitby is a very nice town. Whitby is supposed to be a very nice town.

1. People say that the new film is very exiting.

2. People say that those cars are rather unreliable.

3. People say that he moved to New York last year.

4. People say that the new restaurant is very expensive.

5. People say that the concert was very good.

VI. Sylvia is supposed to be home by eight о 'clock every evening. Which of the following things are you (not) supposed to do? Say your answers.

eg I am supposed to tell my parents the truth.

eg I am not supposed to park my bicycle in the living-room.

tell your parents the truth

park your bicycle in the living-room

help at home sometimes

tell your parents where you are going every time you go out

be punctual for meals

sit at table in silence during meals

stay out all night without permission

stay in bed until lunchtime at weekends

wear dirty shoes inside the house

play loud music late at night

go everywhere with your parents

VII. Make up short dialogues.

would like + perfect infinitive, wanted+ present infinitive

A: Did you see the castle?

(a) B: No, I would like to have seen it* but there wasn't time.

(b) B: No, I wanted to see it but there wasn't time.

* Note: Would have liked to see it and would have liked to have seen it are also possible forms. Did you...

1. ring Peter?

2. talk to the students?

3. attend the conference?

4. try the beer?

5. watch the match?

6. visit the museum?

7. see the zoo?

8. walk round the town?

9. meet your friends?

10. look at the old bridge?

11. climb to the top of the monument?

12. have coffee? (Answer with some.)

13. make a sketch? (Answer with one.)

14. take any photographs? (some)

15. hire a boat? (one)

16. send any postcards? (some)


17. buy any souvenirs? (some)

18. listen to the town band?

19. paint any pictures? (some)

remember/forget + infinitive

Ann's bad memory saves her a lot of trouble.

(a) A: I locked the safe. Ann had forgotten. B: Oh, Ann never remembers to lock it.

or B: Oh, Ann always forgets to lock it.

(b) A: I took down the old notices. Ann had forgotten. B: Oh, Ann never remembers to take them down.


B: Oh, Ann always forgets to take them down. (Notice word order.)

I... Ann had forgotten.

1. turned out the lights. (See (b) above.)

2. switched off the TV. (See (b) above.)

3. shut the lift doors.

4. paid the milkman.

5. took the milk in. (See (b) above.)

6. washed the coffee cups.

7. made coffee.

8. swept the floor.

9. dusted the desks.

10. put up the new notices. (See (b) above.)

11. watered the pot plants.

12. thanked the office cleaners.

13. put out the rubbish. (See (b) above.)

14. stamped the letters.

15. bought the biscuits.

16. covered the typewriters.

17. locked the office.

Verb + question word + infinitive

Complete the sentences using the most suitable words in the box.

what/do how/get

how/make whether/stay

what/wear how/spell

eg Could you tell me how to get to Western Road, please?" "Yes. Go down this road and it's second on the left."

1. "Have you decided... to the interview?" "Yes, I'm going to wear my new blue suit." 2. Could you tell me... you name please? 3. "What are you going to do this evening?" "I can't decide... at home or go out." 4. Do you know... a Spanish omelette? 5. 1 felt very embarrassed when she started shouting. I didn't know..., so I just stood there.

Verb + object + infinitive

I. Complete these sentences using an object + to-infinitive after the verbs.

1. Take out a loan. My bank manager advised me to take out a loan. 2. She didn't peel the potatoes. You didn't tell... 3. We work hard. Our teacher taught... 4. The soldiers fired. The officer ordered... 5. The public should not approach this man. The police have warned... 6. My wife and I play tennis. My boss invited... 7. You may take my car. He allowed... 8. At first I didn't want to play but Jack persuaded me. Jack persuaded... 9. You should tell the police about the accident. She advised... 10. Could you please post this letter? She asked... 11. Don't forget to buy some sugar. She reminded...

II. Make up short dialogues.

make + object + infinitive without to

(a) A: He told Ann, I hope. (b) He put on his gloves,

I hope. B: Yes, I made him tell her. Yes, I made him put

(а) Не... I hope.

1. apologized

2. explained

3. paid the bill

4. wrote to the Smiths

5. cleaned the bath

6. took the medicine

7. reported the accident

8. waited for Ann

9. rang his parents

10. finished the book

11. answered the letter

12. made his bed

13. cleaned his shoes

14. wore his best suit

15. insured his house

16. did his exercises

them on.

(b) He... I hope.

1. hung up his coat

2. turned down the radio

3. shaved off his beard

4. took back the books

5. rang up Jane

6. took down the notice

7. rolled up the carpet

8. locked up the papers

9. threw away his old boots

10. filled up the form

11. looked up the time of the train

12. switched off the central heating

13. paid back the money

14. put away his tools

15. put on his raincoat

16. took off his coat

let + object + infinitive without to, to be allowed + to-infinitive

The Smiths and their two boys and the Browns and their two girls went to the same holiday resort but at different times. Afterwards the boys and the girls compare their holidays. The boys had a much more interesting time! The boys speak first.

(a) Active: A: We went rock climbing.

B: Our parents didn't let us go rock-climbing.

(b) Passive: A: We ran about without shoes.

B: We weren't allowed to run about without shoes, (stress on we and allowed)


1. ran about without shoes.

2. slept in the garden.

3. practised parachuting.

4. played water polo.

5. sailed round the island.

6. water skied.

7. had bicycle races on the sand.

8. canoed down the river.

9. climbed the cliffs.

10. went surfing.

11. rode Peter's pony.

12. explored the caves.

13. learnt how to dive.

would prefer + object + infinitive

A: Shall I phone Tom tomorrow? B: I'd prefer you to phone him today.

Shall I... tomorrow'''

1. phone Bill

2. bring my friends

3. speak to James

4. sweep the stairs

5. begin

6. pay the milk bill

7. come

8. leave

9. go to the library

10. read the instructions

11. take the books back

12. burn the rubbish

13. get the new programme

14. write to the Smiths

15. buy your season ticket

16. make the arrangements

would like/want + object + infinitive

a) A: Would you like to make a speech9

B: No, I'd like you to make a speech, (stress on you) (b) A: Do you want to make speech?

B: No, I want you to make a speech, (stress on you)

(a) Would you like to... (b) Do you want to...

1. lead the deputation?

2. pick the team*?

3. receive the mayor1?

4. speak first?

5. introduce the speakers

6. sign the cheque

7. witness Tom's signature?

8. engage the extra staff?

9. attend the conference?

10. give a talk?

11. meet the president?

12. make the arrangements?

13. answer the queries?

14. choose the colours?

15. fix a date?

16. organize the reception?

17. open the champagne?

doesn 't/didn 't want + object + infinitive

Ann is a young married woman with a lot of time on her hands. Two of her friends think that she would be happier if she had an occupation or hobby. Unfortunately her husband doesn't seem to share their views.

(a) A: Have you suggested going to evening classes?

B: Yes, but apparently her husband doesn't want her to go to evening classes, (stress on want)


A: Did you suggest going to evening classes? B: Yes, but apparently her husband didn't want her to go

to evening classes. Have you suggested.... Did you suggest....

1. painting?

2. riding?

3. working in the garden?

4. taking a driving test?

5. making friends with her neighbours?

6. inviting her mother to stay?

7. getting a part-time job? ' '

8. hiring a typewriter?

9. joining a drama club?

10. acting in a play?

11. singing in the choir?

12. buying a dog?

13. helping at the old people's club?

14. studying Russian?

15. learning judo?

16. attending keep-fit classes?

17. going to art lectures?

18. taking a course in vegetarian cooking?

19. redecorating the house?

20. training as a tourist guide?

III. Paraphrase these sentences using a to-infinitive instead of that

eg People know that he is an honest man. People know him to be an honest man.

1. I believe that she is guilty. 2. I found that the job was too difficult. 3.1 know that she has an interest in the company. 4.1 imagine that he works very hard. 5. The teacher considered that my answer was inadequate. 6.1 felt that it was true. 7.1 suppose that the matter is urgent. 8.1 think he is a bore.

Infinitive of purpose

I. Where did you go yesterday, and why did you go to each place?

1. Chemist's

2. Post Office

3. Cinema

4. Hairdresser's

5. Car Rental Agency

6. Park

Make sentences using "I went to the (place) to... " and the words in the box.

eg I went to the chemist's to buy some medicine.







a haircut


a film

some letters

a car

some medicine

II. Join each idea in A with an idea from B. Make sentences using (i) in order (not) to,and (ii) so as (not) to.

eg (i) He drank lots of black coffee in order to keep awake, (ii) He drank lots of black coffee so as to keep awake.


1. He drank lots of black coffee

2.1 often write things down

3. She took an umbrella

4. We'll use the computer 5.1 want to pass the exams 6. We turned down the music


disturb the neighbours

save time

get a better job

forget them

keep awake

get wet

III. Join the sentences with in order to,or so (that).

I. I'll give you my telephone number. You can phone me at work. 2. Take some suntan cream. Then you won't get sunburnt. 3. I'm going to the post office. I want to post a parcel. 4. We are organizing a "Fun Run". We want to raise money for the local hospital. 5. They took the phone off the hook. Nobody could phone them. 6. Speak louder. Then Granny can hear you. 7. Turn the sound down. I don't want you to disturb the neighbours. 8. We are installing solar (солнечный) heating. We want to save energy.

IV. In pairs, think of five good reasons why you are learning English.

Noun/pronoun + infinitive

I. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive.

eg He gave me a passage which I was to look through. He gave me a passage to look through.

1. There are still a lot of things which must be packed. 2. There are so many letters that must be answered. 3. I have no money which I can spend. 4. There is nothing which we might record now. 5. There is nothing you should worry about. 6. Here is a list of medicines which are to be sold without a prescription. 7. He is not the man you can rely on. 8. A good housewife will always find something that must be done about the house. 9. He is not the man who can be easily impressed. 10. The next patient who was examined was my brother. 11. There was nothing that might keep him at home that night, and he gladly accepted the invitation. 12. She had no one who could take care of her. 13. We've got no time that we can lose.

II. Respond using what a/an+ adjective + noun + infinitive.

A: He lives in a cave, (funny place) B: What a funny place to live!


1. parked outside the police station, (silly place)

2. travels by donkey, (slow way)

3. said, "mind your own business." (rude thing)

4. sleeps in his car. (uncomfortable place)

5. makes money by telling fortunes, (interesting way)

6. swims at night, (odd time)

7. plays golf on his flat roof, (strange place)

8. makes all his important decisions in the lift, (extraordinary place)

9. lives on brown rice, (odd thing) (Keep on)

10. cooks in his bathroom, (queer place)

11. rings up his friends at 6 a.m. (inconvenient time)

12. relaxes by standing on his head, (odd way)

13. reads the telephone directory, (strange thing)

14. gets up at 4 a.m. (unpleasant time)

15. has a holiday in June, (agreeable time)

16. drives a Rolls Royce. (expensive car)

III. Paraphrase the following using a noun instead of the verb in bold type with the infinitive as attribute, make all other necessary changes.

eg He offeredto help us but we refused. — We refused his of­fer to help us.

I don't wantto change my mind. — I have no desire to chan­ge my mind.

1.1 was surprised that he refusedto go there. 2. We did not know that they plannedto leave soon. 3. They demandto be regularly informed, and you will have to comply with it. 4. I remember you promisednot to talk of it. 5.1 told him that I was firmly determinedto find out the truth. 6. He was permittedto leave. 7.1 don't intendto do anything about it. 8, They repeatedly attemptedto stage the experiment. 9. He did not wish to let you down. 10. The trainer instructedthe cyclists to examine their bicycles before the competition. 11. He consentedto fill up the vacancy.

Adjective + infinitive

be + horrified/glad/surprised/amazed/ relieved etc. + infinitive

I. Paraphrase using the infinitive.

eg A: I saw smoke coming under the door, (horrified) B: I was horrified to see smoke coming under the door. 1.1 heard cries of pain coming from the next room, (horrified) 2.1 saw a photograph of myself on the front page, (asto­nished) 3.1 found a complete stranger taking food out of my fridge.


4.1 saw that the beds had been made, (glad) 5.1 received an invitation to the palace, (delighted) 6.1 found that no preparations had been made, (surprised) 7.1 heard that the last train had just left, (dismayed) 8.1 found everyone still in bed at eleven o'clock, (shocked) 9.1 found the last bus still standing there, (relieved) 10.1 heard that you can't come skiing after all. (disappointed) 11.1 learnt that no room had been reserved for me. (annoyed) 12. 1 saw that most of the town had been destroyed by the

explosion, (shocked)

13. I heard that the plane had crashed, (horrified)

14.1 heard that my brother was safe, (relieved)

15.1 found that I could make myself understood, (pleased)

16.1 saw that I had passed the exam, (glad)

17.1 found my name at the very bottom of the list, (sorry)

181 heard that I could have every weekend off. (delighted)

it is/was + adjective + of+ object + infinitive

II. Respond to the following statements.

A: He warned me. (kind)

B: It was kind of him to warn you.

1. They waited for me. (good) 2. He lent Ann his bicycle, (kind) 3. She believed him. (stupid) 4. They invited me. (nice) 5. She told the police, (sensible) 6.1 found the way. (clever) (Use you) 7. She left her car unlocked, (careless) 8. He had another drink, (foolish) 9. She argued with the customs officer, (stupid) 10. He refused to share his sandwiches, (selfish) 11. They ran away, (cowardly) 12. He kept the money, (dishonest) 13. He took the only cream cake, (greedy) 14. She jumped into the river to save the child, (brave) 15. He offered to pay. (generous) 16. He said I wasn't any use. (unkind) 17. He told lies about me. (wicked) 18. He admitted he was wrong, (courageous)

too + adjective + infinitive, adjective + enough + infinitive

III. Respond to the following statements.

A: You sat on the grass, I suppose? (wet/dry) (a)B: No, it was too wet to sit on.


No, it was too wet for us to sit on. b) B: Yes, it was dry enough to sit on.

Yes, it was dry enough for us to sit on.

... I suppose?

1. You slept in the cave, (wet/dry) 2. He walked on the ice, (thin/ thick) 3. You ate the apple, (sour/sweet) 4. He wore his

blue suit, (shabby/smart) 5. The plane landed on the sand, (soft/ hard) 6. You drank the coffee, (hot/cool) 7. He picked the fruit, (unripe/ripe) 8. You took out the (electric light) bulb, (hot/cool) 9. She read by the light of the moon, (dim/bright) 10. You used yesterday's milk, (sour/fresh) 11. He dived from the pier, (high/ low) 12. She handed in her exercise, (untidy/tidy) 13. You swam in the river, (polluted/clean). 14. He stood on the table, (unsteady/ steady) 15. You put your umbrella in your suitcase, (long/short) 16. He put the trunk in the boot of the car, (big/small) 17. She dived into the pond, (shallow/deep) 18. You sat on the floor, (dirty/ clean) 19. He picked up the sack of potatoes, (heavy/light)

This book is hard to get

IV. Agree or disagree with the following.

eg — John is a bad-tempered man. (deal with)

— I don't agree with you. He is very pleasant to deal with. eg — This is a very rare stamp.

— Quite so. It is so hard to get.

1. The novel is boring, (read) 2. She is a charming little creature, (look at) 3. He is a shallow man. (deal with) 4. She is good at dancing, I must say. (dance with) 5. My friend looks altogether a new girl after the trip, (recognize) 6. Jane is a very clever girl, (talk to) 7. The passage is too long, (learn by heart) 8. She is a good-natured girl, (please) 9. The bicycle is broken, (repair)

find it easy + infinitive

V. Make up short dialogues using the prompts, (i) Prompt: open the windows

(a) A: Do you have difficulty (in) opening the windows?

(b) B: No, I find it quite easy to open them.

(c) B: No, I find them quite easy to open.

Note: I find it easy to open them implies that the speaker has the necessary skill. I find them easy to open implies that it is easy to open them.

The hall porter of a block of flats is answering questions

1. regulate the central heating

2. organize the cleaning

3. control the cleaning staff

4. remember the tenants' names

5. answer telephone enquiries

6. deal with complaints

7. understand foreign tenants

8. operate the switchboard

9. read the meters

10. get on with the tenants

He was the first to come

VI. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive.

eg He was the first who came. He was the first to come.

1. Kate was the last who saw him. 2. He was the first who broke the silence. 3. He was the first who answered at the examination. 4.1 wonder who left the office last. 5.1 wonder who spoke at the meeting first. 6. You will answer next. 7. She was the first who praised him. 8. He complained that he was always the last who was informed. 9. He found that he was the only one who realized the danger. 10. Andrew was the third who went in for the interview. 11. The first person who entered was Mrs Evans. 12. If there is a vacancy I would like to be the one who will be offered the job.

VII. Make up sentences usinglikely, certainand sure + infinitive.

eg He is likely to arrive before dawn, eg He is sure to marry her. eg She is certain to get a scholarship, eg He is not likely to come.

see + object + -ing, or see + object + infinitive without to

Make up short dialogues.

A: (with a note of doubt in his/her voice) Did he pay the bill?

(a) B: Well, I didn't actually see him paying it.

(b) B: Well, I didn't actually see him pay it.

Did he...

1. sign the cheque?

2. lock the door?

3. take the key?

4. read the instructions?

5. use the photocopier?

6. weigh the parcel?

7. post the letter?

8. burn the photographs?

9. copy the documents?

10. swallow the tablet?

11. drink the coffee?

12. cut the telephone cable?

13. open the safe?

14. take the money?

hear + object + -ing, or hear + object + infinitive without to

A: Are you sure Tom left?

(a) B: Yes, I heard him leaving.

(b) B: Yes, I heard him leave.

Are you sure...

1. Tom booked the tickets?

2. Jack invited Mrs Jones?

3. Mrs Jones accepted the invitation?

4. Mary told her husband?

5. the lift door shut?

6. Peter wound the clock?

7. the bell rang?

8. they accused Bill?

9. the bus stopped?

10. the ice cracked?

11. George spoke to Mary?

12. the passengers shouted at the driver?

13. the driver apologized?

14. Ann asked for the keys?

15. Peter complained about the delay?

16. the students laughed?

17. they opened the champagne?

Would rather

I. Answer these questions usingl'd prefer... or I'd rather...Use

the words in brackets for your answers.

eg Shall we walk? (prefer/go by car) — I'd prefer to go by car. Shall we eat now (rather/eat a bit later) — I'd rather eat a bit later.

1. Shall we play tennis? (prefer/go for a swim)

2. Shall we watch television (rather/read a book)

3. Shall we leave now? (rather/wait for a few minutes)

4. Shall we go to a restaurant? (prefer/eat at home)

5. Shall we decide now? (rather/think about it for a while)

П. Now you have to make sentences using I'd prefer... rather than...or I'd rather... than...

eg (walk/go by car) I'd rather walk than go by car.

(stay at home/go to the cinema) I'd prefer to stay at home rather than go to the cinema

1. (go for a swim/play tennis) I'd rather...

2. (read a book/watch television) I'd prefer...

3. (wait for a few minutes/leave now) I'd prefer...

4. (eat at home/go to a restaurant) I'd rather...

5. (think about it for a while/decide now) I'd prefer...

Had better

Read each sentence and make up a sentence with had You're going out for a walk with Tom. You think you should take an umbrella because it might rain. What do you say to Tom?

We'd better take an umbrella.

eg Tom doesn't look very well. You don't think he should go to work today. What do you say to Tom? You'd better not go to work today.

1. Ann suddenly begins to feel ill. You think she should sit down. What do you say to her?

2. You and Tom are going to the theatre. You've just missed the bus. You think you should take a taxi. What do you say to Tom? We...

3. Ann wants to play the piano late at night. You know that she'll wake up the people next door. What do you say to Ann?

4. You and Ann are going to a restaurant for a meal. You think you should reserve a table because the restaurant might be crowded. What do you say to Ann?

5. Tom has just cut himself. You think he should put a plaster on the cut. What do you say to him?

6. You are by a river. It's a very warm day and your friend suggests going for a swim. You don't think you should do this because the river looks very dirty. What do you say?

Uncompleted infinitives

(a) I've never met Rita but I'd like to.

In (a): I'd like to — an uncompleted infinitive;

I'd like to meet Rita — the understood completion.

Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use any appropriate tense, discuss the understood meaning of the uncompleted infinitives.

1. A: Why didn't you go to the concert?

B: I (want, not) I didn't want to.

2.1 haven't written to my parents yet this week, but I (intend). 3. Did Jane enjoy the play? — She (seem). 4. I'd like to buy fresh flowers for my desk every day, but I can't (afford). 5. I've never eaten at that restaurant, but I (would like). 6. Want to go to the jazz festival with us tomorrow night? — I (would love). 7. Are you going to the historical society meeting? — Yes, I (plan). And you? 8. Oh!

I'm sorry I closed the door in your face! I (mean, not). 9.1 don't play with toys any more but I (use). 9. Have you called Jennifer yet? — That's the fourth time you've asked me. I (be going)! I (be going)! Don't be a nag! 10. Tina doesn't feel like going to the meeting, but she (have) 11. Are you planning to go to the market?— No, but I suppose I (ought). 12. Why didn't you pay the bill for him? — I (offer) but he refused. 13. Why didn't you hit him? — I (be afraid). 14. Why doesn't he try again? — He (want, not).

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