Read, translate and discuss the text
MODULE I. LIVING IN HARMONY WITH THE WORLD
WEEK 1. “Health is the first wealth”
1.Text “Healthy way of life”
Read, translate and discuss the text
Text “Healthy way of life”
Scientists say that in the future people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and better medical care the average person will live to 90 or 100 instead of 70 and 75 like today. When the human genome is decoded, we'll probably live up to 150. Incurable diseases will be cured and "bad" genes replaced. But that's tomorrow. And today, we continue to stuff ourselves with fast food — chips and pizzas, hamburgers and hot dogs. We are always in a hurry. We have no time to enjoy a home-cooked dinner with family and friends.
We want to eat now and we want to eat fast. What is tasty is not always healthy. Doctors say that chips and pizzas are fattening, cola spoils our teeth and coffee shortens our lives. If we eat too much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to heart disease, diabetes and other serious illnesses.
But the world today is getting fatter and fatter. America is the world's leader in obesity, but Europe is quickly catching up. Lack of exercise is another serious problem. We spend hours in front of our computers and TV-sets. Few of us do morning exercises. We walk less, because we prefer to use cars or public transport. Research shows, however, that young people who don't take enough exercise often suffer from heart attacks.
It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Cigarette-smoking, for example, kills about 3 million people every year. Many of them die from lung cancer. Some aren't even smokers. They are people who live or work with heavy smokers. Yet many young people smoke and drink. Why? One answer is that tobacco and drinks companies invest enormous sums of money in advertising their products. For them cigarettes and alcoholic drinks mean money. For us they mean disease and even death.
We all know that the healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the longer we live. So why not take care of ourselves?
2) Grammar: MODAL VERBS
Modal verbsare used to show the speaker’s attitude toward the action or state indicated by the infinitive, i. e. they show that the action indicated by the infinitive is considered as possible, impossible, probable, improbable, obligatory, necessary, advisable, doubtful or uncertain, etc. The modal verbs are: can (could), may (might), must, should, ought, shall, will, would, need, dare. The modal expressions to be + Infinitive and to have+ Infinitive also belong here.
Modal verbs are called defective because all of them (except dare and need) lack verbals and analytical forms (i. e. compound tenses, analytical forms of the Subjunctive Mood, the Passive Voice). Besides they do not take ‑s in the third person singular. They also have the following peculiarities:
(1) All of them (except ought and sometimes dare and need) are followed by the infinitive without the particle to.
(2) All of them (except dare and need) form the negative and the interrogative form without the auxiliary do.
(3) All the modal verbs have two negative forms — a full one and a contracted one:
should not — shouldn’t
may not — mayn’t
must not — mustn’t
need not — needn’t
dare not — daren’t
The verb can has two forms: can for the Present Tense and could for the Past Tense; the expression to be able which has the same meaning can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb can.
“I can’texplain it,” said Therese. “I can’texplain anything I did today.” He jumped as high as ever he could.(Galsworthy). How weakened she was Ihad not been ableto imagine until I saw her at the railway station in Chinkiatig. (Buck)
Can expresses ability or capability, possibility, incredulity or doubt, astonishment.
1. Physical or mental ability.
Cousin Val can’twalk much, you know, but he canride perfectly. He’s going to show me the gallops. (Galsworthy). I don’t know what Captain Loomis was doing there, but you canguess — it was about Thorpe. (Heym)
In this meaning it can be used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.
(a) due to circumstances:
Icouldnot go to the theatre yesterday because I was busy.
“CanI have a cup of tea, Miss?” she asked. But the waitress went on doing her hair. “Oh,” she sang, “we’re not open yet.” (Mansfield)
(Here the speaker does not ask the waitress’s permission to have a cup of tea but she merely wants to know whether the place is open and whether she can have a cup of tea.)
You canhave the book when I have finished it. “CanI see him?” Yates asked, not very hopefully. “I’m sorry, no,” the voice was hesitant. “We don’t want him disturbed.” (Heym)
CanI have my photo taken?
In the last three sentences can comes close to may expressing permission, but it does not so much indicate possibility depending upon the will of the person addressed (which is the essence of permission) as possibility depending on circumstances.
“Well, I’ll just wait a moment, if I may.” “You can’twait in the waiting-room, Miss. I haven’t done it yet.” (Mansfield)
(b) due to the existing laws:
The more she studied, the less sure she became, till idly turning the pages, she came to Scotland. People couldbe married there without any of this nonsense.
Every Soviet citizen canget medical treatment free of charge. You cannotplay football in the street (i. e. you have no right).
Can expressing possibility is used with the Indefinite Infinitive only.
Could you give us a consultation tomorrow?
3. Incredulity, doubt, astonishment (they are closely connected).
In these meanings can is used with all the forms of the Infinitive in interrogative and negative sentences, though astonishment is expressed only in interrogative sentences.
No wonder her father had hidden that photograph... But couldhe hate Jon’s mother and yet keep her photograph? (Galsworthy)
He удивительно, что ее отец спрятал эту фотографию... Но неужели он мог ненавидеть мать Джона и все-таки хранить ее фотографию?
“That is not true!” exclaimed Linton, rising in agitation. “It cannotbe; it is incredible, it cannotbe.” «Это неправда, — воскликнул Линтон, вскакивая в волнении. — Не может этого быть, это невероятно, не может этого быть».
Canshe be waiting for us? Может ли быть, что она нас ждет?
She cannotbe waiting for us. He может быть, чтобы она нас ждала. Неужели она нас ждет?
Can (could)she have said that? Да неужели она это сказала?
There couldnot have been such relentless unforgiveness. He может быть, чтобы человек мог так жестоко не прощать.“Oh!” cried Fleur. “You couldnot have done it.” «О, — вскричала Флер, — не может быть, чтобы вы это сделали».
Canshe have been waiting for us all the time? Может ли быть, что она нас все это время ждет?She can’thave been waiting for us all the time. He может быть, что она нас все это время ждет.
Confusion came on Jon’s spirit. How couldshe say such things, just as they were going to part?
Джон был озадачен.. Как она может говорить так в тот момент, когда они собираются расстаться?
What couldshe have seen in that fellow Bosinney to send her mad? (Galsworthy)
Что же она нашла в этом Босини, чтобы так сходить с ума по нем?
B r e t t. They saw us. I hope they didn’t recognize us.
G e n e v r a. The car was going too fast. They couldn’thave seen us.
In the last two examples we can easily replace could by can without any change of meaning.
Could with the Perfect Infinitive has almost the same meaning as can with the Perfect Infinitive, only the negation is not so categoric as with can.
The verb may has two forms: may for the Present Tense and might for the Past Tense. The expressions to be allowed and to be permitted, which have the same meaning, can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb may.
“MayI come along?” asked Karen. (Heym). Jolyor thought he mightnot have the chance of saying it after. (Galsworthy). You are to stay in bed until you are allowedto get up.
May expresses permission, uncertainty, possibility, reproach.
“MayI use your phone?” At any rate she murmured something to the effect that he mightstay if he wished. As has been mentioned, can also often expresses permission but of a different kind:
e. g. You maytake the book means that the speaker gives the permission; You cantake the book means that there are no conditions that prevent the person from taking the book.
May expressing permission is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive. Here we must observe the difference in the expression of permission and prohibition.
Whereas the former is always expressed by may, the latter has other ways of expression besides may not. Very often the negative answer to the question containing a request for permission is don’t or must not.
MayI read the letter? No, don’t,please.
Don’t is less strict than may not, it is rather asking somebody not to do something than actually prohibiting something, which is expressed by may not.
Must not means that it is not the person who prohibits the action, but that there are facts, rules, or circumstances prohibiting it.
You must not smoke so much.
2. Uncertainty as to the fulfillment of an action, state or occurrence, supposition implying doubt. “You maythink you’re very old,” he said, “but you strike me as extremely young.”
«Может быть, вы думаете, что вы очень старая, — сказал он, — но мне вы кажетесь совсем молодой».
She was and remains a riddle to me. She mayand she may notprove to be a riddle to you.
Она была и остается загадкой для меня. Может быть, она окажется загадкой и для вас, а может быть, и нет.
Not which follows may expressing uncertainty is always strongly stressed. Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away, and you feel lonely, you mightlike to come up to these rooms and sit here. (DuMaurlier) Иногда, когда мистер де Винтер уедет и вы почувствуете себя одинокой, вам, может быть, захочется прийти посидеть в этих комнатах.
The last example shows that might denoting uncertainty has no temporal meaning, i. e. it does not express uncertainty referring to the past. Practically speaking there is hardly any difference between may and might in this meaning.
Sometimes might expresses greater reserve or uncertainty on the part of the speaker than may. Might instead of may is often used because of the sequence of tenses.
That was like her — she had no foresight. Still — who knew? — she mightbe right. Это похоже на нее — она не умела смотреть вперед. Все же — кто знает? — может быть, она и права.
Mrs. Page reflected that though Andrew looked hungry he might notbe hard to feed. (Cronin)
Миссис Пейдж подумала, что хотя у Эндрю голодный вид, его, может быть, и не трудно будет прокормить.
May denoting uncertainty is used with all the forms of the infinitive.
A Forsyte mightperhaps still be living in that house, to guard it jealously. It was then that his voice grew tired and his speech impeded. The knowledge that he had entirely lost touch with his audience may have beenthe cause.
Именно тогда в голосе его послышалось утомление и речь его стала прерывистой. Быть может, мысль, что он совершенно потерял контакт с аудиторией, была этому причиной.
How long the silence lasted the Gadfly could not tell; it might have been an instant, or an eternity.
For all I knew, she may have been waiting for hours.
When uncertainty is expressed the time of the action is indicated by the form of the infinitive and not by the form of the modal verb, as both may and might can refer to the present or to the past in accordance with the form of the infinitive. If the action refers to the past, the Perfect Infinitive is used.
3. Possibility due to circumstances.
May is used in this sense only in affirmative sentences. Can is also possible in this meaning.
In this museum you may see some interesting things. You maysee him every morning walking with his dog.
In this meaning it is generally used with the Indefinite Infinitive.
Only might is used in this meaning but not may.
You mightlend me a razor. I was shaved this morning with a sort of bill-hook. (Galsworthy)
When might is used with the Indefinite Infinitive it is rather a request made in the tone of a reproach, as the above example shows. When it is used with the Perfect Infinitive, it expresses reproach. I realize now how you spent your days and why you were so forgetful. You might have told me, you know.
The verb must has only one form. The expressions to have to and to be obliged to, which have the same meaning, can be used to supply the missing tense forms of the verb must.
And now I must go back to my social duties. I felt that I had to have the air. Baring, because of the type of work in which he was engaged, had been obliged to forego making friends. Must expresses obligation, necessity, an urgent command or prohibition, and a supposition bordering on assurance.
1. Obligation, necessity.
(a) due to circumstances (in this meaning it is equivalent to have to and is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive in affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences):
He must write. He must earn money. (London)
This education is indispensable for whatever career you select, and it must not be slipshod or sketchy. (London)
The absence of necessity is expressed by need not:
Must I go there to-morrow? Yes, you must. No, you needn’t.
(b) arising out of the nature of man and consequently inevitable:
All experience tended to show that man mustdie. (Galsworthy)
2. A command, an urgent (emphatic) request or a prohibition. In this meaning it is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.
You must leave the room at once! You must come to see me every vacation. You mustnot speak to a prisoner in a foreign language, madam. (Voynich)
3. Probability or supposition.
Supposition bordering on assurance, almost a conviction. In this meaning must is used with all the forms of the Infinitive in affirmative sentences only. It corresponds to the Russian должно быть. If the action refers to the present the Indefinite Infinitive is used; if the action refers to the past the Perfect Infinitive is used.
Surely, they don’t want me for myself. Then they must want me for something else. (London)
Безусловно, я не нужен им сам по себе. Тогда я, должно быть, нужен им для чего-то другого.
Oh, Мае, think how he must be suffering! Poorman! (Webster)
О, Мэй, подумай только, как он, должно быть, страдает! Бедняга!
What a comfort you must have been to your blessed mother. (Dickens)
Каким утешением ты, должно быть, была для твоей дорогой матушки.
Is she still waiting? She must have been waiting for an hour.
Она все ждет? Должно быть, она ждет уже целый час.
In negative sentences supposition is expressed by means of the modal word evidently.
Evidently, she did not know my address.
Supposition referring to the future cannot be expressed by must. The modal word probably or the modal expression to be likely are to be used instead.
She is not likely to come so late. She will probably come tomorrow.