WEEK 13. National economics of Kazakhstan

1.Text“Our national currency ”

2.Grammar:Conditional sentences (type III)

3.Writing activity

4) Read and translate the following text. Retell it.

“Our national currency”

The tenge (Kazakh: теңге, teñge) is the currency of Kazakhstan. It is divided into 100 tïın (тиын, also transliterated as tiyin or tijin). It was introduced on 15 November 1993 to replace the Soviet ruble at a rate of 1 tenge = 500 rubles.
The word tenge in the Kazakh and most other Turkic languages means a set of scales (cf: the old Uzbek tenga or the Tajik borrowed term tanga). The origin of the word is the Turkic teŋ- which means being equal, balance. The name of this currency is thus similar to the lira, pound and peso. The name of the currency is related to the Russian word for money Russian: деньги / den'gi, which was borrowed from Turkic.
Kazakhstan was one of the last countries of the CIS to introduce a national currency. In 1991 a "special group" of designers was created: Mendybay Alin, Timur Suleymenov, Asimsaly Duzelkhanov and Khayrulla Gabzhalilov. On November 12, 1993, a decree of the President of Kazakhstan, "About introducing national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan", was issued. On November 15, 1993, the tenge was brought into circulation. As such, November 15 is celebrated as the "Day of National Currency of Republic of Kazakhstan". In 1995, a tenge printing factory was opened in Kazakhstan. The first consignment of tenge was printed abroad, in the U.K. The first coins were minted in Germany.

On March 20, 2007 two days before the Nauryz holiday, the National Bank of Kazakhstan approved a graphical symbol for the Tenge. The character was proposed for encoding in Unicode in 2008. In autumn 2006, the National Bank of Kazakhstan organized a competition for the image of Kazakhstan Tenge and received over 30 000 applications. On March 29, 2007, the National Bank of Kazakhstan announced tandem of two designers from Almaty, Vadim Davydenko and Sanzhar Amirkhanov, as winners for the creation of symbol of Kazakhstan Tenge. They shared a prize of 1 million tenge and a title of parents of Kazakhstan Tenge symbol [1]. It resembles the Japanese postal mark.
The national currency of Kazakhstan now has own symbol. Since November 1993
the National Bank of Kazakhstan announced a national competition for the
Creation of a symbol for the tenge which is a national currency. The words “tenge” and “tengry” which mean “heaven” or “deity” are sacred for all Turkic people. The sign stands for the unity of contemporary Kazakh community with their ancient Turkic roots and symbolizes the movement of modern of Kazakhstan people along the path of development and progress.

a) Questionnaire “How much do you know about money?”

1. What is currency of our country?
2. What is currency of the UK?
3. What is currency of the USA?
4. How many countries do use euro?
5. How many tiyns are there in a tenge?
6. How many cents are there in a dollar?
7. How many pence are there in a pound sterling?
8. What do the sighs €, £, $, RR, T, mean?
9. What are coins made of?
10. What are bank notes made of?
11. What is the barter system?

b) True or false:

1. Kazakhstan doesn’t need foreign capital.
2. Kazakhstan is capable of creating a favorite climate for foreign capital and investors.
3. Nowadays is the heyday of the Kazakhstan economy.
4. Kazakhstan is a member of Euro Union.
5. Money is used for buying or selling goods, for exchange and for storing wealth.
6. The rapid integration of a republic into the world economy is most important.

c) Think and find the verbs to the noun “money”

d) Find the right answer:

1. I bought these shoes on sale. They were a real …
A) cheap B) economy C) bargain D) purchase
2. If you put your money in a bank it will earn ten per cent…
A) interest B) profit C) deposit D) investment
3. John asked his parents if they would pay of his …
A) rents B) debts C) accounts D) credits
4. Adults have to pay $ 10 to get in but children under fourteen get in …
A) free B) nothing C) penniless D) open
5. I’m trying to save for many holidays so I’m … some money each week.
A) putting in B) putting aside C) putting behind D) putting up
6. Just a minute! You forgotten to… your cheque!
A) mark B) made C) place D) sign
7. The blackmaikers asked for the money in used …
A) notes B) cheque C) paper D) cash
8. I gave the assistant ten euros and she gave me …
A) rest B) money C) coins D) change

5) Grammar: Conditional sentences (type III)

It isimpossiblethat the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.

Main clause and / or if clause might be negative.

Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.


Conditional Sentences Type III refers to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.

Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.

Check yourself!

Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type III) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional II with would in the main clause.

1. If you (study) for the test, you (pass) it.

2. If you (ask) me, I (help) you.

3. If we (go) to the cinema, we (see) my friend Jacob.

4. If you (speak) English, she (understand) .

5. If they (listen) to me, we (be) home earlier.

6. I (write) you a postcard if I (have) your address.

7. If I (not / break) my leg, I (take part) in the contest.

8. If it (not/ start) to rain, we (walk) to the museum.

9. We (swim) in the sea if there (not / be) so many sharks there.

10. If she (take) the bus, she (not / arrive) on time.

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