Read and translate the text. Nizhny Tagil District in the Period of the Establishment and Reinforcement of
Nizhny Tagil District in the Period of the Establishment and Reinforcement of
the Totalitarian System
In 1929 Stalin put forth the idea of total collectivization and liquidation of the kulaks as a social class. In 1930 it was decided that 300 kulaks farms were to be driven off Tagil district. At the same time 10 train-loads of kulaks dispossessed and driven from the North Caucasus and Kurgan district were taken in to settle in Tagil district. People in exile became the main work force at the construction of giant industrial enterprises such as the Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Plant and the Ural wagon Plant. They took on the hardest jobs possible. In the summer of 1933 Nizhny tagil as well as the Urals suffered a great shortage of food supply as a result of the dispossession of the kulaks. The death rate was higher than the birth rate. There appeared a lot of homeless children at the age from 4 to 11. The life condition and school instruction eventually created «a new type of man». Rudeness, disposition to criminal activities and violence, swearing, hatred for labour, disrespect to parents, on the one hand, and obedience, fear, sneaking of a Soviet citizen.
In the period of 1932-36 Stalin took drastic measures to exterminate all those whom he thought to be his enemies in the party. This process was called «clearing». Nizhny Tagil suffered greatly too. The number of party members reduced significantly, all of them were accused of sabotage and claimed to be «class enemies». 18000 people were expelled from the town party organization, the total number of which had previously been 48000. In 1937 number of arrests was increasing rapidly. How many people were imprisoned or killed, is still unknown.
The Great Patriotic War
The beginning of World War II brought great changes to Nizhny Tagil. Like all industrial cities of the country, Nizhny Tagil had worked for the victory. Its population increased in the first war months from 150 to 500 thousand, as about 40 factories and industrial institutions were evacuated here, their staff immediately beginning to organize production in Nizhny Tagil.
Already in December 1941 the city sent to the front the first trainload of T-34 tanks, which were later acknowledged as the best tank of World War II. Not only did the people of the city work at the factories, there was also a lot of buildings under way. The building was done by the numerous prisoners of Tagillag, part of GULAG. It was they who built a great part of the Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Plant, the Coke plant, the Metal-working plants, the auto-repair factory and many other objects. The prisoners of Tagillag lived in extremely unbearable conditions: cold barracks, lack of food and medical help. The prisoners’ labour cost nothing but the state profited a lot from it. In 1942 there were more than 30 thousand people in Tagillag. They worked 300 days a year. Later on, the heroic labour of the Tagillag prisoners was assigned to Komsomol and Communist party members, which was supposed to reinforce and glorify the ideology of totalitarian regime. Tagillag existed till 1953. It left a wide-spread chain penitentiaries.
Nizhny Tagil District in the Period of the State Socialism Crisis
In 1960ies the explicit Stalin terror was replaced by the hidden terror, concentration camps – by special hospitals, capital punishment – by long terms of imprisonment. Those who were not enthusiastic about «the communist tomorrow» were under suspicion. The largest group which was subject to repression was the so-called dissidents. Nizhny Tagil remained the place of exile and imprisonment. In 1992 the city had 7 penitentiaries.
The city was still growing. From 1946 to 1956 the residential districts of the city, the beautiful buildings of the Palaces of Culture and the Drama Theatre were built.
The enterprises of Nizhny Tagil developed. The new machinery, technologies were being introduced. But the crisis of the State Socialist system was more and more evident. The extreme militarization of the country's economy led to poor living conditions of the population, lack of food and clothing, small low-quality flats.
The Communist party of the Soviet Union had total control of all the sides of life. The Communist ideology spread to every step of education, differently minded people were put to prison or mental homes. By 1985 the necessity of reforms became clear to some of the governors. Michael Gorbachev proclaimed a new course of reforms. In 1987 they adopted the policy of perestroika and glasnost.
Translate the following word combinations.
The hidden terror, concentration camps, to be under suspicion, the residential districts, the extreme militarization, to have total control, начало Второй мировой войны, быть эвакуированным, невыносимые условия, героический труд, идеология тоталитаризма, послать на фронт, great changes, industrial cities, to work for the victory, to organize production, prisoners, a great part of, lack of food.
Answer the questions.
1. What are the characteristic features of a «new type of man» suggested in the text? Do you agree with them?
2. What kind of process was called «clearing»? What were the results of it?
3. What date is considered to be the date of birth of Nizhny Tagil?
4. What measures did the policy of «total collectivization» include?
5. Who were the main workers on the construction sides of the giant industrial enterprises?
6. What other facts, figures and information do you know about the years of the establishment and reinforcements of the totalitarian system?
7. What exact data about the totalitarian regime in Nizhny Tagil are given in the text?
8. Have you ever heard any stories about the life conditions in those years?