Read and translate the text. Among all green old streets of Nizhny Tagil, every spring sweet-smelting of apple trees and lilac in blossom
Among all green old streets of Nizhny Tagil, every spring sweet-smelting of apple trees and lilac in blossom, Tagilskaya street is of special importance. It was one of eight initial streets, marked on the map of Nizhnetagilsky settlement, made in 1734. The origin of it dates back to the time of first Demidov's factory construction. Nowadays this street is one of a few which managed to preserve the characteristic appearance of the Urals past. Walking along it you will feel the specific historical atmosphere of old factory-town.
Tagilskaya is a living illustration of traditional features of old Russian industrial settlements in the Urals, of whom Nizhny Tagil is considered to be the most typical representative. The building process in Nizhnetagilsky settlement, which soon became the centre of a large industrial district, was determined by two principal elements. In the first place it was factory itself, a square in front of it and a huge building of Management Office. This was the heart of the town.
All main streets were leading towards this centre, i. e. to the factory, and their routes were laid depending on purely practical purposes. Thus, for instance, Bolsheradyanskaya street (now – Kirova) connected mines 'of mountain Vysokaya with metallurgical works, while Izvoznaya (now – Cheluskintsev) was used mainly for coal delivery to the blast-furnaces. Dwelling blocks were the second principal element of the settlement building. They were planned out according to the developed system of serf-workers attachment to the factories.
The type of dwelling houses was determined by the traditions of those Russian regions, from where the settlers arrived. Having brought to the Urals their housing traditions, settlers little by little adapted them for the new conditions of life and climate. Usually the new-comers settled in compact groups, forming town-districts known as «parts» or «ends», which were excellently described in D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak's novel «The Three Ends».
The greater part of the first settlers was formed by dissenters from Kerzhensky region of Nizhegorodskaya province – in the Urals and Siberia they were called "kerzhaks". Stern and rigorous people, they worked hard at the construction of Demidov's factory and settled mainly in the district Klyuchi – the «kerzhak centre» of Nizhny Tagil. A bit later people from Tula, Smolensk, Saratov and other Russian provinces arrived. They settled apart from dissenters, forming the district of their own, named Vya or «Tulak end». The development of new mines and discovery of gold, platinum and precious stones deposits caused mass migration of peasants from southern Russia and the Ukraine. The part of Tagil, where they settled, was named Galianka or «khokhol end».
The reverberations of bygone times not so long ago still could be heard in stories told by old people; now they remain in legends and «geographical» names of streets: Tulskaya, Arzamasskaya, Simbirskaya etc. In due course the specific type of dwelling arose in these factory settlements. Usually the dwelling house itself adjoined the covered yard and the shed or barn on its opposite side. From the front the yard was blocked by the main gates and from behind - by the fence with wicket-gate leading to the garden. Each of the three – house, barn and yard – had a roof of its own with parallel ridges. Some of these buildings, construction of which was justified by the severe climate, still can be found in old parts of the city.
Nizhny Tagil was the largest trade and crafts centre in this region of the Urals. Various kinds of home-industries were conditioned by technical innovations in the factories and the specialization of production processes, which released many working hands, as well as by low wages, which induced people to seek additional sources of income. High population density facilitated the rapid development of trade crafts, creating a market for Tagil craftsmen. Many of them were as well selling their products at the great fairs in Irbit, Nizhny Novgorod and even in Bukhara and Persia.
Making jugs of birch bark (so-called «buraks») started here in early 19th century. These jugs, immensely popular throughout Russia, were decorated with traditional ornaments – usually with rhombic, circular and «serpentine» patterns. The technology of ornaments punching here differed from that in other parts of Russia. The painting of buraks was a special branch of home-industry. The most widespread theme of painting, known as «Tagil rosans», is showing three rich-coloured flowers in framing of leaves placed against red or green background. Besides buraks, birch bark was used for baskets and hampers making.
The craftsmen of Troitzko-Alexandrovsk (in the neighbourhood of Nizhny Tagil) became famous as excellent coopers, making not only barrels and tubs, but also things for the factory needs – reservoirs for the drainage machines.
In the end of the 19 – early 20th centuries the chest-making industry, which had been developing since the middle of the 18th century, became the leading among all crafts in Nizhny Tagil. Various kinds of chests, trunks and caskets were always in great demand. The reputation of Tagil coach- and wheel-makers, as well as shoe-makers, also stood very high at that time. The produced goods were only durable and handy – craftsmen tried to make them beautiful and elegant.
The Museum of Native life and Trades expositions show marvellous homespun table-cloths, towels and curtains, weaved and embroidered with skilful hands of Tagil women.
But the most important local crafts were certainly dealing with metals. Those were blacksmith's, fitter's, tool-making, the production of copper-ware, utensils. Special attention must be paid to the Tagil trays. It was the place, where the tradition of Russian painting on metal-ware originated and soon became famous in Russia and far abroad for its peculiar picturesque compositions and unique «chrystal lacquer», very clear and stable.
The exposition of Tagil trays is situated on the territory of the Museum of History and Ethnography, in the former house of serf-painters Khudoyarovs - a typical house of well-to-do craftsmen of the 19th century.