Theoretical basis of life safety.
on Life Safety
Topic 1. Theoretical bases of life safety.
Lesson 1. Theoretical basis of life safety.
|Name of issue||Time|
|1. Subject of discipline "Life safety" and its place in the general system of training.||25'|
|2. Theoretical basis of life safety||15'|
|3. Connection between life safety with fundamental and applied scientific teachings.||20'|
|4. Theory of danger and risk. Analysis of the level of human security in the world today.||20'|
|The final part.||5'|
1. Zaplatynsky V.M. Life safety. Fundamental lecture notes for all specialties. - K. KDTEU, 1999. - 208 p.
2. Bedriy Ya.I., Nechai V.Ya. Life safety. Textbook. - L.: Magnolia-2006, 2007. - 499 p.
3. Zheliba E.P., Zaverukha N.M., Zatsarnyy V.V. Lifes safety. The manual / Ed. Zheliba E.P. 6th ed. - K.: Caravel, 2008. -344 P.
4. Lapin V. Safety of human life. Textbook. - K.: Knowledge, 2007. - 332 p.
5. Law of Ukraine "On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character", 2000
Tasks for homework
1. Study material of lectures.
2. Study examples of hazards and risks in textbooks , , .
3. Study analysis of emergency in Ukraine in 2011 (www.mns.gov.ua).
Topic 1. Theoretical basis of life safety.
Session 1. Theoretical basis of life safety
1. Subject of discipline "Safety" and its place in the general system of training.
2. Theoretical basis of life safety.
3. Connection between life safety with fundamental and applied scientific teachings.
4. Theory of danger and risk. Analysis of the level of human security in the world today.
Task of discipline "Life safety" is a clear understanding of dangerous and harmful factors in the situations that arise in the environment, education and labor rights.
Life safety is a degree of protection of the individual against the dangers of a different nature, where the term "danger" to understand the impact on human factors, which may cause deterioration of her health. The nature of these factors may be related to natural causes (earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis), socio-economic (environmental disasters, infectious diseases, terrorism, war), as well as man-made causes (accidents, disasters, explosions) .
Every year in the country for various reasons deteriorating health more than 2.5 million people, including deadly - more than 75 000 people, or 250 people every day. Number of people killed per 100 000 deaths in our country, almost 9.12 times higher than in developed European countries.
According to the Institute of Economics of NAS of Ukraine, the annual costs due to injuries account for nearly 8.5 billion USD., Or more than 4% of the gross domestic product of Ukraine.
First of all, this is a consequence of serious deficiencies in training both of manufacturing and in educational institutions. Study subject BC in higher educational institutions of Ukraine will be an important step in expanding the vision of the future experts on human security and protection in the process of production and consumer activity in terms of various dangers.
1. Subject of discipline "Life safety" and its place in the general system of training.
Life safety is a branch of scientific knowledge, covering the theory and practice of protecting people from dangerous, danger and damaging factors in all spheres of human activity, and the preservation of health and safety in the habitat. This discipline solves the following main tasks:
· studies methods and means of identification (identification and quantitative evaluation) negative impacts of habitat;
· introduces students to the principles of protection against dangers and prevent exposure of some of the negative factors on a person;
· reveals the essence eliminate the negative effects of dangerous, harmful and damaging factors;
· offers ways to create a normal, ie, a comfortable living environment and of human activities.
The integral indicator of safety of life is life duration. In the early stages of anthropogenesis it was about 25-30 years. Then a man influenced mainly natural danger character of geophysical processes, climatic conditions, low protein diet and others.
The development of civilization, which refers to the progress of science, technology, economy, industrialization of agriculture, the use of different types of energy, create machines, the use of various types of fertilizers and pest control, significantly increases the dangers that affect on people. An important element in human life is its protection against negative influences.
Throughout the existence of the human population, developing the economy and create social and economic security. Therefore, despite the increase in the number of harmful effects, the level of human security increased. Today, the average life duration in most developed countries is about 77 years.
Through the influence of nature, laws which have not yet fully known, creating new technology, people form an artificial habitat - technosphere. If you consider that the moral and general development of civilization behind the pace of scientific and technological progress, it becomes apparent increased risk to the health and life of modern man. According to WHO, for example, deaths from accidents ranked third after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Accidents claim the lives of young, able-bodied people. Injuries are the leading cause of death for people aged 2 to 41 years. Yes, every year in Ukraine in accidents and disasters killed dozens and injured hundreds of thousands. This is associated with an increased risk in all spheres of human activity. The course "Life safety" is designed to help students understand the complex relationships of the human body with the environment. Human impact on the environment, in accordance with the laws of physics, summon the opposition of all its components. The human body is not exposed to these or those influences until they do not exceed the limits of adaptation.
Discipline "Life safety" examines security in everyday life, at work, in the environment, as well as in emergencies in peacetime and wartime.
Life safety is a set of knowledge and rules of behavior, which fosters the health, longevity, disclosing human creativity, provide optimal conditions for the existence of humanity on planet Earth.
Life safety studies danger patterns of their manifestations, methods of prevention and protection from them.
Life safety on the basis of a systematic approach develops the rules of human behavior, as a member of society and citizen of planet Earth; recommendations to prevent negative effects on the environment and emergencies.
The main tasks of discipline "Life safety":
1. Identifying dangers - danger identification with their quantitative characteristics and the coordinates (x, y, z, t).
2. Anticipating manifestation of dangers based on the theory of probability and statistics.
3. Achieving an acceptable level of danger manifestation.
4. Prevention and elimination of negative incidents.
5. Development and systematization of rules of life and activity.
These problems are solved in the management of life ativity in order to achieve a given acceptable level of social security at a particular stage of human development in the system "man - environment" health and high efficiency in all sectors of activity (industrial, domestic, social).
Theoretical basis of life safety.
Each open biological system has a natural ability to retain its settings when you change the environment (stability). So ensure stability (security) of the biological system is a property of all living organisms.
Development of life safety of man in society began with the emergence of consciousness.
Stages of development of scientific concepts of life safety:
Thus, the safety of human life - the most important tasks of human civilization
I. The danger is objectively necessary condition for the development of nature and evolution of mankind.
The risk created by the special properties of material objects, events and information that are incompatible with the characteristics of the person.
1. Any human activity is potentially dangerous.
2. Safety - the state of human activities, which with some certainty exclude the possibility of damage to her health.
3. LS studying phenomena, objects, processes from the perspective of optimizing the parameters of safety.
4. Security management, design rules and recommendations is based on knowledge of the laws, principles and methods of security.
5. Purpose LS - ensure optimal living conditions for each individual and mankind as a whole.