III. Learn the words in the synonymic groups
1. Illness is the state of being ill in body or mind; a particular form of ill health, a period of being ill.
Example: He missed five days at school because of illness.
More than three million people suffer from severe mental illness.
Disease is a particular kind of illness with special symptoms and name, often affects a particular part of the body.
Example: The doctor diagnosed her disease as pneumonia.
Tropical disease. She has a rare lung disease.
Malady (old-fashioned) is usually lasting, sometimes chronic illness, more dangerous than disease, sometimes a fatal one.
Example: Last century tuberculosis was rather a malady, than a disease.
Ailment is a short, temporary, slight disorder of health, a mild illness. Usually this disorder is a chronic one, may be painful or uncomfortable.
Example: A running nose is the most typical ailment of this patient.
Infection is an illness that is caused by bacteria and that doesn’t usually last a long time.
Example: He was off work with a throat infection.
Virus is a very small germ that causes illness, or an illness caused by these things.
Example: The virus is highly contagious.
Condition is an illness or medical problem that affects s.o. for a long time. Example: a serious heart condition.
Disorder (formal) is a situation in which a particular part of s.o.’s body does not operate normally, often causing illness for a long period of time.
Example: a stomach/heart/liver disorder.
Bug (informal) is an illness caused by a virus or bacteria that is not serious and that doesn’t usually last for a long time.
Example: a stomach bug.
Pain refers to suffering of body. It is sharp and sudden.
Ache is a continuous pain.
2. Ill is physically or mentally unwell, unsound, not good, harmful.
Sick is physically or mentally unwell, likely to vomit, feel sick.
Both “ill” and “sick” may be translated as «больной», but “ill” is used as a part of the predicate, while “sick” – as an attribute.
Example: He is ill with pneumonia. He is a sick person.
If “sick” is used as a part of the predicate it means «испытывающий тош-ноту» or «испытывающий скуку и отвращение». To be seasick/airsick.
Example: Give me a tablet, please. I’m somewhat sick.
I’m sick or reading. I’m sick and tired of you.
If ill is used as an attribute, it means «плохой, дурной, злой», its usage is lexically limited. Mostly one can say: ill health/will/humour/temper.
3.To cure means to bring back/to restore to health, to get rid of a disease or a troublesome condition.
Example: In two weeks I was completely cured of the flu.
To treat means to give medical or surgical attention with the aim of curing a person of some disease.
Example: He is being treated of rheumatism.
To treat also means: 1. To act or behave towards a person or thing in a certain way: treated him roughly; treat it as a joke. 2. To present or deal with a subject: recent events are treated in detail. 3. To subject (a substance or thing) to a chemical or other process: to treat the seeds. 4. To entertain a person at one’s own expense; buy, have or allow to have as a treat: treated myself to a taxi. 5. To negotiate terms: treating with their enemies to secure a cease-fire.
To heal is to make healthy after wounds of any kind:
Example: Cuts are healed.
4. (additional)To die: to snuff it/peg out/kick the bucket (to expire) (humorous, informal, sometimes rude) – выдохнуться. To be dead: to be six feet under (informal); to be pushing up the daises – лежать в сырой земле. To pass away: to die (polite, formal) – скончаться; to breathe one’s last (formal, old-fashioned) – испустить последний вздох; to depart this life – покинуть этот бренный мир; to go to meet one’s maker – преставиться; to go the way of all flesh – разделить участь всех смертных (lang. of the church, bookish); to die young; to die a natural death; to meet a violent death – умереть насильственной смертью; to be gravely ill and expected to die – быть смертельно больным; there is no hope for smb./he’s far gone – быть безнадёжно больным; to be no long for this world/to be on one’s deathbed – быть на смертном одре; to have got one foot in the grave – стоять одной ногой в могиле.