Benefits of alternatives to incarceration
There are many benefits of alternatives to incarceration. These benefits can be summarized in four categories: judicial, economic, social, and safety.
In the situation where courts are unable to decide which punishment best fits a specific case, a wide array of sentencing options is the best solution. Without other options, limiting both violent and non-violent, serious and non-serious crimes to the same prison sentence will cause not only turbulence in prison, but dissatisfaction in prisoners. Limiting consequences of crime to only imprisonment may lead to oversimplification of diverse and complicated crimes, resulting in the situation above. For a court to truly be cost-effective, fair, and efficient, other options like rehabilitation may be more favorable. For example, in the case of non-violent cases where an offender has some mental health issue, a mental health court would be a better solution.
It is also possible for alternatives to incarceration to save money and keep government lean. Less restrictions and better costs overall will overcome the cost of offering and managing multiple options, resulting in a leaner, more efficient economic system in total. Spending the full price as an inmate on each offender is more expensive than tailoring options for each separate case.
The majority of adults, eight out of ten, believe that alternatives to incarceration, including systems like probation and community service are more appropriate sentences for nonviolent offenders. In general, the public is inclined towards being more lenient and more helpful for those that do not directly and immediately pose a threat to their communities. A majority believes using an alternative is a better option, which means that any systematic change towards that direction would be well-accepted and approved by citizens. A push for alternatives to incarceration in politics would lead to a more cohesive viewpoint between society and government policy.
Whereas prison does not have focused efforts designed to reform and redirect criminals towards better futures, oftentimes alternatives to incarceration do. A system like a drug court is a more reasonable way to treat certain types of offenders, ensuring that their behavior improves upon their release. Because these systems are designed specifically to reform and improve an individual's mindset, they lead to better results than a prison, which is solely designed to punish an individual's mindset, and remove them from their personal communities. This leads to a safer environment for everyone when these offenders finish their respective sentences and return to society.
Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternatives_to_incarceration
Выполнить практические задания (упражнения) по практикуму «Иностранный язык в правоведении» (файл 8):
- Глава 2. Все задания.
- Глава 6. Упр. 2.
1. Иностранный язык в правоведении: практикум для магистрантов образовательных учреждений ФСИН России / автор-сост. И.А. Пушкарева. – Новокузнецк: ФКОУ ВПО Кузбасский институт ФСИН России, 2015. – Глава 4.
2. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский, русско-английский словарь. 150000 слов и выражений.- М.: Эксмо, 2010. – 1200 с.
3. Collin P.H. Dictionary of Law. 8,000 terms clearly defined. – 4th edition. –Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2004.
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Labour Law in Japan
There are fewer employment laws in Japan than in many Western countries. Few workers are given clear job descriptions or written contracts and it is unusual for an employee to take legal action against his employer. The main law about sexual discrimination simply asks employers to make efforts to reduce discrimination, without imposing clear duties or penalties. However, as in other aspects of Japanese society, it is not clear if the low level of legal activity necessarily means that employees have fewer rights. It certainly seems to be the case that workers have to work very long hours and often do not ask for overtime payment. Despite the current labor shortage, which has encouraged employers to hire women to do more responsible and better paid work than before, very few women enjoy equal employment opportunities. In addition, many jobs remain closed to workers of non-Japanese origin, even those who have lived all their lives in Japan. On the other hand, Japanese workers enjoy more security than many employees in western countries. Once hired, they are unlikely to be dismissed. Insurance benefits and recreational facilities are usually made available to them by their companies, and many workers are able to live in big cities only because their employers provide low-cost accommodation for them.
One legal development in Japan which has yet to spread to western countries is law suits against the employers of workers who had died of karoushi – not a specific accident in the workplace or industrial-related disease, but general stress brought about by overwork. In 1992, the widow of a Mitsui Company employee was awarded ¥30 million in compensation after a court learned that her husband had been spending 103 days a year away from home on stressful business trips before his sudden death.
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