Task V. Mark the statements as T (true) or F (false), correct the false ones.


Machine Building, Extra-mural Department, 2-nd Year

Task I. Read the texts and put the verbs in brackets into the past simple.

Women Inventors

Have you heard of Hedy Lamarr? This movie star 1) _______ (patent) a communication system meant to change radio frequencies to block enemy spies and guide torpedoes. Inventor Mary Anderson 2) _______ (receive) a patent for her car-window cleaning device – windshield wipers – in 1903. 3) _____ you _____ (know) that there 4) _____ (be) a famous woman inventor who 5) _______ (obtain) more than 125 patents? Her name 6) _____ (be) Giuliana Tesoro, and she 7) _______ (help) to make great strides in the field of fiber and textile chemistry. Grace Hopper 8) _______ (deal) with computers long before any of us, helping to build UNIVAC and invent the first compiler. She even 9) _______ (come) up with the term 'bug' after a moth ran amuck in her computer. In the mid-1980s, a twelve-year old girl 10) _______ (develop) an invention that greatly 11) _______ (assist) people who have difficulty communicating. Rachel Zimmerman of Ontario, Canada 12) _______ (create) a software program using Blissymbols: symbols that enable non-speaking people to communicate.

Task II. Make up sentences about important inventions using the passive voice.

Example: Telephone was inventedby Alexander Bell in 1876.

The steam locomotive     … was invented by … … were Alexander Bell (1876)
The pocket calculator Clive Sinclair (1971)
The first pneumatic tyres Thomas Edison (1879)
The World Wide Web John Logie Baird (1926)
The electric light bulbs Nikolaus Otto (1876)
Television John Dunlop (1808)
Telephone George Stephenson (1814)
The four-stroke engine Tim Bernes-Lee (1989)

٭Give your own example of a Russian invention or discovery.

Task III. Match the English words and word combinations from the text below (task IV) with their Russian equivalents.

1) engine A) эффективность
2) ignition B) бензин
3) fuel C) очистка
4) petrol / gasoline D) надежный
5) internal combustion E) тяжелая техника
6) efficiency F) зажигание, воспламенение
7) reliable G) постоянный, стационарный
8) stationary H) двигатель
9) heavy duty machines I) внутреннее сгорание
10) refinement J) топливо

Task IV. Read and translate the text about two main types of engines.

Otto and Diesel cycles

There are two common types of four-stroke engines. They are closely related to each other, but have major differences in design and behavior. The earliest of these is the Otto cycle engine developed in 1876 by Nikolaus August Otto in Cologne, Germany. This engine is most often referred to as a petrol engine or gasoline engine, after the fuel that powers it.

Nikolaus A. Otto built a successful four-stroke engine based on the work of Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. It was the third engine type that Otto developed. It used a sliding flame gateway for ignition of its fuel – a mixture of illuminating gas and air. After 1884, Otto also developed the magneto to create an electrical spark for ignition, which had been unreliable on the Lenoir engine.

The second type of a four-stroke engine is the diesel engine developed in 1893 by Rudolph Diesel, also of Germany. Diesel created his engine to maximize efficiency, which the Otto engine lacked.

During initial development, one of the engines burst nearly killing Diesel. He persisted and finally created an engine in 1893. The high compression engine, which ignites its fuel by the heat of compression is now called the diesel engine whether a four-stroke or two-stroke design.

Today, the internal combustion engine is used in motorcycles, automobiles, boats, trucks, aircraft, ships, heavy duty machinery, and in its original intended use as stationary power both for kinetic and electrical power generation. Diesel engines are found in virtually all heavy duty applications such as trucks, ships, locomotives, power generation, and stationary power. Many of these diesel engines are two-stroke with power ratings up to 78,000 kW.

The four-stroke diesel engine has been used in the majority of heavy duty applications for many decades. Chief among the reasons for this is that it uses a heavy fuel that contains more energy, requires less refinement, and is cheaper to make. The most efficient Otto Cycle engines run near 30% efficiency. The Volkswagen Jetta TDI 1.9 liter engine achieves 46%. It uses an advanced design with turbocharging and direct fuel injection. Some BMW ship diesels with ceramic insulation have exceeded 60% efficiency.

Task V. Mark the statements as T (true) or F (false), correct the false ones.

1) There are many types of four-stroke engines.

2) The earliest is the Otto cycle engine.

3) Otto developed the magneto at the end of the 19th century.

4) Rudolph Diesel invented his engine in 1903.

5) Diesel died during initial development.

6) We can find diesel engines in many heavy duty machines.

7) Heavy fuel is used because it gives more energy, needs less refinement and is cheaper to make.

Наши рекомендации