This theory inspired any number of psychologists in the U.S., most particularly those in social psychology. Among the people he influenced were Muzafer Sherif, Solomon Asch, and Leon Festinger.

Kurt Goldstein

The other person was Kurt Goldstein. Born in 1878, he received his MD from the University of Breslau in 1903. He went to teach at the Neurological Institute of the University of Frankfurt, where he met the founders of Gestalt psychology.

He went to Berlin to be a professor there, and then went on to New York City in 1935. There, he wrote The Organism in 1939, and later Human Nature in the Light of Pathology in 1963. He died in 1965.

Golstein developed a holistic view of brain function, bused on research that showed that people with brain damage learned to use other parts of their brains in com-ptnsation. He extended his holism to the entire organ-iт. and postulated that there was only one drive in hu-man functioning, and coined the term self-actualization. I Itlf preservation, the usual postulated central motive, Кб aid. is actually pathological.

Goldstein and his idea of self-actualization influence (julto н few young personality theorists and therapists.

A ig them would be Gordon Allport, Carl Rogers, and

Ala sham Maslow, founders of the American humanistic г < Imlogy movement.

Unit 7

History of Psychology: The Cognitive Movement

The roots of the cognitive movement are extremely varied: It includes gestalt psychology, behaviorism, even humanism; it has absorbed the ideas of E. C. Tolman, Albert Bandura, and George Kelly; it includes thinkers from linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy, and engineering; and it especially involves specialists in computer technology and the field of artificial intelligence. Let's start by looking at three of the greatest information processing theorists: Norbert Wiener, Alan Turing, and Ludwig von Bertalanffy.

Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener was born November 26, 1894 in Columbia, Missouri. His father was a professor of Slavic languages who wanted more than anything for his son to be a genius. Fortunately, Norbert was up to the task. He was reading by age three, started high school at nine, graduated at 11, got his bachelors at 14, and his masters — from Harvard, — at 17. His received his PhD a year later, in 1913, with a dissertation on mathematical logic.

After graduation, he went to Cambridge to study under Bertrand Russell, and then to the University of Gottingen to study under the famous mathematician David Hilbert. When he returned, he taught at Columbia, Harvard, and Maine University, spent a year as a staff writer for the Encyclopedia Americana, another year as a journalist for the Boston Herald, and (though a pacifist) worked as a mathematician for the army.

Finally, in 1919, he became a professor of mathematics at MIT, where he would stay put until 1960. He married Margaret Engemann in 1926, and they had two daughters.

He began by studying the movement of particles and quantum physics, which led him to develop an interest in information transmission and control mechanisms. While working on the latter, he coined the term cybernetics, from the Greek word for steersman, to refer to any system that has built-in correction mechanisms, i.e. is self-steering. Appropriately, he worked on control mechanisms for the military during World War II.

In 1948, he published Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. In this book, he introduced such terms as input, output, and feedback.

Later, in 1964, he published the book God and Golem, Inc., which he subtitled «a comment on certain points where cybernetics impinges on religion*. He was concerned that someday machines may overtake us, their creators. That same year, he won the National Medal of .' '.dence. A few weeks later, March 18, he died in Stockholm, Sweden.

Alan M. Turing

Alan Turing was born June 23, 1912 in Paddington, London, the second child of Julius Mathison Turing and Bthel Sara Stoney. His parents met while his father and Dl mother's father were serving in Madras, India, as part "I the Civil Service. He and his brother were raised in

Part II

Other people's homes while his parents continued their life in India.

A turning point in his life came when his best friend at Sherborne School, Christopher Marcom, died in 1930. This led him to think about the nature of existence and whether or not it ends at death.

He went to King's College of Cambridge in 1931, where he read books by von Neumann, Russell and Whitehead, Goedel, and so on. He also became involved in the pacifist movement at Cambridge, as well as coming to terms with his homosexuality. He received his degree in 1934, and stayed on for a fellowship in 1935.

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