Fill in the gaps with the words from the box and put them into a proper form
|Application, effectiveness, assistance, store, interact, allocation, intermediary, consider, recognition, access|
1. Resource _______ may be decided by using computer programs applied to a specific domain to automatically and dynamically distribute resources to applicants.
2. Speech ______ is the ability of a machine or programme to identify spoken words and phrases and convert them to a machine-readable format.
3. When electric current is flowing in an inductor, there is energy _______ in the magnetic field.
4. An international committee of experts summarized the existing research on the _______ of treatment for people with such decease.
5. Dennis Ritchie is _______ by many to be a man who made the greatest contribution into the IT development.
6. An _______ programme is a computer programme designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or other activities.
7. While a commercial bank is a typical financial _______, this category also includes other financial institutions such as investment banks, insurance companies, etc..
8. An interface helps a user to _______ with a computer resources, both software and hardware.
9. This search engine gives you _______ to the biggest knowledge base in the world.
10. The creator of the OS states that users provide an incredible _______ by their feedback.
Mark the sentences TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).
1. The first computers were often taking up entire rooms, very expensive to operate, used a great deal of electricity, and generated a lot of heat. __
2. The term Computer science originated in the middle of the 19th century. __
3. The programs in COBOL and FORTRAN could be run on different machines so they were machine independent. __
4. The fourth generation computers became more powerful, but less compact and reliable. __
5. Expert systems can help people make the right decision in a tough environment. __
6. The desktop operating systems are considered to be mobile as well. __
7. Richard Stallman’s goal was to create free software to replace the proprietary UNIX operating system. __
8. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that only opens a circuit. __
9. An assembly language is a high-level programming language for a computer. __
10. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. __
Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Внедрение компьютерных систем помогло сделать научное знание более доступным и распространенным.
2. Постоянное усовершенствование существующих технологий постепенно выводит человечество на новый уровень развития.
3. Универсальные компьютеры способны поддерживать работу нескольких ресурсоемких приложений одновременно.
4. Появление интегральных схем позволило снизить энергопотребление нового поколения компьютеров.
5. Студенты, обучающиеся по специальности «информатика», ежедневно сталкиваются с очередными инновациями в данной сфере.
6. Распознавание письма и речи, сенсорный ввод и прочие свойства постепенно уже стали неотъемлемой частью мобильных операционных систем.
7. Производитель ПО не сможет привлечь новых потребителей, если уязвимости в системе безопасности не буду устранены.
8. Ключевым свойством флэш-карт является энергонезависимость данного типа носителя данных.
9. Новейшая технология, уже завоевавшая популярность по всему миру, позволяет преобразовывать даже самый слабый сигнал.
10. Встроенные технологии облегчают взаимодействие между потребителем и всеми преимуществами «умного» дома.
Unit 7. WORLD WIDE WEB
The World Wide Web (www, W3) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URIs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. It has become known simply as the Web. The World Wide Web is the primary tool billions use to interact on the internet, and it has changed people's lives immeasurably.
British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee is the inventor of the Web. As a CERN employee, Berners-Lee distributed a proposal on 12 March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web. The initial proposal intended a more effective CERN communication system, but Berners-Lee also realized the concept could be implemented throughout the world. Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will. The first website was finished by him in December of that year. The first test was completed around 20 December 1990 and Berners-Lee reported about the project on the newsgroup on the 7-th of August in 1991.
The WWW world consists of documents, and links. Web pages are primarily text documents formatted and annotated with Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In addition to formatted text, web pages may contain images, video, and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Embedded hyperlinks permit users to navigate between web pages. Multiple web pages with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, may be called a website. Website content can largely be provided by the publisher, or interactive where users contribute content or the content depends upon the user or their actions. Websites may be mostly informative, primarily for entertainment, or largely for commercial purposes.
Indexes are special documents which, rather than being read, may be searched. The result of such a search is another ("virtual") document containing links to the documents found. A simple protocol ("HTTP") is used to allow a browser program to request a keyword search by a remote information server.
The web contains documents in many formats. Those documents which are hypertext, (real or virtual) contain links to other documents, or places within documents. All documents, whether real, virtual or indexes, look similar to the reader and are contained within the same addressing scheme.
To follow a link, a reader clicks with a mouse (or types in a number if he or she has no mouse). To search and index, a reader gives keywords (or other search criteria). These are the only operations necessary to access the entire world of data.
Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser, or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of background communication messages to fetch and display the requested page. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing,' (after channel surfing), or 'navigating the Web'.
The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike its predecessors, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages to compose web pages in). The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet. Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet.
Nevertheless, the terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used without much distinction. However, the two things are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the World Wide Web is one of the services transferred over these networks. It is a collection of text documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers, from web servers. The World Wide Web functions as a layer on top of the Internet, helping to make it more functional.
Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot, and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive has become active since 1996, and it is the best known of such efforts.
With years WWW has enlarged a lot. Between 2005 and 2010, the number of web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010. The project started with the philosophy that much academic information should be freely available to anyone. And its aim is fully realized nowadays. The Web is much larger than expected before.
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) — единообразный идентификатор ресурса. URI — это последовательность символов, идентифицирующая абстрактный или физический ресурс. Ранее назывался Universal Resource Identifier — универсальный идентификатор ресурса.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) — единообразный локатор (определитель местонахождения) ресурса. Ранее назывался Universal Resource Locator — универсальный локатор ресурса. URL — это стандартизированный способ записи адреса ресурса в сети Интернет.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) — «протокол передачи гипертекста», т.е. сетевой протокол прикладного уровня для передачи файлов.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) — «язык гипертекстовой разметки» — стандартный язык разметки документов во Всемирной паутине.
CERN (фр. Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (Европейский совет по ядерным исследованиям)) — Европейская организация по ядерным исследованиям, иногда переводится как Европейский Центр ядерных исследований (ЦЕРН).