The composition of petroleum
The composition of petroleum varies from one deposit to another. Some types of petroleum are rich in saturated hydrocarbons (for example, the petroleum in Western Ukraine). Other types of petroleum have a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons (for example, the petroleum in the Urals). Apart from hydrocarbons, petroleum also contains organic compounds. These compounds include oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and other elements. Petroleum also contains high-molecular compounds in the form of resins and asphaltic substances.
Ответьте кратко на вопросы:
1. Does the composition of petroleum vary from one deposit to another?
2. Are some types of petroleum rich in saturated hydrocarbons?
3. Do other types of petroleum have a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons?
4. Does petroleum also contain organic compounds?
5. These compounds include oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, don’t they?
6. Petroleum also contains high-molecular compounds in the form of resins and asphaltic substances, doesn’t it?
17. Выучите диалог:
- What can you tell about the development of petroleum refining, petrochemical industry and biochemical technology?
- It should be noted that petroleum refining and the production of chemical goods are a leading branch of in Russia. It started intensive development in the 1950’s. The introduction the catalytic reforming process solved the problem of upgrading straight-run gasolines, especially those derived from sulfur bearing crudes with simultaneous extraction of hydrogen and individual aromatic hydrocarbons. Development of the petrochemical industry is based on the pyrolyses of straight-run and gas gasoline as well as petroleum. Today we see the development of a new scientific and technological branch – biochemical technology. The combination of biological or microbiological processes with those of direct chemical synthesis helps to obtain new substances of microorganisms.
- I see. And what is the consistent policy of our country in petroleum refining?
- As I can judge the country’s consistent policy is that of comprehensive petroleum refining. Along with the setting up of new processing plants during the past years, many large-scale processing units have been built and put into operation with hydrocarbons as raw materials. This accounts for a multiple increase of output and an expansion of production of many petrochemicals.
- Can you tell me anything about the leading trends of petroleum processing?
- With pleasure. The leading trends of petroleum processing are: maximum specialization of petrochemical plants, maximum concentration of petrochemicals production by integrated units and full automation of control of technological process by modern computers.
- Thank you for the information.
- You are welcome.
18. Английский юмор:
The chemistry professor wrote the formula HNO3 on the blackboard. Then he pointed a finger at the inattentive student and said: “Identify that formula, please”.
“Just a moment”, answered the student, “I’ve got it right on the tip of my tongue, sir”.
“Then”, said the professor softly, “you’d better spit it out. It is nitric acid”.
point – указывать
on the tip of one’s tongue – вертеться на языке
softly – тихо
spit out – выплевывать
nitric acid – азотная кислота