Read and translate the text. SOME FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
SOME FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
The first Nizhny Tagil educational institution was founded in 1806 by the Demidovs. It was Vyisky factory school which gave primary education to its learners and later in 1850 it was transformed into the secondary vocational school in which serf workers got professional training. The school combined in its curriculum general education and vocational training with emphasis on mining and metallurgy. Capable learners were sent to Moscow, Petersburg or abroad – to England, France, Sweden and Germany to learn medicine.
The first school for workers’ children appeared in Nizhny Tagil in 1830. It was a church-parish school for boys only. In 1835-1836 more schools of that type, alongside with some comprehensive schools were opened in our town. Pupils received 3 roubles a year if they learned reading and writing, 4 roubles a year who learned arithmetic, 5 roubles – wood and metalwork, technical drawing, 6 roubles – architecture and mechanics. Besides the money grants they were provided with some food and some outfit. Every pupil got the outfit for the period of 3 years: a caftan, a sheepskin coat, a hat, 2 pairs of boots, 2 shirts and trousers.
In 1853 Anatolyevsk vocational school for girls was founded in Nizhny Tagil. The limited school curriculum for girls included religious knowledge, reading, writing and arithmetic. Originally they were supposed to be trained as professional workers’ wives. In 1867 the school was transformed into a teachers’ training school, where primary school teachers were trained.
The impressive building «in brick style», where the Mining and metallurgy college is situated now, was erected in 1912. It is separated from the main street by a park. The College is the oldest secondary professional (vocational) school in the Urals, the tradition recipient of the 18th century arithmetic school, the Vyisky technical and Mining district schools. Since it was opened in the eighteenth century, the college was supported by the works owners Demidovs. In the course of three centuries the college is famous for its high level of preparing «adepts in different branches of mining and iron making”. The best “technical minds” were invited to teach here. In different times many famous engineers studied in the college – the famous inventors F. I. Shvetsov and E. A. Cherepanov, the academician N. V. Melnikov, doctors of tecnnical science M. G. Novozhilov and A. G. Malahov and many, many others.
Scan through the text again and say in what connection the following figures are mentioned.
1806, 1850, 1830, 1835-1836, 3 roubles, 5 roubles, 3 years, 1853.
Name the different kinds of educational institutions in Nizhny Tagil.
Text 4 NIZHNY TAGIL
1. Learn thewords, phrases and word combinations.
|semiprecious stone||полудрагоценный камень|
|natural resources||природные богатства|
Nizhny Tagil has been included into the register of "historical towns of Russia" for the reasons of its almost three-century history as well as of being one of the oldest mining centres of both home and world metallurgy.
In 1720 according to Peter I the Great’s ukaze the parallel erection of two Demidovs’ works — copper- smelting and cast iron-smelting — commenced. Vyisky works’ setting was held on October 23, 1722. This year is considered as the date of Nizhny Tagil’s foundation.
Nizhny Tagil is situated on the east slope of the Ural mountains, at 20-25 km distance from the conventional Europe-Asia frontier and 200 m above sea-level.
Its geographical co-ordinates are longitude 60 degrees East and latitude 58 degrees North.
According to the geographical position the district may be divided into two zones: the west highland and woodland and the east woodland and meadow land. To the west of the town the chief watershed Ural mountain range with separate hills and ridges is extended from the North to the South. The average height of the mountains is 400-500 m and only a few tops are higher 700 m, such as the mountain Belaya (711m), Starik- stone (753 m), the mountain Shirokaya (761 m). Rocky, steep and abrupt tops — "shikhany" — crowned with rocks" – ostantsy" create the inimitable Middle Ural landscape. To the east of the town the relief is gradually smoothed down and transformed into West-Siberian lowland.
The town is built around Lisya Mountain extinct volcano. This mountain with a watch-tower on its top has become a symbol of the city in 1818. The mountain has also been a traditional place for public feasts and merrymaking for a long time. Lisya Mountain (people also called it «Lysaya», i.e. «bald») is of volcanic origin. It is about 300 m high.
There are hardly any great waterways in the district. The main river Tagil with its numerous tributaries pours into the river Tura integrated into the Ob’-Irtysh river basin.
On many rivers of the district water reservoirs — ponds — have been arranged, the major part of them being erected simultaneously with the works’ building in the XVIII century. The Tagil pond is extended at 16 km distance, its maximum width is 1,5 m, maximum depth is up to 12 m. The district has continental climate.
The district is rich in minerals. The unique deposit of magnetite in the mountain Vysokaya was found in 1696 and was exploited since 1721. The today largest iron ore deposit of the Tagil district is Kachkanar.
In the XIX century in Nizhne-Tagilsky mining district as well as all over the Ural the abundant gold and platinum fields were found. In 1844 in the course of the examination of the platinum fields the professor of the Kazan’ University K. Klaus discovered a new chemical element — ruthenium.
The fields of the mountain Solov’yeva gave a great amount of platinum nuggets, the largest in the world one of 9,6 kg weight among them, at the same place in 1892 the native platinum deposit was discovered.
Together with platinum the favourite Ural semiprecious stone — golden-green garnet-demantoid — was mined. Since the XVII century the state expeditions together with local miners extracted some other Ural gems — amethyst, topaz, heliodor, aquamarine and some others — in the deposits of the famous Murzinka fields of gems. Nowadays pegmatite veins of Murzinka' are being exploited by the geologists of the Neivo- Shaitanka team.
However, the Ural green stone — malachite — the largest deposits of which are in Gumeshevsky mine in the vicinity of Ekaterinburg and in Mednorudyansky mine in Nizhny Tagil has merited the greatest worldwide fame. The mountain Vysokaya was a significant malachite source as well.
Mednorudyansky mine had been exploited since 1814 until 1917 by means of shafts. In 1835 a malachite bed of about 300 tons, including a 40 tons monolithic body, was found in the shaft "Nadyozhnaya". Two parts of this block weighing 300 and 500 tons are contained in the collections of the museum. The aggregate output of minerals for making ornamental articles amounted to about 2000 tons. Mednorudyansky mine quarry (iron ore was mined there in 1970-s) is an object of the excursion tours. The "malachite hall" of the Winter Palace (Zimny Dvorets) and the columns of St.Isaac’s Cathedral in Sankt- Petersburg are faced with Tagil malachite.
Together with the peculiarities of the natural landscape the mining industrial complex had become the leading urban composing factor which determined the direction of the streets and main thoroughfares of Tagil, the general organization of its architectural- spatial environment, that in the total had created the unique and at the same time typical of the Ural flavour of Nizhny Tagil as a "town-works".
Nizhny Tagil is comprised of 3 administrative districts. Its population is about 400 000.