# A few words about engineering subjects

Mathematics is the science of space and quantity, concerned with concrete bodies and collections; it is now recognized to be a vast aggregation of deductions from assumptions about pure abstractions. Mathematics comprises several large branches. The first of these is arithmetic.

Arithmetic is concerned with numbers and numerical calculations. Algebra goes beyond arithmetic by greatly extending the symbolism. In particular, algebra utilizes letters for unknown, or specified, numbers. This makes it possible to deal with known and unknown numbers on an equal footing. A large body of algebra is the theory of equations.

Geometry is a vast field of mathematics with many subdivisions. The basic elements of geometry are points, lines, and planes. More complicated elements, such as triangles, circles, and cubes, are defined in terms of the undefined elements.

Descriptive geometry is as much a branch of mechanical drawing as of mathematics. It is concerned largely with representing three dimensions on a flat surface so that each part is accurately represented. Whether mathematical physics belongs to physics or mathematics is determined by one's viewpoint. It is mathematics applied to physical problems. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity are examples.

Physics is the systematic study of natural phenomena to dibasic laws governing them. Traditionally physics is divided into several major topics, namely, mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics and nuclear physics. Because of the remarkable unity of Nature this separation into topics is, to some extent, artificial and only exists for convenience. Newton's second law, relating force to acceleration, ration, and his third law, relating action and reaction, form the basis of mechanics. Maxwell's equations, which combine in mathematical the laws discovered by Ampere, Coulomb and Faraday, form the basis of electricity and magnetism

and optics.

Mechanics is the oldest branch of physics, dealing with the state of rest or motion of particles and rigid bodies and with forces acting on bodies. The subject has three main branches: statics, dynamics and fluid mechanics. In statics, the forces acting on the body, or system of bodies, are so arranged that the body is in equilibrium.

Dynamics deals with systems in motion and may be divided into kinetics, the study of the effect of forces in changing the motion of bodies, and kinematics in which the motion of particles or rigid bodies is considered without reference to the forces producing the motion. Fluid mechanics includes the theory of gases, hydrodynamics (the motion of liquids), and aerodynamics. The mathematical development of results and theories arising from classical mechanics is called analytical mechanics.

Metallurgy is the science of the technology of metals including extraction of metal from ores, processing of metals into useful form, and the of their properties and behaviour. Metallurgy includes areas physics, chemistry, and applied mechanics, and also the development metal and alloy systems. The branch of metallurgy called metallography, or theoretical metallurgy, deals with the microscopic structure and constitution of metals and alloys. Another branch of metallurgical science deals with the internal changes that metals undergo during thermal and mechanical treatment.

Text 13

Bologna process in Kazakhstan

Bologna process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area. The main objectives of the Bologna declaration are to increase the mobility and employability of European higher education graduates thus ensuring competitiveness of European higher education on the world scale.Kazakhstan joined Bologna process in 2003. Basic characteristics of Bologna process:
- 3 cycled system of higher education (Bachelor's Degree, Master's Degree, Doctor's Degree).
- usage of a credit system.
- mobility of students and staff around the European Higher Education Area.
- the joint European Diploma Supplement
- Quality control of higher education.
- creation of the European Higher Education Area.

Being a holder of the Secondary School Certificate or an equivalent, you can study through all levels, starting from Bachelor to Doctoral Studies. A degree or diploma holder of any higher school can be admitted to a successive learning level after accreditation of his/her prior learning.

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ 1

Greetings

- Hi, Helen!

- Hi, Peter!

- It’s a long time since I saw you last. Where have you been all this time?

- I have just returned from Italy.

- Was it a business trip?

- Exactly.

- Was it successful?

- I am afraid not.

- Sorry to hear it.

* * *

- Hi, Brett!

- Hi, Heathen!

- What are you doing?

- I am translating an article.

- Since when have you been translating it?

- Since 10 a.m.

- Have you done much?

- I’ve just translated half of it.

Weather

- My favourite season is spring. It becomes warmer and the days are lighter and

longer. Do you like spring?

- I do, though it is not my favourite season. I prefer summer. I am fond of summer

sports, you know.

* * *

- The weather changes very often this winter, am I right?

- I wouldn’t put it like that. This winter is extremely warm. The temperature is

unusually high. There is no snow. It often rains. The roads are very wet and muddy.

Introduction

- Who’s the tall girl next to Barbara?

- That’s Mary Anderson. Didn’t you meet her at Steve’s party?

- No, I wasn’t at Steve’s party. Oh! Then let me introduce you to her now…

- Mary, this is my cousin Jim.

- Hi, Jim. I’m glad to meet you.

- I’m glad to meet you too. Can’t we sit down somewhere to talk?

- Sure.

* * *

- Mr. Wilson, I’d like you to meet Dr. Edward Smith.

- How do you do, Dr. Smith.

- How do you do.

- Dr. Smith is an economist. He’s just finished writing a book on international trade.

- Oh? That’s my field, too.

A Telephone Call

- Hello.

- Hello. May I speak to Alice, please?

- Just a minute… Alice, it’s for you.

- Hello.

- Hi, Alice. This is Brett. Would you like to go to a movie tonight?

- Thanks, I’d love to.

- Good. The movie starts at eight.

* * *

- Hello, can I speak to Jill Murray?

- Mr. Murray isn’t in. Any message?

- My name is Swindler. Frank Swindler.

- S-w-i-n-d-l-e-r. Swindler. I’ve just come from California. I’ve brought a letter and a parcel for Mr.Murray. I am staying at the Ritz Hotel, room 406. Please, tell him to call me back.

- O.K. As soon as Mr.Murray comes, he will call you.

- Fine. I am waiting for his call. Good bye.

- Excuse me, but can you tell me how to get to the Wallace Collection?

- Certainly. Walk straight on and then turn to the left. It’s in Manchester Square.

- Thank you so much.

- Not at all.

* * *

- Is Green Street far from here?

- Yes. Turn left and you’ll see a big parking lot. Take the fourth turning on your right

and you’ll find yourself in Green Street.

- Thanks a lot.

Appearance, Character

- Have you seen our new computer programmer?

- Not yet. Why?

- She is a very pretty girl.

- Really?

- She is tall, slim and I’d say she has a very good figure. Her long hair is fair.

Her eyes are blue. She has a snub nose and full lips.

- What’s her name?

- Jane Butler. She is about twenty five years old.

- Is she married?

- That’s what I would like to find out.

- What kind of person is she?

- She has been working here for about two weeks. They say she is qualified

for the job, has good manners, very reserved and efficient.

- I see.