Task 2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow

Many legal theorists have argued that the only morally legitimate goal in imposing criminal penalties against certain behaviors is to prevent people from harming others. Clearly, such theorists would oppose laws that force people to act purely for their own good or to refrain from certain harmless acts purely to ensure conformity to some social norm. But the goal of preventing harm to others would also justify legal sanctions against some forms of nonconforming

(10) behavior to which this goal might at first seem not to apply.

In many situations it is in the interest of each member of a group to agree to behave in a certain way on the condition that the others similarly agree.

15) In the simplest cases, a mere coordination of activities is itself the good that results. For example, it is in no one's interest to lack a convention about which side of the road to drive on, and each person can agree to drive on one side assuming the others do

(20) too. Any fair rule, then, would be better than no rule at all. On the assumption that all people would voluntarily agree to be subject to a coordination rule backed by criminal sanctions, if people could be assured that others would also agree, it is argued to

(25) be legitimate for a legislature to impose such a rule. This is because prevention of harm underlies the rationale for the rule, though it applies to the problem of coordination less directly than to other problems, for the act that is forbidden (driving on the other side

(30) of the road) is not inherently harm-producing, as are burglary and assault; instead, it is the lack of a coordinating rule that would be harmful.

In some other situations involving a need for legally enforced coordination, the harm to be averted

(35) goes beyond the simple lack of coordination itself. This can be illustrated by an example of a coordination rule-instituted by a private athletic organization-which has analogies in criminal law. At issue is whether the use of anabolic steroids, which

(40) build muscular strength but have serious negative side

effects, should be prohibited. Each athlete has at stake both an interest in having a fair opportunity to win and an interest in good health. If some competitors use steroids, others have the option of either

(45) endangering their health or losing their fair opportunity to win. Thus they would be harmed either way. A compulsory rule could prevent that harm and thus would be in the interest of all competitors. If they understand its function and trust the techniques

(50) for its enforcement, they will gladly consent to it. So while it might appear that such a rule merely forces people to act for their own good, the deeper rationale for coercion here-as in the above example-is a somewhat complex appeal to the legitimacy of

(55) enforcing a rule with the goal of preventing harm.

1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

(A) In order to be morally justifiable, laws prohibiting activities that are not inherently harm-producing must apply equitably to everyone.

(B) It is justifiable to require social conformity where noncompliance would be harmful to either the nonconforming individual or the larger group.

(C) Achieving coordination can be argued to be a morally legitimate justification for rules that prevent directly harmful actions and others that prevent indirectly harmful actions.

(D) It is reasonable to hold that restricting individual liberty is always justified on the basis of mutually agreed-upon community standards.

(E) The principle of preventing harm to others can be used to justify laws that do not at first glance appear to be designed to prevent such harm.

2. It can be most reasonably inferred from the passage that the author considers which one of the following factors to be generally necessary for the justification of rules compelling coordination of people's activities?

(A) evidence that such rules do not force individuals to act for their own good

(B) enactment of such rules by a duly elected or appointed government lawmaking organization

(C) the assurance that criminal penalties are provided as a means of securing compliance with such rules

(D) some form of consent on the part of rational people who are subject to such rules,

(E) a sense of community and cultural uniformity among those who are required to abide by such rules

3. It can be most reasonably inferred from the passage that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

(A) In all situations in which compulsory rules are needed for the coordination of human activities, any uniformly enforced rule is as acceptable as any other

(B) No private organizational rules designed to coordinate the activities of members have as complex a relation to the goal of preventing harm as have some criminal statutes.

(C) Every fair rule that could be effectively used to prescribe which side of the road to drive on is a rule whose implementation would likely cause less harm than it would prevent.

(D) There would be little need for formal regulation and enforcement of conventional driving patterns if all drivers understood and accepted the rationale behind such regulation and enforcement.

(E) Unlike rules forbidding such acts as burglary and assault, those that are designed primarily to prevent the inconvenience and chaos of uncoordinated activities should not involve criminal penalties.

4. The author distinguishes between two examples of coordinating rules on the basis of whether or not such rules

(A) prevent some harm beyond that which consists simply in a lack of coordination

(B) are intended to ensure conformity to a set of agreed-upon standards

(C) are voluntarily agreed upon by all those affected by such rules

(D) could be considered justifiable by the legal theorists discussed in the passage

(E) apply less directly to the problem of preventing harm than do rules against burglary and assault

5. Which one of the following is a rule that primarily addresses a problem of coordination most similar to that discussed in the second paragraph?

(A) a rule requiring that those who wish to dig for ancient artifacts secure the permission of relevant authorities and the owners of the proposed site before proceeding with their activities

(B) a rule requiring that pharmacists dispense certain kinds of medications only when directed to do so by physicians' prescriptions, rather than simply selling medicines at the customers' request

(C) a rule requiring that advertisers be able to substantiate the claims they make in advertisements, rather than simply saying whatever they think will help to attract customers

(D) a rule requiring that employees of a certain restaurant all wear identical uniforms during their hours of employment, rather than wearing whatever clothes they choose

(E) a rule requiring different aircraft to fly at different altitudes rather than flying at any altitude their pilots wish

6. In line 54, the author uses the expression "somewhat complex" primarily to describe reasoning that

(A) involves two layers of law, one governing the private sector and the other governing the public sector

(B) requires that those affected by the rule understand the motivation behind its imposition

(C) involves a case in which a harm to be prevented is indirectly related to the kind of act that is to be prohibited

(D) can convince athletes that their health is as important as their competitive success

(E) illustrates how appeals to the need for coordination can be used to justify many rules that do not involve coordination

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