LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES. Nowadays it's especially important to know foreign languages
Nowadays it's especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying foreign languages is a hobby.
Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. The great German poet Goethe once said, "He, who knows no foreign language, doesn't know his own one".
There are more than 2700 languages in the world, not to mention the many dialects and sub-languages spoken on every continent.
About 328 million people speak English as their mother tongue, plus at least 375 million people use it as a second language. Some estimates state that as many as 900 million people speak English, either as a native speaker or as a second language combined. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations.
English language is one of the most beautiful and interesting languages in the world. It's the language of the great literature. It's the language of William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and others. Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It's the language of computers technology.
Knowledge of English helps to train our memory, to make a person educated, well-bred and wise. This is because you get to know different cultures, different national, social and historical facts.
Learning languages stretches our minds. It is a good exercise for our intellect. It gives us a chance to get a better job and to visit different countries.
I study English. It's a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts. But do not be afraid and do not trust anyone who says that to learn and to know English is not realistic. Reading books, listening to the radio, watching movies in English, and most importantly, speaking is more than possible.
I think that to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.
COMPUTER IN OUR LIFE
Computers are getting deeper and deeper into our life. The basic job of computer is processing information. Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a program and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data
is raw material while information is organized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information.
They are indispensable in space research, communication, medicine, metallurgy, light industry, information, technology and many other branches of industry.
Many countries have introduced computers into agriculture, education, transport and many other spheres.
Computers provide security and safety of various processes, diagnose numerous cases and do a lot of in monitoring different developments. In short they help to carry out increasingly complex tasks and their application sometimes helps to prevent disasters, tragedies and accidents.
Many people have a high degree of computer literacy' Computer games are also now very popular with children, young men and grown-ups.
Modern life is easy and fun. We have all the amenities. We do not need to go to the movies, because we have big TVs at home. The children have cell phones with large displays. Modern technology is useful and convenient. In my opinion, Internet is the most comfortable thing. Computers are also an important invention, but Internet is better than any other type of information. Originally, Internet was a military experiment in the USA of 60-s. But soon it became clear that everyone in the world can use it.
Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundreds of millions of users all over the world. The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. It's hard to imagine our lives without Internet nowadays. It has become an important part of every person's life. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundreds of millions of users and their number is growing.
Nowadays, no one can deny the importance of the Internet. Sitting in front of a computer, clicking a mouse, you can shop, download many interesting films, books, read news about subject which is interesting for you, play computer games with other players, chat and send mails to your friends. Internet has drastically changed everything. Since the time of Internet appearance, many other media sources became unnecessary. You can find the information you're looking for in 5 seconds. It is very convenient for students, professionals, experts and all other people. From one side, it's great to have everything right here online, from the other side, it's a shame that people have stopped reading paper books and newspapers. Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. With the help of the internet people from different parts of the planet can communicate with each other and share information without leaving their home. It has become easier to meet like-minded people from all over the world and become friends with them.
There are many different Internet competitions for different subjects which give students the opportunity to participate even in international competitions. Thanks to the Internet, people can quickly sell, advertise and share knowledge, idea, and personal feelings. People enter the world of virtual reality to avoid everyday problems. In spite of all the good sides that Internet has, there are some drawbacks. First of all, they are viruses, which can be very dangerous for any computer. That's why it's good to have reliable anti-virus software installed. Other minus is the violent content. There is a lot of violence and cruelty online. People are suffering from inappropriate information on the Internet, because it is very hard to control information from the Internet. Although the Internet offers us large amount of information, its reliability is dubious because many untrue news stories can be posted and cause confusions to many people. It is very difficult for us to find out what websites are reliable and what are not. Also you can get blackmail or spam. I think that the Internet becomes a way of a person life and it is very harmful for our health. Many teenagers spend a long of time sitting at the computers and spoiling their eyes. I don't mean that I am against the Internet, but it should have reasonable limits.
Business is an organization which involves the trade of goods and services. Every day thousands of people start their own business. To be successful in business one should have special character traits, for example, to be hard-working, clever, energetic and even adventurous. If a person wishes to launch a new business he or she has to take some preparatory steps. The first one is the selection of a legal form. Different countries have different laws about legal types of businesses. Usually they are a limited liability company, a partnership and a sole proprietor. These forms of business slightly differ.
The limited liability company is a legal entity. In case of a bankruptcy it has to reimburse its debts with all its assets. Sole proprietors or partners do not form a legal entity. In case of their bankruptcy they reimburse the debts not only with their assets but also with their own belongings. It includes houses, cars, money, etc. That's why the majority of businessmen prefer to set up the limited liability companies. The second step is the preparation of certain documents. The third step includes initial investments and the appointment of a director. Every new business has to be registered with the official company register. Business should mainly bring profit. However, the founders sometimes don't have enough experience and make many mistakes. This leads to losses instead of profit. All financial information of the company can be kept in the financial reports. There are a lot of reports submitted annually, semi-annually and quarterly.
Every government requires detailed information on the company's performance and collects taxes. That's why financial reports are important. In conclusion, I'd like to add that every business is not an easy activity. Thus, the knowledge of basic economic principles is vital for people who want to set up a business.
"Management" has become a frequent word in business area. It's a wide notion, but in general, management means organizing and coordinating a group of people for directing them towards accomplishing a goal. This process can include manipulation of various resources: human, financial, natural, technological, etc. Apart from organizing entities, management uses other functions, such as forecasting, planning, staffing, controlling, actuating, commanding. Speaking of its etymology, the word 'manage' has Italian roots. It means to handle something. People, who have the responsibility to manage small firms or large companies, are either directors or managers. These people have the authority to make decisions according the enterprise.
One of the most important functions, that management implements, is planning. At this stage managers set objectives and then think of strategies for achieving them. It involves the creation of a plan followed by intelligent behavior. When the objectives are set, managers prepare tasks and proceed to organizing them within various sections or departments. Next stage of management is commanding. At this stage the manager hands out the tasks to employees ad has the right to supervise whether the у are being carried out Controlling is an important stage, when manager can bring some corrections to the individuals' activities. He or she should make sure that performance is according to the plan. The final stage is coordinating, i.e. bringing together the results of collective work.
Most international companies have a three-leveled management system, which comprises of:
First-level managers Middle-level managers Top-level managers.
First-level managers focus on controlling and directing on the first place. This group includes supervisors or section leaders. Other than that, they can motivate employees and keep performance feedback. Middle-level managers are branch or department leaders, who are responsible for department's function. They devote more time to organizing than lower management. Top-level managers are presented by the board of directors. Their responsibility is to control and oversee the performance of the whole organization. They try to follow the world economies, politics and broad competition.