Planning and introduction of the CALS project
For planning, managements and implementation of the project it is necessary to create special group. The number of group and the requirement to her members are defined by the size of the company and scale of alleged introduction. A key to successful introduction is careful planning. It is equally important and in rather modest company, intended to make partial changes, and in the large organization realizing full-scale introduction of CALS. The plan is a crucial link between the strategic concept of reforming and tactical actions for their introduction.
For work on introduction of solutions of CALS it is necessary to prepare the management plan works on the project aimed at introduction of innovations in the set time and at the established expenses. The organization of the project, individual functions and responsibility of participants of works, and also the processes connected with specification of design requirements and plans, with control of the course of works, order of modification of plans and schedules of works on the project have to be reflected in it. Experience of introduction of CALS technologies shows that the plan has to be stage-by-stage, changes have to be made in the portions. In the plan it is necessary to allocate priority tasks which can give fast and obvious return in business at the minimum expenses, for example, carrying out rather simple modification of processes, introduction of some kind of indicative systems. The plan should not be static - it should be corrected in due time, initiatively to operate it, periodically "to update" as its points are carried out and at emergence of problems. The plan can be corrected in process of accumulation of experience and taking into account feedback by results of introduction. It is necessary to be pragmatic and to proportion rate of works to rate of development of standards, technology and other circumstances connected with concrete business, a chain of logistics, supply and providing.
The purposes and the tasks set in the project of introduction of CALS have to be clear and clear, concrete, give in to measurement, achievable, radical, economically reasonable, painted on time.
For successful implementation of the project it is important to create conditions under which the initiative of introduction of system would proceed from the top level of the management of head divisions of the organization. The top management has to understand, support and if it is necessary, to change business strategy, the accepted concept of introduction of CALS and key elements of the plan. Controlled process of achievement of obviously visible advantages and results has to be provided. Responsibility for achievement of advantages and results has to be in detail painted, i.e. has to be appointed responsible for each result (for example, the director of production assumes liability by results of introduction of CALS to achieve 25% decrease in expenses of working hours by designers and t.d.).
Prerequisites of introduction of CALS technologies
Introduction of CALS - the difficult, many-sided process connected with various aspects of activity of the organization therefore for its implementation there have to be certain prerequisites, namely existence:
- standardly - methodical documentation of different level - federal, branch, corporate, the enterprises;
- the market of the approved and certified decisions and services in the field of CALS technologies;
- systems of preparation and retraining of personnel;
- experience and results of research works (Research and development) and pilot projects directed on studying and development of decisions in the field of CALS technologies;
- the information sources (Internet the server, conferences, etc.) directed on informing the scientific and technical public on the existing decisions and the conducted works in the field of CALS.
Creation of such prerequisites is the most important task of the federal authorities interested the organizations, the scientific and engineering community.
The specified prerequisites can be carried to number "external" for the enterprise. Along with it for successful introduction of CALS technologies there have to be also "internal" prerequisites about which it was already mentioned in this section. It, first of all, readiness of the management and the personnel of the enterprise for introduction of CALS technologies, and also existence of necessary computer aids and the network equipment, the software.
1 Tell about history of development of CALS technologies
2 Give definition to the term CALS
3 Main objectives and tasks solved at application of CALS - technology
4 Concept of CALS technology
5 Advantages from introduction of CALS technology
6 CALS Standards - objects of standardization
7 Stages of introduction of CALS technologies
1 Шалумов А.С., Никишкин С.И., Носков В.Н. Введение в CALS-технологии: Учебное пособие. Ковров: КГТА, 2002. - 137 с.;
2 ГОСТ 34.003-90 Информационная технология. Комплекс стандартов на автоматизированные системы. Автоматизированные системы. Термины и определения;
Theme: Methods and quality system role in the integrated system of management of the organization. Organizational structure of business management. Structural and functional schemes of quality management.
1 Essence of the integrated systems of management
2 Similarity of provisions of the international standards chosen for integration
3 Advantages from introduction of ISM
4 Justification of practical expediency of creation of ISM
5 Principles of MS of ISO 9000 - a basis of creation of ISM
6 Development of documentation of ISM
7 An integration option choice taking into account branch specifics
1 Integrated systems of management - the part of the general management meeting the requirements of two or more international standards and functioning as uniform whole. ISM should not identify with system of the general management of the organization uniting all aspects of activity of the organization as ISM does not raise the questions of financial, investment management, management of securities, etc. In this case the concept "the integrated systems of management" has limited character, though is more complex, than the concept about each of those separate systems of management (quality management system, system of ecological management, system of management of labor protection, etc.) which are united in the integrated systems of management. Even, if to introduce in the organization everything the international standards of systems existing now, the integrated system of management will not be identical to system of the general management of the organization. Because the area of distribution of MCC for the present does not include financial management, management of the personnel, innovative management, management is risk, management of securities, etc. It will be possible to speak about identity of the concepts "the integrated system of management" and "system of the general management" only after standards on all areas covered by the general management of the organization  are developed.
For a clear understanding of this question it is necessary to construct a pyramid of the integrated system of management (figure 1) in the beginning.
Drawing 1 Pyramid of the integrated system of management
ISO 14001 ISO 22000 ISO 18001
Regulatory legislative base
The basis of a pyramid is made by regulatory legislative base which is constantly improved on the basis of changes of the international standards. Pyramid top as the basis of any system is presented by the ISO 9001 standards on the quality system. Ecological management 14001 both protection and safety of work 18001, make an average framework of a pyramid where depending on branch specifics, will include the international industry standards, in this case ISO 22000 on the food industry. All these systems provide continuous improvement on the basis of the ISO 9004 standards.
2 Similarity of many provisions and requirements of the international standards of systems of management in separate spheres of activity (table 1), facilitates the enterprise their practical integration. In these standards that requirements of these international standards are created taking into account interests of modern business is important. The correct application of these standards in the organization promotes rendering the real help in obtaining certain competitive advantages . Thus it must be kept in mind that standards possess essential potential for increase of productivity of activity of the organization and its appeal to various groups of interested parties due to providing evidence of work to them according to the legislation, the regulating and standard requirements (tab. 2). The modern market imposes a complex of requirements caused interested in activity of the enterprise by the parties, such as consumers, shareholders, the personnel, suppliers, labor unions, society to the enterprises.
The table 1 Similarity of Provisions of the International Standards chosen for integration
|System of management||Object of management||Problem (purpose) of system||Series of standards||Main indicators|
|Quality management system||The main and providing business processes||Improvement of quality of production and degree of satisfaction of the customer||ISO 9000 series||Productivity and efficiency of business processes Degree of satisfaction of the customer|
|System of ecological management||The environmental risks arising in the course of a production activity||Observance of requirements of the nature protection legislation, decrease in technogenic impact of production on ecology, increase of ecological purity of products||ISO 14000 series||Emission of harmful substances in the atmosphere of the Exclusion zone Environmental friendliness of production|
|System of management of health and safety||Production and social risks||Ensuring professional safety and health, decrease in losses from inappropriate activity, prevention of emergence of incidents of accidents, emergency situations||OHSAS 18000 series||Functional stability and reliability|
The table 2 Degree of Appeal of the Organization for interested parties at introduction of the systems of management meeting the requirements of the international standards.
|Systems of management of the organization||Groups of interested parties|
|Consumers||Owners, investors||Partners||Personnel||Labor unions||Society|
|Quality management system||-||-||-||○||○||-|
|System of ecological management||○||-||○||○||○||-|
|System of professional safety and health||-||○||○||-||-||○|
Note. - - big interest; ○ - moderate interest.