The Capital of Gr. Br. - London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe.

London is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is more than two thousand and five hundred years old. About seven million people live there. There are more than 10 thousand streets in London. Most of them are not very wide and most of the buildings are not tall. Multistorey buildings are hotels and offices.

London Underground (or Tube) is the oldest and the longest in Europe.

Although many pleasant parks and green squares there.

Traditionally London is divided into 4 parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live there but over a million people come to the city to work.

The area around the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey is called Westminster. It is the historic and the governmental part of London.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.

The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families.

Most of London's places of interest are in the West End. One of the most interesting sights here is Trafalgar Square, the geographical centre of London with the 154 ft. Column in the middle. This column was created in tribute to Nelson who defeated the French in the sea battle in 1805. There are four bronze lions at the base. Round the base are four bronze carvings reproducing scenes in the life of Nelson.

On the North side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery where there is one of the finest collections of pictures in the world.

Buckingham Palace was built in 1705. It has been the royal residence since 1837. A favourite time to come and see the Buckingham Palace is 10.30 a.m., when you can see the changing of the guards.

Westminster abbey is very beautiful for its architecture. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Here you may also see the tomb of the Unknown soldier who represents a million of dead in the First Would War.

In Westminster Abbey here is the Poet's Corner where many of the greatest English writers are buried such as: Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling and others. Here there are memorials to Shakespeare, Scott, Milton and others.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".

The Tower of London was built by William the Conqueror in 1066 on the ruins of old Roman fortifications. The Tower was originally built up as a fortress protecting the town from sudden attacks of the enemy. For hundreds of years it was used as a prison and visitor today may see the exact place where many nobles were executed. The most popular sight in the Tower is the strongly guarded room in which Crown jewels are displayed.

St. Paul's Cathedral is the greatest of English churches. It was designed by Sir Christopher Wren, England's greatest architect who built so many of the other churches.

The British Museum is described as being the National Library and Museum of History, Archaeology, Art and Ethnography. It contains thousands of priceless exhibits.

Hyde Park is one of the most popular places in London. It is the largest open space in the West End of London. On any fine afternoon or evening crowds may be seen gathered to listen to Hyde Park speakers who give their views on politics, religion and so on.

The Russian Federation.

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It's total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans : the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Arctic. Russia borders with many country. They are : Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Norway, Finland, the Baltic states, Belorussia and the Ukraine. It also has a sea border with the USA. The population of the Russian Federation is nearly 250 million people. The capital of the country is Moscow. It's its largest political, scientific, cultural and economical center.

Russia is very rich in mineral resources. There is gold, platinum, diamonds, coal, peat, oil, gas and wood. There are over two million rivers in Russia. The Europe's biggest river , the Volga , flows into the Caspian sea. Others main rivers are : the Ob, the Yenisei, the Lena and the Amur. Russia is also rich in beautiful lakes.

The world biggest lake - the Caspian sea and the world deepest lake - Lake Baikal are in it. Russia has one-six of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in Far East. On the vast territory of the country there are different types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is continental. Russia has four beautiful seasons : winter , spring , summer and autumn. They are very different. The Russian Federation is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. He is elected for 4 years and his powers are limited by the Duma. At present Russia has some political and economical problems. (The price are rising, the rate of inflation is very high, people are losing their jobs and many factories are stopped). But I believe that in the future the young generation of your country will sold all these problems and they shall make "Great" Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.

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