Table 2 - Classification of indicators of quality
|Number of the characterized properties||Single, complex, integrated|
|Extent of coverage of category||Basic, relative|
|The characterized properties||Appointments, reliability, economical use of resources, safety, ergonomic, esthetic, technological effectiveness, transportability, standardization and unification, patent and legal, ecological, economic, resistance to external influences|
|Way of expression||Natural, cost, as a percentage|
|Definition stage||Predicted, research and design, production, goods circulation, utilization or destruction|
|Definition method||Measuring, registration, settlement, experimental, etc.|
|Influence on quality at change of absolute value of an indicator||Positive, negative|
|Types of restrictions||Not less, no more, not less and no more|
|Attitude towards subjects of an assessment of quality||Indicators of the developer, manufacturer, consumer, etc.|
|Extent of coverage of objects of the analysis||Object unit, set of uniform objects, set of diverse objects|
The indicator on which the decision to estimate quality of production is made, is called defining.
The generalizing indicators are the average size considering quantitative estimates of the main properties of production and coefficients of their ponderability.
Optimum value of quality of production such at which the greatest useful effect from its operation (consumption) at the set costs of creation and operation (consumption) is reached.
Quality of production received in agriculture is expressed in signs and parameters. The sign of production reflects qualitative or quantitative characteristics of its properties (for example, on flax - color, length, fiber durability), and parameter - only quantitative (for example, the maintenance of a protein in sterns). The generalized indicator of quality of production - complex. It characterizes set of properties on which its quality is estimated.
Methods of determination of values of indicators of quality of production are subdivided into two groups: on ways of obtaining information - measuring, registration, settlement and organoleptic; on sources of its receiving - traditional, experimental and sociological.
The measuring method is based on information received by means of technical means - scales, micrometers, galactometers, hydrometers and other devices, devices and installations.
The registration method is based on detection, registration and calculation of these or those events, the phenomena, objects without use of measuring equipment.
The calculation method is the calculations constructed on information received by means of theoretical dependences or an empirical way.
The organoleptic method allows to estimate quality of production on the basis of information on its appearance. Taste, a smell, etc., perceived by sense organs of the person: sight, sense of smell, touch. Accuracy and reliability of results at this method depend on abilities, qualification and skills of the persons performing work and also on possibility of use of the special technical means increasing resolution of a human body (microscopes, microphones, magnifying glasses). This method is widely applied at an assessment of quality of consumer goods, including food (drinks, candy stores, tobacco products), their ergonomics, environmental friendliness, esthetics.
Traditional method - indicators of quality are defined by officials (workers) of specialized experimental laboratories, grounds, stands and settlement divisions of the enterprises - design departments, computer centers, reliability organizations.
The expert method - quality is defined on the basis of the decision made by group of specialists experts. The expert method is applied at the solution of problems of determination of weight coefficients and rangings of information. Ranging is an arrangement in a row by a certain principle of factors, phenomena, properties, indicators, subjects. The rank 1 is appropriated at the greatest preference by experts, N - at the smallest. Coherence of opinion of experts decides on the help of coefficient of a konkordation of
W = by R/Rmax:
W = 12R/m2 (n3 - n),
and for the connected ranks on a formula:
W = R / Ң m2 (n3 - n) - m ∑m ј = 1 Tj,
where R - rank points; m - number of experts; n - number of objects; n=1; N; T - a deviation on identical number of ranks at the expert's j-go.
Ranging is applied at n≤20 and it is the most reliable at n ‹10.
The sociological method - is based on collecting and the analysis of information on opinion of the actual or possible consumers of production which can be received during polls, distribution of questionnaires, by the organization of conferences, exhibitions, auctions.
The listed methods are used proceeding from specific goals and problems of an assessment and technical capabilities
1. Main objectives and problems of studying of discipline "Quality management system"
2. Give definition to such concepts as quality and competitiveness of production
3. Characterize quality of production as social and economic category
4. Main levels of quality
5. Give definition to concept quality management, objects and subjects of management
6. Methods of management
7. The functions which are carried out by the enterprise concerning quality as object of management
8 Main objectives of a Qualimetry
9 Quality indicators
10. Classification of indicators of quality
11. Methods of determination of values of indicators of quality
1 Спицнадель В.Н. Системы качества: Учеб. Пособие. – Санкт-Петербург. Издательский дом «Бизнес пресса», 2000.-336с.
2 Окрепилов В.В. Управление качеством: Учеб. Пособие. – М.: Издательство стандартов, 2000.-696с.
3 Федюкин В.К. и др. Методы оценки и управления качеством промышленной продукции: Учебник. – М.: Издательство «Филин», 2000.-328с.
4. Никитин В.А. Управление качеством на базе стандартов ИСО 9000:2000.-СПб.: Питер, 2004.-272с.
Theme: Thinking evolution about quality: the main terms and determination of quality, the concept of policy of quality, the process concept, inquiries and expectations, philosophy of the quality system of Deminga from constant aspiration to improvement, continuous improvement, a strategy choice
1. Main stages of development of control systems of quality
1.1 Formation and development of quality management. The factors influencing quality of production
1.2 The international standards on control systems of quality of production. System approach to management