# Present perfect, present perfect continuous and simple past compared

Illustrative Situations

1. Patrick Connor was born in Dublin. He lived there until he was 18. He went to India for five years. Then he spent another five years in Canada. Five years ago he came to London where he is living now.

He lived in Dublin for 18 years. Then he lived in India for five years and in Canada for 5 years. He has been living in London for the last five years.

Questions: Where was Patrick born? How long did he live in India and Canada? Where is he now? How long has he been in London?

2. Two people are waiting at the bus-stop. It is 9 30. They are waiting for the 9.10 bus. One person is very angry. "This bus is ne­ver on time!" he says.

"I've been wating for it for twenty minutes now. Yesterday I waited half an hour for it!"

Questions: What are the people doing? How late is the bus? What does one of the people say? How long has the man been wai­ting for the bus? How long did he wait for it yesterday?

Practice

/. Notice the change in form as the situation changes:

Situation: Mary got to the station at 9. The train came at 10. She waited for an hour.

Situation: Peter got to the station at 9. It is 12 now and the train hasn't come yet. He has been waiting for 3 hours.

1. Mary got a job in the bank 5 years ago. She left the job last week. 2. Tom got a job in the bank 10 years ago. He's still there.

3. I started teaching 6 years ago. As you can see I'm still a teacher.

4. My grandfather became a teacher at 20. He was still one when he died 40 years later. 5. Betty opened the book at 6. She put it down again at 12. 6. Peter opened that book 6 hours ago and he hasn't closed it yet! 7. My brother started coughing at this time last year. He still has the cough. 8. The baby started crying and stopped an hour later.

//. Respond to the following^ statements:

e.g. 1 last smoked a cigarette a month ago.

You haven't smoked a cigarette for a month, e.g. They last came to see us at Christmas.

They haven't come to see us since Christmas. 1. I last played football ten years ago. 2. He last ate at 6 o'clock this morning. 3. We last had a holiday three years ago. 4. John saw Mary on Monday morning. 5. I last had a bath a week ago. 5. Mr Fox last wrote to me in February. 6.1 last won a race five years ago. 7. We last went to the theatre 3 months ago. 8. I last called Mike on Tuesday. 9. I last rode a bicycle ten years ago.

///. Ask questions with "how long" and "when":

e.g. It is raining.

How long has it been raining? When did it start raining?

1. Ann is learning Italian. 2. Paul is preparing for his exam. 3. The Johnsons are travelling around France. 4. Bill is doing his homework. 5. Bob and Alice are married. 6. Mr Morgan is in Mos­cow on business. 7. It is snowing. 8. Lucy is swimming. IV. Ask and answer questions using the prompts:

e.g. write to Peter/ages

When did you last write to Peter?

Oh, I haven't written to him for ages, e.g. see Tom/January

When did you last see Tom?

I haven't seen him since January.

1. drive a car/two years 2. shave/summer 3. speak to Bill/we quarrelled 4. hear from Nick/October 5. fly by plane/ages 6. catch a fish/weeks 7. eat out/my birthday 8. discuss the matter/a month 9. take part in a competition/I was at school 10. sleep well/months

V. Complete the utterances: e.g. I know Tom. I first met him six months ago. I have... .

I have known Tom for six months.

It started raining at 2 o'clock. It has... .

It has been raining since 2 o'clock.

1. Tom's ill. He became ill three days ago. He has.....2. We have

been married for five years. We got.....3. Jim has a beard. He grew

it ten years ago. He has.....4. Paul has been in France for 3 weeks.

He went.....5. He has had his car since February. He bought .... 6.

Dick last wrote to me a month ago. He hasn't ..... 7. Kate came

to the university at 9. She has.....8. It started snowing at II. It has

..... 9. I have been collecting stamps for ten years. I began .....

Fluency

/. Listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations:

1. Jill- How's Pam? I haven't seen her in town lately.

Jeff: Oh, she's fine. She has been very busy. Last week she started an office job, only for summer months. She has never worked in an office before, so it's difficult for her. She has only been there a week, but she has already learnt a lot about office life.

2. Mike: Have you seen my new tie, Mum? Mother: Which new tie?

Mike: The red one I bought in London a couple of weeks ago. I wore it to the dinner party at the Dawsoiis' place on Saturday and I haven't worn it or seen it since.

Mother: No, I don't think I've seen it this week, but have you looked for it properly? I expect you threw it carelessly into the back of the wardrobe after the party — the way you usually do.

Mike: I've looked for it everywhere.

Mother: You probably wore it when you went out with Janet on Friday.

Mike: Ah! I remember now. It was a bit hot and I took my tie off in the car on the way home. I suppose it's still on the shelf under the dashboard. Thanks, Mum.

Self check

/. Use the proper tense forms:

1. Mr Clark (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up. 2. Mary lives in Dublin. She (live) there all her life. 3. Bob and Alice are married. They (be) married for 20 years. 4. When we (be) on holiday the weather (be) awful. 5. The weather (be) very nice recently, don't you think? 6. I don't know Carol's husband. 1 never (meet) him. 7. Yesterday I met my school mate. We (speak) about our school years for an hour. 8. How's your son getting on at school? — I don't really know. I (not, speak) to the teachers for some time.

//. Translate into English:

1. Вчера мы с Аней договорились пойти в кино. Я прождала ее полчаса у кинотеатра, но она не пришла. Я не знаю, что с ней слу­чилось. 2. Когда ты в последний раз видел Роберта? — Я не видел его уже две недели. 3. Как долго ты женат? — Я женился

три года назад. 4. Где ты отдыхал прошлым .четом? — На

Кавказе.__Сколько времени ты там пробыл? — Около месяца

5. Вчера я вернулся домой с работы в 6 часов, отдохнул около часа, а затем пошел навестить друга. 6. Где ключ? Я ишу его уже полчага. 7. Ты давно здесь находишься? — Я пришел сюда час назад.__ТЫ встретил Николая? — Да, мы поговорили с ним ми­нут десять, и он ' шел. 8. Сколько времени у тебя этот автомо­биль? __Пять лет 9. Сколько времени вы живете в Минске? —

С 1978 года.

Review

/ listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations. 1. Steve: What have you been doing?

Jill I've been preparing lessons for tomorrow, but I've fini­shed now. What have you been doing?

Steve: I've been watching a very interesting programme on television about education in China. It's just finished. Jill: Oh, dear, then I've missed it. I thought it was on tomor­row, not today. That was Pam on the phone ten minutes ago. She's been sewing new curtains all the evening, and Jeff's been painting radiators. Apparently they've been working hard all the week. By the way, have you 4 put the car in the garage?

Steve: Yes, why? Has it been raining again? Situation: You had a very busy day at the office and stayed there later than usual. You are home at last. Your wife wants to know what kept you late. You ask what she and the kids have been

doing.

2. Carol Fenton: I'm Carol Fenton. I'm Mrs Hunt's sister. This evening my sister's family is coming to celebrate my nephew's birthday. I've planned a small par­ty but Simon doesn't know about it yet. It's a surprise. I'm very excited. 1 haven't seen Sa­rah's family for five years. My husband and I are from Bristol but we haven't lived there for eight years. Many of our friends still live in Bristol. Next month we're going there to visit my hus­band's family. We're staying at his brother's house. All my relatives are going, too. 3. Mr Fenton: Someone's at the door, Carol. Mrs Fenton: Is everything ready?

Mr Fenton: Yes, dear, everything's fine. Answer the door. Mrs Fenton: Hello! I'm so happy to see you. Come in!

Mrs Hun't: Carol, you look'very well.

Mrs Fenton: Thank you, Sarah .. you look very well, too And the children ... they're both so tall!

Mrs Hunt: Well ... you haven't seen them for five years.

Mr Hunt: Sarah, you've forgotten to introduce Sheila.

Mrs Hunt: I'm very sorry. Carol, we've brought a friend with us. This is Sheila Morgan. She hasn't visited Lon­don before.

Mrs Fenton: Hello, Sheila.

Sheila: How do you do, Mrs Fenton?

Mrs Fenton: Please call me Carol. Now sit down everyone. I've made some tea. It's in the kitchen. Can Jane help me?

Mrs Hunt: Of course she can.

4. Mrs Fenton: How long have you been here?

Mrs Hunt: We've been here since Sunday. Today's Wednes­day ... we've been here for three days.

Mrs Fenton: And what have you seen since Sunday?

Mrs Hunt: We've been very busy but we haven't seen very many things. London's so big! We've seen some of the sights and we've shopped in Oxford Street.

Mrs Fenton: And have you bought anything?

Mrs Hunt: I've seen a few nice things but I haven't bought anything yet.

Mrs Fenton: I'm going to Oxfort Street on Friday. Come with me. I know the good shops.

5. Mrs Hunt: How are your sons? Mrs Fenton: Tim's living with us.

Mrs Hunt: Has he finished University yet?

Mrs Fenton: Yes, he has. He's worked here in London for

eighteen months. Mrs Hunt: What does he do? Mrs Fenton: He works in an export company. He's worked

there since January. Mrs Hunt: And what does Chris do' Mrs Fenton: He works in Dad's company in Bristol.

Sue: No, I haven't bought the melon yet.

Tom: Are there any sandwiches?

Sue: Yes .. well ... no. I've bought the bread but I haven't made

the sandwiches yet Tom: Have you made the pies? Sue: No, I haven't made them yet. Tom: Is the wine here? Sue: No, it hasn't arrived and the shop's closed now.

Situation: You've come to Moscow on business.1 You've got accomodation at the Minsk hotel. You are sharing the room with another person who came to Moscow 2 days ago. You introduce yourself and have a talk with your neighbour.

Self check

/. Use the proper tense forms.

1. It still (rain) when I (come) in just now. It (rain) all mor­ning. 2. I (sit) here waiting for you for nearly an hour. I already (drink) four whiskies. 3. What you (do) all this time? I (not, see) you for weeks. 4. They (not, work) for several days now. They (be) too ill. 5. It (not, ram) for a month now. The grass is very dry. 6. I (go) to this pub every evening for the last ten years. 7. Peter (write) letters since two o'clock. He already (write) five letters.

8. I (sleep) for the last two hours and 1 (not, wake) up properly yet.

9. I (buy) a new tie last week, but I (not, wear) it yet. 10. He alrea­dy (see) that film. He (see) it when he (be) in London. 11. When you (meet) Mr Smith?" "I (meet) him the day before yesterday." 12. "You ever (speak) to him?" "Yes. I (speak) to him before the party." 13. Peter (live) in Greece for the last three years. He (live) in Africa before he (go) to Greece. 14. I just (have) my lunch. 1 (fi­nish) eating five minutes ago. 15. I (make) five mistakes so far to­day. Yesterday I only (make) three mistakes altogether. 16. I never (play) rugby in my life, but I (play) football when I (be) at school 17. I (not, hear) from Kate since she (go) abroad. 18. On Sunday 1 was at the beach. I (lie) in the sun for two hours. 19. "You ever (tra­vel) by sea?" "Yes, I (go) to Batumi by sea last year." 20. "What a lovely old village Overton is! You (live) here long?" — "I (live) he­re all my life. I (be born) in Overton." "You (be) to other countri­es^" "Yes, I (go) to France two years ago." 21. "Hello, Mr Thomp­son. Glad to see you in London. How long you (be) here?" "Oh, only a few days. I (arrive) here on Monday." "Is it your first visit to London?" "No, I (be) here several times before." "You (see) many places of interest in London?" "Yes, quite a lot." 22 Charles and Barbara Williams (live) at a village called Harpole. They only (live) there for a few weeks. They (arrive) on 28 August and they quickly (arrange) the furniture in their new house. They (not, make) many friends yet, but they (think) that they soon will. The neighbours (be) very kind so far, and Mr

-- Williams (invite) some of them to a party he ^hold) next week. His friends from London and Oxford (corne) to the party.

The Williams family (live) in London before they (come) to Harpole. Mr Williams (not, like) living in London.

While he (visit) some friends in Southampton last year, he (meet) a company director who (offer) him a job. Mrs Williams (want) to stay in London, but when they (arrive) in the village, the sun (shine) and she (begin) to enjoy her country surroundings. 23. Jack (look) at his watch for the twentieth time. Suddenly Jill (arrive). "I (wait) for over an hour", he (say) angrily. "You never come on time." "Oh, is that so?" Jill answered. "You (be) here at 2.30?" Jack (go) red. "Well", he (say), "I (get) here five minutes late myself, but you (not, be) here." "I (come) here at exactly 2.30", Jill said, "and (wait) for five minutes, but you (not, come)." "What you (do) since then?" Jack (ask). "I just (be) to the hairdresser's", Jill answered brightly.

//. Translate into English:

1. — Вас ждет мистер Смит.

— Он долго ждет?

— Около двадцати минут.

— Пусть войдет.

2. — Где письма? Я хочу отправить их сегодня.

— Секретарь только что их принесла. Она печатала целый день.

3. — Могу я поговорить с мистером Вороновым?

— Боюсь, что нет. Он только что вышел.

4. — Давай сходим в кино. Мы не были в кино уже целую

вечность.

— Хорошая идея. Николай говорит, что он видел интересный детектив в кинотеатре «Москва». Хочешь посмот­реть его?

— Да, я очень люблю детективы.

5. — Когда ты закончил институт?

— В 1975 году.

— Сколько времени ты работаешь на этом заводе?

— Пять лет.

— Где ты работал раньше?

— В научно-исследовательском институте.

UNIT 4

COMMUNICATION: SOCIALIZING (GREETINGS

AND LEAVETAKINGS)

GRAMMAR: REFLEXIVE, RECIPRICAL,

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (REVIEW)

a) How to greet an acquaintance:

e) How to take your leave:

 Hello, Mr South How are you? Good morning, Mrs Smith. How are you feeling? Good afternoon, Alan. How are you getting on? Good evening, Pat How are things' (informal)

b) How to reply to a greeting:

Oh, hello, Mr Ford.

Very well. Thanks. And you?

Fine

All right.

Pretty good

So — so.

Not too good, I'm afraid

Very much the same

c) How to respond to bad news:

A: How's your brother5 B. Not too good, I'm afraid A- I'm sorry to hear that. Oh, that's awful Oh, that's terrible

d) How to respond to good news:

A Bill has won the race!

Oh, that's great

Oh, that's good

How exciting!

Really!

Well, I must be off

I must be going

Good-bye (formal and informal)

Bye/Bye-bye (informal)

See you later/soon/tomorrow, etc

f) How to send someone your regards:

Conversation I

Sally: Morning, Brian.

Brian: Morning, Sally. How are you feeling today?

Sally: Fine, thanks, Brian. And you?

Brian: Oh, pretty good, thanks. Shocking weather, isn't it?

Sally: Yes, terrible.

Brian: How's Peter now? Has he got over the flue yet?

Sally: Oh, he is much better, thanks. The doctor says he'll be all

right in a couple of days. Brian: Oh, I'm pleased to hear that. Sally: Yes, it is good news.

Brian: Talking of news — have you heard about Claire? Sally: No, what's happened? Brian: Well, I haven't seen her since the end of the term so I'm

not sure if it's true, but apparently, she's failed her

finals.

Sally: Oh, no. Poor Claire1 She must be so upset!

Brian: Ah, here's my stop. By the way, are you going to Simon's

party on Saturday? Sally: Yes, I expect so. Brian: Good. I'll probably see you there then. Well, bye-bye and

give my regards to Peter. Sally: Yes, I will. Bye.

56

I. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions: How are Brian and Sally getting on? How is Peter? What has happened to Claire? What are the friends going to do on Sa­turday?

//. Find in the text appropriate English phrases for the following.

Как ты себя чувствуешь сегодня? Спасибо, хорошо. Ужасная погода, не так ли? Как Пит? Уже поправился после гриппа? Ему

57

намного лучше. Приятно слушать об этом. Это хорошая но­вость. Ты слышал о Кларе? Очевидно, она не сдала выпускные экзамены. Не уверен, правда ли это. Должно быть, она очень рас­строена. Между прочим, ты собираешься к Саймону в субботу? Возможно, я увижу тебя там. Передай привет Питу. ///. Insert the missing phrases from the conversation:

1. — How are you feeling today?

— ... . And you?

2. — How's Peter? ...?

— Oh, he is much better, thanks. The doctor says ....

3. — Talking of news — ...?

— No, ...?

4. — By the way, are you going to Simon's party on Saturday?

5. — Well, bye-bye and .. .

IV. Role-play the conversation.

Conversation 2

John: Morning, Peter. How are you?

Peter: Fine, thanks, John. And you?

John: Oh, I'm all right. Nice and warm today, isn't it?

Peter: Yes, beautiful. Family О. К,.?

John: Yes, they're fine, thanks. And yours? ' .

Peter: Well, Sally's not good at the moment. Her mother was

taken to hospital last week, you know. John: Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. She must be so upset. Peter: Yes, she is.

John: By the way, have you heard about the professor? Peter: No, I don't think so. What's happened? John: Well, I'm not saying it's true, but there's a rumour going

round that he is leaving. Peter: It can't be true! Not the professor! He was here for life,

I thought. John: Well, that's what they say. Anyway, I must be off now. Got

to catch the train home. Good-bye!

Peter: Bye! Oh, and give my regards to your wife, won't you? John: Yes, I will.

/. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions: How are John and his family? Why is Sally not good at the moment? What does John inform Peter about? Why must John be off?

//. Listen to the conversation again. Recall the phrases expres­sing greetings, leave takings and inquiries about a friend (or a rela­tive) used in the conversation.

III. Read the conversation. Paraphrase the conversational formulas expressing greetings and leavetakings

IV. Role-play the conversation.

Conversation 3

Mr Smith: Good afternoon, Mr White, how are you?

Mr White: Very well, indeed, thank you, and how are you?

Mr Smith: Quite well, thank you Won't you sit down? Have

a cigarette, will you? Mr White: Thank you.

Mr Smith: Well, what's the news, Mr White? How's business? Mr White: Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you? Mr Smith: Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to

worse. In fact, it's the worst >ear we've had for a long

time. Mr White: I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon

improve. Mr Smith: Yes, let's hope for the best. And how's your nephew

Richard getting on? Mr White: Oh, he's getting on quite well, thank you. He's

staying in the country just now with his Uncle William

and his cousins.

Mr Smith: How long is he going to stay there? Mr White: I don't know exactly, but he's having i. very pleasant

time and it's doing him a lot of good, sо the longer he

stays, the better.

/. Listen to the conversation and answer the /uestions.

How is Mr White? How are things with Mr Smith? How is Richard getting on? Who did he go to the country with? Is he having a good time there?

//. Find in the text appropriate English phrases for the following:

Как поживаете? Спасибо, хорошо. Пожалуйся, присаживай­тесь. Как обстоят дела у вас? Боюсь, что не слишком хорошо и идут от плохого к худшему. Надеюсь, что дела поправятся. Давайте надеяться на лучшее. Какие новости' Как поживает ваш племянник Ричард? Чем больше он там пробудет, тем лучше.

Сколько времени он собирается там пробыть? Это приносит ему пользу. Я точно не знаю.

///. Insert the missing phrases from the conversation:

1. — How are you?

2. — ....

— Pretty good, thank you.

3. — And how are things with you?

4. — I hope things will soon improve.

- Yes, ... .

5. — ... .

— Oh, Richard's getting on quite well, thank you.

6. — ...?

— I don't know exactly.

IV. Give synonymous expressions to the following:

1. How are you? 2 Very well indeed, thank you. 3. Won't you sit down? 4. Have a cigarette, will you? 5. How's your nephew Richard getting on?

V. Role-play the conversation.

Practice

//. Respond to the following:

1. Good morning, Mr Morgan! How are you? 2. Hello, Dick! How's life? 3. Good morning, Mrs Baxter! How are you getting on? 4. Good evening, Fred! How are things? 5. Hello, Steve! How are you feeling? 6. How's your son? 7. How are your parents? 8. How's your husband? 9. How's your wife? 10. How's your friend getting on? 11. How's everybody at home^1 12. How's your family? 13 How is business?

///. Respond to a piece of good news:

1. I've won the game. 2. We're going out to celebrate-tonight. 3. We'll go to a show on Saturday. 4. We'll take a holiday. 5. We're getting married in the spring. 6. Mother's coming to stay. 7. We've bought a car 8. Father is going to give you a bike as a present.

IV. Respond to a piece of bad news.

1. You know Jane is not good at the moment. 2. I'm afraid Peter is getting worse. 3. You know Jack has caught flue. 4. Sheila has failed her exam, you know. 5. I've lost my job. 6. I've broken rny leg. 7. I didn't get the job. 8. I didn't win the prize.

V. Learn the dialogues:

1. — I've made up my mind We're going to Spain for the

holidays.

— How exciting!

— We'll leave early in July.

— Great!

2. — Morning, Frank. It's nice to see you.

— Hello, Jim. How are things?

— Pretty good, thank you. Any news from home?

— No news. I'm quite upset.

— Cheer up! Everything will be О. К-

3. — Good morning, Mr Ford.

— Good morning, Mr Dobson. How do you like the weather today?

— Absolutely wonderful, nice and warm. What's the weather forecast for tomorrow? Do you know?

— Yes, it says it will be bright and sunny.

— How nice! Good-bye.

— Bye-bye.

4. — Hello, John. We haven't seen you for ages. Where

have you been? Home?

— I've been visiting relatives.

— I went to Stirling to see an uncle of mine

5. — How do you do, Mr Jones?

— How do you do, Mr Hardy?

— Sit down, please. What can I do for you?

— I've come to fix an appointment with you for my chief.

— Will 10 o'clock suit him?

— Perfectly.

6. — I've come to say good-bye.

— What time are you leaving?

— I'm catching the 7.25.

— Well, good-bye and have a good journey.

— Good-bye. Remember me to your parents. 7 — How's Dick?

— Getting worse, I'm afraid.

— Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.

food although Steve helped himself more than once. The room was too crowded, people were almost pushing one another around. A girl spilt some wine on my dress. She blamed herself, although it wasn't really her fault in that crowd. We left early — I'm sure nobody noticed.

2. Pam: We had a few little accidents at the weekend. Mark

fell and hurt himself, Kate cut herself with a knife and I burnt myself. Jeff wasn't very understanding. He said we weren't careful enough and that we could only blame ourselves for the accidents. Jeff had bought a Do-it-yourself book on carpentry and on Sunday he started to make a wooden table for the balcony. I said to him: "Be careful, don't cut yourself", but he hit his thumb with the hammer three times.

3. Monika: We went on a tour of the Lake District. Jill: Oh, how nice! Did you enjoy yourselves? Monika: Yes, thanks. We met some nice people. Annegret

and I were talking German to each other on the bus and we noticed that the man and the woman opposite us were listening. They smiled at each other. Finally, the man introduced himself and said: "My wife and I are learning German, so we need practice. We're going to Germany on holiday next month. I've just been saying some irregular verbs to myself". He laughed, then they both said a few sentences in German. They seemed to be quite proud of themselves because it was the first time they had spoken German to German speakers At home, they could only practise with each other. 4. Steve: Which of these two ties do you like, Jill? Jill: Neither of them.

Steve: Why not? I like both of them. And this red and blue one is nice. Now, which of the three do you like best?

Jill: None of them. The colours are all too dark. Steve: I like all of them. Jill: And which are you going to buy? Steve: I don't know. I haven't looked at the prices yet (Looks at the prices). Oh, dear! I didn't realize they were so expensive. None of them!

Conductor: I'm sorry, sir. I can't change a pound note

Haven't you got any small change? Man: I've got no small change, I'm afraid.

Conductor: I'll ask some of the passengers.

Conductor: Have you any small change, sir?

1 st Passenger: I'm sorry. I've got none.

2 nd Passenger: I haven't got any either.

Conductor: Can you change this pound note, madam?

3 rd Passenger: I'm afraid I can't

4 th Passenger: Neither can I.

Conductor: I'm very sorry, sir. You must get off

the bus None of our passengers can change this note. They are all millionaires!

Two Tramps: Except us, conductor.

1 st Tramp: I've got some small change.

2 nd Tramp: So have I.

6. Steve: Where's the Latin America's file? I've looked

for it everywhere, but I can't find it anywhere. I've asked everybody, and nobody knows. Last week I put it somewhere in my cupboard, and now it's nowhere! I need some information for my report. Mr Short wants it tomorrow, and I haven't much progress.

Barbara: If I see anyone with it, I'll tell you. Don't worry. Somebody has taken it and will bring it back.

Harry: I've got some good news for you, Steve. The file is on Mr Short's desk! Mr Short is waiting for you. Here's a bit of advice, go and see him immediately.

Steve: Oh, dear! And you call that good news?

7. Helen: Isn't there anyone at home?

Jim I'll knock again, Helen. Everything is very quiet.

I'm sure there's no one at home. Helen: But that's impossible. Pat and Tom invited us to

lunch. Look through the window. Helen: Can you see anything? Jim: [ ook! Everyone's in the garden. Pat: Hullo, Helen. Hullo, Jim. Tom: Everybody wants to have lunch in the garden.

It's nice and warm out here. Pat: Come and have something to drink Jim: Thanks, Pat. May I have a glass of beer, please? Pat' Beer? There's none left. You can have some

Tom: Don't believe her, Jim. She's only joking. Have

some beer! //. Listen to the texts, ask and answer questions, retell

the texts:

1. Bill Graig and John Fitzgerald are pilots. Last year their plane crashed in the Pacific Ocean. They were in а rubber dinghy for four weeks. They didn't have much water, and they didn't have many things to eat. They had a few bananas and a little brandy from the plane. They caught a lot of fish. They had only a little chocolate. They had only a few biscuits and a few apples. After four weeks they saw a ship and the ship rescued them.

2. I was outside Frank's house at five o'clock sharp, and a few moments later he came out of the side door, pushing his bike. It didn't take us many minutes to cycle to the river. We stopped at the bridge, lifted our bikes over the gate, and hid them behind the hedge.

There were some cows in the meadow. They raised their heads, and looked a little surprised to see visitors so early in the morning. But there was nobody about, apart from ourselves.

We reached the island and fixed up our rods. There were a lot of small fish near the surface, but we didn't catch anything for an hour or so. Then suddenly Frank gave a cry,

"Got one!"

Almost at the same moment something big took my bait. I pulled up my fishing rod and the hook was gone. But Frank was luckier. "Look at this", he said happily, pointing to a large Silver Bream, which lay on the bank.

I congratulated him, but felt a bit disappointed about losing my own fish. The sun was up now. It was getting warmer every moment, and there wasn't much point in continuing to fish. I got out the thermos and we drank a little tea and ate a few biscuits.

Self check

/. Fill in the gaps with "some", "any", "no" or their

compounds:

1 I want .. seats for Tuesday night. Are there ... left? — No, there are ... seats left. Every seat is reserved. 2. Doctor, I think there's ... in my eye. ... looks funny.— Let me have a look. I can't see ... . No, I'm sure there's ... there. 3. There's ... in the other office! — I didn't hear ... .— Well, just have a look. — No, there's ... there. ... has gone home. 4. What are

you looking for? — My pen. It's ... in this room! — Where have you looked? — I've looked ... and I can't find it ... !

//. Fill in the gaps with either"(a) little" or "(a) few": 1 I drank ... whisky. 2. He smoked ... cigarettes. 3. I ate ... biscuits. 4. There was ... water on the floor. 5. We took ... photographs. 6. I like ... tomato sauce with my chips. 7. She made ... sandwiches. 8. She's got only ... dollars. 9. I had very ... friends at school. 10. There is too ... sugar in the tea. the tea.

///. Fill in the gaps with "many" or "much":

1. He hasn't got ... money. 2. We haven't got ... petrol. 3. He hasn't got ... friends. 4. We haven't got ... wine. 5. There aren't ... oranges in the fridge. 6. How ... coffee did you buy? 7. How . . stamps do you want? 8. How ... letters did you write? 9. How ... information was he able to give you? 10. How ... sandwiches do you want? 11. There were too ... people at the party. 12. He made too ... noise.

IV. Complete with "both", "neither", "all" or "none":

Monika: Which of these blouses do you like? This one or that

one?

Maria: ... of them. The colours are too bright. Monika: Well, I like ... of them, and ... of them is expensive.

I think I'll try the striped one. Maria: Have you seen these skirts? Which do you like?

The blue one, the red one or the green one? Monika: Oh, yes. They are nice. I like ... of them. They

aren't expensive. ... of them costs more than £10.

V. Fill in the gaps with proper reflexive pronouns:

1. The dog enjoyed ... with the children. 2. You needn't help them. They can do it ... . 3. I cut ... while shaving. 4. Did he hurt ... ? 5. She introduced ... as Mary Smith. 6. Don't blame ... . It isn't your fault. 7. Help ... to some cake. 8. We enjoyed ... at the party. 9. Your hair is untidy. Look at ... in the mirror. 10. I don't like people who always talk about ... . 11. He was very ashamed of ... . 12. She has won the game and she feels proud of ... .

UNIT5TOPIC: MEALS

COMMUNICATION: REQUESTS. REQUESTS FOR REPETITION. VOLITION.