Страдательный залог (Passive Voice). В английском языке глагол имеет два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог)

В английском языке глагол имеет два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог), который употребляется в тех случаях, когда объект действия более важен для говорящего, чем исполнитель (субъект) этого действия, причём, последний может даже не упоминаться.

Somebody built this house in 1825. (active)

This house was built in 1825. (passive)

Everybody listened the speakers very attentively. (active)

The speakers were listened to very attentively. (passive)

Страдательный залог (the Passive Voice) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола be в нужном времени и третьей формы смыслового глагола.

be + V III ф.

При изменении видовременной формы изменяется только вспомогательный глагол be! Форма смыслового глагола во всех временах страдательного залога остаётся неизменной.

Задание 11.1. Определите видовременную форму сказуемого и переведите предложения на русский язык.

Many houses are The house is being The house has been The house was The house was being The house had been The house will be The house will have been : built every year : built now : built (for) 3 years : built last year : built when I came here : built when we arrived in this city : built in a year : built by the end of the month

Задание 11.2. Соотнесите английские и русские формы.

1) is read 2) is being read 3) has been read 4) was read 5) will be read 6) will have been read 7) had been read   a) будут читать b) прочитают (к какому-то времени) c) читают (вообще) d) читают (сейчас) e) прочитали (уже) f) прочитали (вчера, в прошлом году) g) прочитали (до того, как что-то произошло; к какому-то определённому времени)

Задание 11.3. Форму действительного залога преобразуйте в соответствующую форму страдательного залога:

is asking, have translated, has been doing, translated, read, will send, was planting, write.

Задание 11.4. Раскройте скобки, выбрав сказуемое либо в действительном, либо в страдательном залоге.

1. The police (have arrested, have been arrested) three men. 2. Three men (have arrested, have been arrested) by the police. 3. They (are building, are being built) a new ring-road round the city. 4. A new ring-road round the city (is building, is being built). 5. They (will change, will be changed), the date of the meeting. 6. The date of the meeting (will change, will be changed).

Задание 11.5. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя страдательный залог (исполнителя действия можно не указывать, если в этом нет необходимости).

1. They will build a stadium here in future. 2. The fire has done a lot of damage. 3. A friend of mine has invited me to a birthday party. 4. Nobody asked me to call back. 5. They were looking for the lost key everywhere. 6. They will have built the bridge by July 20.

Задание 11.6. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Dinner is being cooked. Wait a little. 2. I’m afraid we’re being waited for. 3. Don’t you see that you’re being laughed at? 4. The film is still being shown. 5. Don’t talk so loudly. We’re being listened to. 6. Everything has been settled. 7. He’s been offered a good job. 8. Don’t bother. The texts have been translated. 9. Nothing has been done. 10. The letters have been translated for an hour. 11. The problem has been discussed since he left. 12. The letter had been delivered by 7 o’clock. 13. The articles hadn’t been looked through by that time. 14. I was told that the doctor had been sent for. 15. The things have been packed. 16. The house will have been built by the end of the year. 17. The plan was been discussed when he came. 18. The mail hadn’t been looked through by that time. 19. I told you that the film was still being shown. 20. The children were allowed to stay up as long as the adults.

Задание 11.7. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в соответствующей видовременной форме и залоге.

1. That church (look) very old. When (it/build)? 2. Where’s my bicycle? He has gone! It (steal). 3. A tree (lie) across the road. It (blow) down. 4. Your car might (steal) if you (leave) the key in it. 5. The new hotel (open) next year. 6. Everything (arrange) in good time. 7. We (ask) him to take part in our conference. 8. The problem (solve) in future. 9. Nothing has been done. 10. They (already/send) for the doctor. 11. The plans (change). 12. Your proposals (still/discuss). 13. This church (make) of wood. 14. You (want) on the phone.

Наши рекомендации