Parliament of Great Britain
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИИ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН
Казахская Головная Архитектурно-Строительная Академия
МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
Для магистрантов строительных специальностей КазГАСА
УДК 4И (англ) (07)
Составители: Адилбаева У.Б.
Методическая разработка по английскому языку для магистрантов строительных специальностей КазГАСА 1, 2 года обучения, 2011. – 43 с.
Методическая разработка по английскому языку для магистрантов строительных специальностей КазГАСА 1, 2 года обучения предназначена для магистрантов. Предлагаемая разработка содержит подборку технических, научных текстов для строительных специальностей с заданиями. Включены требования к написанию реферата, аннотаций, сочинению, эссе так же имеются примеры заполнения деловых бумаг. В приложениях имеются клише для устной речи, полезные выражения для пересказа статьей к обсуждению общественно-политических, научных текстов.
Утверждено Методическим советом ФОГП, протокол № от
Печатается по плану издания Казахской головной архитектурно-строительной академии на 2010-2011 уч.год.
Рецензенты: Нургалиева А.Ж., ассистент-профессора КазГАСА
Смагулова Р. к.ф.н., преподаватель КИМЭП.
Настоящее учебно-методическая разработка предназначена для использования на занятиях по английскому языку магистрантами 1, 2 года обучения инженерно-технических специальностей.
Цель учебно-методической разработки – развитие у магистрантов навыков и умений письменного перевода с английского языка на русский оригинальных научно-технических текстов, расширение словарной базы. При подборе текстов авторы предусмотрены прежде всего лексику, необходимую для дальнейшей самостоятельной работы студентов над специальной литературой.
В разработке использованы как учебные тексты, так и оригинальные тексты научно-популярного и научно-технического характера. Материалы в некоторых случаях сокращены, но не адаптированы. Для более прочного усвоения лексики предлагается перевести краткую аннотацию этого текста на английский язык отдельных сегментов.
Методическая разработка нацелено на формирование навыков написания короткого сочинения, эссе, реферата, резюме, аннотации, исследовательского доклада.
The British Isles
The British Isles consist of two main islands: Great Britain and Ireland. These and over five hundred small islands are known collectively as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Their total area is about 120.000 square miles, i.e. one thirtieth of the size of Europe. Great Britain proper comprises England, Wales and Scotland. The West coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, its East coast by the North Sea and the South coast by the English Channel. Once the British Isles were part of the mainland of Europe: the chalk ridge which ends in the cliffs at Dover reappears on the coast of France opposite and the coal that lies beneath the chalk in Kent is also found in France. This suggest that there was originally no break between these same geological formations on either side of the Strait. The seas round the British Isles are shallow. The North Sea is nowhere more than 600 feet deep. This shallowness is in some ways an advantage, Shallow water is warmer than deep water and helps to keep the shores from extreme cold. The coast line is deeply indented. This indentation gives a good supply of splendid harbours for ships and owing to the shape of the country there is no point in it that is more than seventy miles from the sea. The western coats are very broken by high rocky cliffs and the eastern are more regular in outline. There are three distinct regions in Scotland. There is the Highlands, then there is the central plain or Lowlands and finally there are the southern uplands with their gently rounded hills where the sheep wander. In England and Wales all the high land is in the west and northwest. The south-eastern plain reaches the west coast at the Bristol Channel
and by the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey. The Cheviots separates England from Scotland in the North, the Pennines going down England like a backbone and the Cumbrian mountains of the Lake District, one of the loveliest parts of England. The south eastern part of England is a low-lying land with gentle hills and a coast which is regular in outline, sandy or muddy, with occasional chalk cliffs and inland, a lovely pattern of green and gold-for most of England’s wheat is grown here – and brown plough – land with pleasant farms and cottages in their midst. The longest rivers, except the Severn and Clyde, flow into the North Sea. The rivers of Britain are no great value as water-ways – the longest, the Thames, is a little over 200 miles – and few of them are navigable. In the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clude, Tay, Forth and Bristol Avon are some of the greatest ports. The outstanding features of the climate of Britain are its humidity, its mildness, and its variability. These characteristics are due to the fact that the prevailing winds blow from the ocean, they are mild in winter and cool in summer, and are heavily charged with moisture at all times. The wettest parts of Britain are: the Western Highlands of Scotland, the Lake District, and North Wales. The eastern side of Britain is said to be in the rain-shadow. The wettest seasons are autumn and winter but in the district between the Humber and the Thames most rain falls in summer half of the year. Oxford, for example, has 29 percent of its rain in summer and only 22 percent in winter. Britain has warmer winters than any other district in the same latitude, The Gulf Stream flows from the Gulf of Mexico transfers a great deal of heat from equatorial regions to north - western Europe. For many parts of the British Isles February is the coldest month and usually August the hottest month. England is a highly developed industrial country. One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry. The main centres of the textile region are Liverpool and Manchester. Manchester is the chief cotton manufacturing city surrounded by a number of towns. Every town has specialized in producing certain kinds of yarn and fabrics. Plants producing textile machinery not only satisfy the needs of British industry but also export great quantities of machinery to the other countries. Northern and Western England is a coal, metal and textile country. The most ancient centres of English iron and steel industry are Birmingham and Sheffield. Iron smelting based on local ore deposits has been practised here since ancient times. In the period of England’s industrialization Birmingham and Sheffield played the leading role in the creation of England’s heavy industry. Newcastle is a city famous for its shipbuilding yards and its export of coal. Although Britain is a densely populated, industrialized country, agriculture is still one of its most important industries. The south of England is rural, with many fertile valleys, well-cultivated fields and pastures. The south - eastern coast is well -known for its picturesque scenery and mild climate and a number of popular resorts. On the southern coast of England there are many large ports, among them: Southampton, Portsmouth, Plymouth.
to comprise - заключать в себе, охватывать
shallow - мелкий
advantage - преимущество
to intent - вырезать, делать выемку
harbour - гавань
distinct - определенный; отдельный; отличный (от других)
plain - равнина
uplands - гористая часть страны
mouth - устье (реки)
backbone - хребет
the Lake District - Озерный Край (очень красивое место,
которое известно благодаря трем поэтам, которые там жили)
estuary - эстуарий, широкое устье реки
humidity - влажность, сырость
variability - изменчивость, непостоянство
moisture - влажность, влага
to charge - насыщать
yarn - пряжа; нить
fabric - ткань, материал
deposits - залежи
to practise - заниматься (чем-либо); практиковать
yards - верфи
fertile - плодородный
resort - курорт
Answer the questions:
1. What do we call the group of islands situated to the north-west of Europe?
2. What are the names of the biggest islands?
3. Do the United Kingdom and Great Britain mean the same?
4. What countries are situated on the British Isles? What are their capitals?
5. What are the names of the waters washing the coasts of the British Isles?
6. How can you characterize the surface of the British Isles?
7. What distinct regions are there in Scotland?
8. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?
9. What are the most important rivers in Great Britain?
10. What are the names of the chief mountain ranges on the island?
11. What is the climate of Great Britain?
12. Why is the climate of the British Isles milder than that of the Continent?
13. The UK is a highly developed industrial country, isn’t it? What does it produce and export?
14. What industrial cities are there in Great Britain?
Translate into English
1. Пролив Ла-Манш отделяет Великобританию от континента.
2. Пролив не широкий, не более 32 км.
3. Великобритания - одна из наиболее густонаселенных стран мира.
4. Население Великобритании в основном городское и составляет 57 миллионов человек.
5. Британские острова состоят из гористой части и низин.
6. Реки в Великобритании не очень длинные.
7. На климат Великобритании оказывает влияние Гольфстрим.
8. Сегодня Великобритания - крупный производитель железа и стали, электронного и магнитного оборудования, текстиля.
Speak about (use the map):
1. the geographical position of Great Britain;
2. English scenery and climate;
3. Great Britain as a highly developed country
Parliament of Great Britain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. The Parliament consists of two chambers. The House of Commons having 630 members and the House of Lords with
approximately 800 peers. That party which obtains the majority of seats in the House is called the Government, and the others - the Opposition. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. All the affairs of the state are conducted in the name of the Queen, but it is the Prime Minister who is the ruler of the country, presiding over the meetings of the Cabinet, which are always secret. The Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister and ministers. Any M.P. (member of the Parliament) may introduce a bill to the Parliament. Every bill has three readings at first in the House of Commons. There is no debate allowed after the first reading. After the second reading there may be a discussion. The speaker calls upon different members who are eager to speak. After the discussion the voting is done. After the third reading the bill goes before the House of Lords. If the Lords agree to the bill, it will be placed before the Queen for signature. The Queen having signed it, it becomes an Act of Parliament. There are main political parties in Great Britain: the Conservative,
the Liberal and the Labour.
affairs - дела
to conduct - проводить
to preside (over) - председательствовать; осуществлять контроль, руководство
to introduce - вносить на рассмотрение
to call - называть; вызывать
voting - голосование
the bill goes before - законопроект представляется
to sign - подписывать
act - закон
the Conservative, the Liberal, the Labour parties - Консервативная, Либеральная, Лейбористская партии
Answer the questions:
1. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?
2. How many chambers does the British Parliament consists of? What are they?
3. What are the main political parties in Great Britain?
4. Who is the Prime Minister of Great Britain?
5. Which political party does he represent?
6. What is the name of the Queen of Great Britain?
7. What stages does a bill introduced to the Parliament pass?
8. When does a bill become an Act of Parliament?
English life is full of traditions and the English are known to be conservative. They accept things which are familiar and they are suspicious of anything that is strange and foreign. Many English people are
very reserved and won’t talk to others, especially foreigners. Englishmen don’t like displaying their emotions even in dangerous and tragic circumstances. They pride themselves on being good-tempered and cheerful under difficulties. One of the most striking features of English life is the self-discipline
and courtesy of people of all classes. There is little noisy behaviour, and practically no loud disputing in the streets. Englishmen are naturally polite and are never tired in saying «Thank you», «I’m sorry», «Beg your pardon»/ If you follow anyone who is entering a building or a room, he will hold a door open for you. Many foreigners have commented on a remarkable politeness of the English. The Englishmen does not like any boasting or showing off in manners, dress or speech. Sometimes he conceals his knowledge: a linguist, for example, may not mentioned his understanding of a foreigner’s language. The English are the nation of stay -at -homes. There is no place like home, they say. The Englishman is master of his own house which he calls his castle. The English prefer small houses built for one family, perhaps with a small garden. The fire is the focus of the English home. The ceremony of English tea, known as «five o’clock tea» has become a ritual. Afternoon tea is taken between four and five o’clock. At the weekends
afternoon tea is a very sociable time. Friends and visitors are often present. Some people like to have the so-called «high tea» when meat, cheese and fruit may be added to bread and butter, pastries and tea.
English people show great love for animals. Pet dogs, cats, hens, canaries and many other animals have a good life in England. «Love me - love my dog» is the English saying. Another English characteristic is the desire to belong to some private clubs or societies to which other people are not admitted. Such groups have customs of their own which are not changed and which are supposed to make the members of the group different from the rest of the world. The coast is the most popular place for the annual holiday of English people and seaside resorts have many hotels. Food in British hotels and restaurants is reasonably cheap, but rooms are not. Few English people rent houses or flats for their holidays, but one of the traditional ways of spending a summer holiday is in a boarding -house. Some boardinghouse keepers provide all meals for their guests, others provide breakfast only. The discussion of leisure can’t be complete without mentioning sport. The English are great lovers of sport; and when they are neither
playing nor watching games, they like to talk about them or when they cannot do that to think about them.
Much attention is paid to sport at school. Boys must play cricket or football or some other game on most days of the week. Cricket is the national game in England. It demands sunny weather, plenty of time to
spare and a comfortable chair for the spectator. The main matches played between countries last for up to three days, with six hours’ play on each day. This game was played already in the 16 th century. Football which began in England in the 19 th century has spread all over the world only in the next century. For the mass of the British public the eight months of the football season are more important than the four months of cricket. Each college and university has its team for all the main sports. University rowing races in summer are a great and colourful social occasion. The English care strongly about the «sporting spirit», the ability to play with respect for the rules and the opponents, to win with modesty and to lose with good temper (that is to be able to be «good losers»).
to accept smth. - принимать что-л. (не отвергать ч-л.)
familiar - знакомый, ранее встречавшийся
suspicious - подозрительный
to display - демонстрировать, выставлять на показ
pride - гордость
circumstance - обстоятельство
good - tempered - добродушный, имеющий хороший характер
cheerful - веселый, жизнерадостный
courtesy - учтивость, вежливость
to boast - хвастать
to show off - пускать пыль в глаза
to conceal - скрывать
desire - желание
to admit - допускать, принимать (членом в организацию)
coast - морской берег, побережье
annual - ежегодный
resort - курорт
rent smth. - снимать, нанимать что-л.
boarding - house - пансионат
to provide smth. - обеспечивать, предоставлять что-л.
guest - постоялец, проживающий в гостинице
complete - полный
mention smth - упоминать о чем-л.
team - команда
rowing race - состязание в гребле
ability - способность
opponent - противник
modesty - скромность
Read text 3 and talk on the following points:
1. The English attitude to something that is strange and foreign.
2. The most striking features of the English.
3. The Englishman’s house.
4. «Five o’clock tea».
5. «Love me - love my dog».
6. Englishmen’s attitude to leisure.
7. The English are great lovers of sports.