Words and Word Combinations. Words and word combinations to be remembered.
ANCIENT RUSSIA (PART 2)
Words and word combinations to be remembered.
1) reign - царствование, 2) nomads - кочевники, 3) fortress -крепость, 4) to defend - оборонять, защищать, 5) to glorify -прославлять, 6) warrior - воин, боец, 7) to convert - превращать, обращать (в веру), 8) cathedral - собор, 9) rival - соперник, соперничать, 10) trade - торговля, занятие, 11) to frequent -часто посещать, 12) merchant - купец, 13) alliance - союз, родство, 14) furs - меха, 15) weapon - оружие, 16) jewellery -ювелирные изделия, 17) to seek (sought) - искать, добиваться, 18) cradle - колыбель, истоки.
Exercise 1. Read the international words and guess their meaning.
Expansion, steppe, Byzantine, emperor, military, epic, diplomat, standard, religion, dominant, culture, talent, architect, center, monarch, history, international, saga.
Exercise 2. Form adverbs from adjectives by adding the suffix -ly.
Resolute, bold, most, fortunate, universal, separate, close, mighty, wise, initial, natural, frequent, gradual.
The ancient Russian state (Kiev Russia) achieved great power in the reign of Vladimir I Svyatoslavich, who was prince of Kiev in 980-1015, and his son Yaroslav the Wise (ruled 1019-1054).
Under Vladimir I, the expansion of the state continued, and resolute measures were taken to fight the raids by steppe nomads. Defensive lines with fortresses were built in the southeast. The Bysantine emperor to whose sister Vladimir was married, resorted to the military assistance of the Kiev prince.
In Russian epics the wars and feasts of Vladimir I are glorified and the deeds of the favourite Russian knights (bogatyrs) - Ilya Muromets, a peasant's son, Dobrynya Nikitich, a diplomat and warrior, and Alyosha Popovich, a bold fighter, are attributed to the years of Vladimir's reign. Universal standards of Russian law were developed. Russia was converted to Christianity in 988-989, and the Orthodox Christian faith became the state religion. This strengthened the prince's power and helped unite separate parts of the state. Since Christianity was the dominant religion in Europe conversion drew ancient Russian state closer to other European states. It also promoted culture and the spreading of literacy. In that period, talented architects built the St. Sophia Cathedrals (in Kiev, Novgorod and Polotsk), rivalling the famous St. Sophia in Constantinople.
Kiev and Novgorod were now among the most populated towns in Europe and major centers of international trade. Russian merchants knew many countries very well. Russian furs, weapons and jewellery were famous all over the world. The grand prince's court was frequented by diplomats, warriors and merchants from Europe and Asia. Some of the mightiest monarchs sought to establish an alliance with Yaroslav. The extent and importance of Russia's international ties were reflected in marriages of members of the Russian grand prince's family. Thus, Yaroslav was married to the daughter of the Polish king, their sisters became the wives of the Polish and Hungarian kings and the margrave of Normandy. Yaroslav's son Vsevolod was related to the Hungarian, Danish, Norwegian and French Kings, the husbands of his sisters. Vsevolod's daughter was married to the German emperor Henry IV, and his son Vladimir Monomachos was married to the daughter of the King of England.
The Bysantine, Arabic-speaking and West European authors wrote about Russia. There are repeated references to Russia in French and German epics and Scandinavian sagas (were Russia is called the land of towns).
The ancient Russian state occupied an important place in the history of Europe. Kiev Russia is the common cradle of the East Slav's statehood and culture.
Exercise 3. Find the equivalents.
|1. расширение государства 2. принимать меры 3. степные кочевники 4. бороться с набегами 5. военная помощь 6. войны и пиры 7. обращать в христианство 8. господствующая религия 9. способствовать распространению грамотности 10. соперничать 11. во всем мире 12. могущественные монархи 13. установить союз 14. общая колыбель||1. mighty monarchs 2. all over the world 3. to fight the raids 4. to take measures 5. to establish an alliance 6. dominant religion 7. to rival 8. to convert to Christianity 9. wars and feasts 10. to promote the spreading of 11. steppe nomads 12. expansion of state 13. military assistance 14. common cradle|
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.
1) When did ancient Russian state achieve great power? 2) When did prince Vladimir I rule? 3) What was done to fight the raids by steppe nomads? 4) Who were the favourite Russian bogatyrs? 5) When was Russia converted to Christianity? 6) What was the historical impact of this event? 7) Christianity promoted spreading of literacy and culture in Russia, didn't it? 8) Where were the St. Sophia Cathedrals built? 9) What towns of Russia were the most populated in that period? 10) What can you say about the development of Russian trade and crafts in that period? 11) Why was Russia called the land of towns?
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the -ing forms.
1) The process of the forming of the Slav tribes goes back into the depth of the centuries. 2) Foreign trade relations developed with growing intensity with the countries of the Orient, Bysantium and the Baltic lands. 3) The basic ethnic territory of ancient Russia took shape in the 9th-10th centuries, uniting al the East Slav tribes. 4) Settling on the new lands the Varangians quickly merged with the Slav, absorbing their culture and language. 5) Prince Svyatoslav conquered the Slav and Finno-Ugrie tribes inhabiting the area between the Oka and Volga rivers. 6) Christianity promoted culture and the spreading of literacy. 7) Having come to power, Yaroslav issued a code of laws for the whole state regulating the court system and taxation. 8) The frequent raids of the steppe nomads resulted in towns and villages being divested and in trade routes being abandoned. 9) In 1113 Vladimir Monomachos became the grand prince of Kiev, without leaving his former dominions. 10) Talented architects built the St. Sophia Cathedrals, rivalling the famous St. Sophia in Constantinople. 11) The ancient Russian people sharing a common language were the principal population of Europe.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the predicates in the passive voice.
1) The East European Lowlands were inhabited by the East Slavs. 2) The greatest importance was acquired by the political union of the southern group of tribes centered around Kiev. 3) In the 10th century the East Slav states and tribal unions were ruled by the Kiev grand princes. 4) Russian princess Olga was glorified both in chronicles and in folk legends for her wisdom. 5) A large Slav state was created in the east of Europe and resolute measures were taken to fight the raids by nomads. 6) In Russian epics the wars and feasts of Vladimir I are glorified. 7) The heroic deed of the favourite Russian knights llya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich are attributed to the years of Vladimir's reign. 8) Universal standards of Russian law were developed under Vladimir I. 9) Russian was converted to Christianity in 988-989. 10) The grand prince's court was frequented by diplomats, warriors and merchants from Europe and Asia.
Exercise 7. You are a British student. You're in Russia now. Back in Great Britain you'll have to make a report on the history of the country you've visited. Prepare your report beforehand. For this:
- work out a plan of your report.
- write out from the text all the figures and information connected with these statistics.
Read and memorize the following words and word combinations. Use them in sentences of your own.
To occupy according to, to border on, to flow, to stretch, to comprise, subjects of Federation, shore, multinational, percentage, mountain ranges, extremely, vast, to be rich in, distinction, humidity, to influence, moisture, to moderate, natural wealth quantity, deposits, iron, coal, zink, gas, oil, manganese ores, non-ferrous metals, rare metals, peat, diamonds.
Exercise 1. Read the international words and guess their meaning.
Center, to cross, territory, to occupy, part, million, kilometer, federal, state, subject, nationality, climate, zone, phenomena, region, continental, specific, temperature, metal.
Exercise 2. Pay attention to suffixes and prefixes in the following words. What part of speech do they belong to?
Boundless, beautiful, largest, eastern, western, northern, southern, total, non-ferrous, closely, unknown, non-metallic, multinational, population, varied, extremely, continental, natural, humidity, phenomena.
Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present and Past Indefinite Tense (Active and Passive)
1) Our country (to have) an extremely varied climate. 2) Russia (to wash) by three oceans: the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Pacific. 3) The seas of the European part of Russia (to link) by vast canals. 4) The southern regions of Russia (to situate) in subtropics. 5) Climate (to differ) greatly from place to place. 6) Many rivers (to flow) through the territory of Russia. 7) Climate (to be) varied because of its vast territory. 8) Russia (to lie) within the arctic, subarctic and temperate zones.
Read and translate the text.
A geographical survey
Russia is the largest state in the world according to its territory. It occupies the part of Europe and the northern part of Asia The territory of Russia is 17,075 million square Kilometers.
It is a federal State comprising 89 Subjects of Federation. Russia borders on many countries on land. The shores of our country are washed by twelve seas and three oceans: the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Pacific.
The population of Russia is about 150 million people, It is a multinational state. The peoples of more than 100 nationalities live on its territory. But the percentage of the population of Russians is overwhelming.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. Russia is one of the most beautiful countries in the world. The nature is varied in it. Within Russia you can come across both the mountain ranges and boundless spaces of the plains. There are a lot of mountains in the south of the country, on the Urals. The Caucasus mountains are one of the highest mountains in the world.
Many rivers flow through the territory of Russia. The largest and deepest river of the European part is the Volga. The largest rivers of Asia are: the Lena, the Amur, the Enisei and so on. All the seas of the European part of Russia are linked by vast canals. In Siberia there is the deepest lake in the world - lake Baikal.
Our country has an extremely varied climate because of its vast territory. It differs greatly from place to place beginning from the cold Arctic Zones to the Black Sea cost subtropical zones. The climatic zones are responsible for many other natural phenomena, and with them specific features of the economy of a given region. Russia lies within the arctic, subarctic and temperate zones, its southern regions are situated in subtropics. Each zone has some distinctions within it, particularly with respect to humidity. Russia is a continental country, and is thus influenced by many specific natural features which are characteristic of the continent as a whole. The specific natural features of Russia depend not only on the land, but on the sea as well. The seas bring moisture to the land and affect its temperature, moderating both summer heat and winter cold.
Within Russia there are 11 hour zones. This means that in summer time the sun is always shining over some part of our country. Аs the sun sets in Kaliningrad it rises over Kamchatka. It is already New Year in Chukotka and Kamchatka when Muscovites are still busy sopping for the holiday.
The natural wealth of Russia is tremendous. Our country is one of the richest countries in the world both in the quantity and variety of minerals. It is very rich in mineral resources. It has the largest deposits of iron, coal, copper, zink and other minerals. The country also disposes large re-serves of natural gas, oil, manganese ones, non-ferrous and rare metals, peat, gold, diamonds and various non-metallic minerals. Russia is a very rich in forests and hydro-power resources. The hydro-power resources of our big rivers are inexhaustible.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.
1) What kind of state is Russia from the political and economic point of view? 2) What city is the capital of Russia? 3) Where is our country situated? 4) Is Russia the largest state in the world according to its territory? 5) How many hour zones are there within Russia? 6) How many seas and oceans wash the shores of Russia? 7) Are there many rivers and lakes in the country? 8) What is the population of Russia? Is it varied? 9) What is the climate in our country? 10) Is Russia rich in natural resources? 11) What is the natural wealth of the country? 12) What mineral resources is Russia rich in? 13) Is our country rich in forests and hydro-power resources?
Exercise 5. Translate into Russian.
1) Russia is a land of great plains which occupy more than two-thirds of its territory. 2) Our country is situated in the part of Europe and the north of Asia. 3) In the spring and autumn months several seasons occur simultaneously in different parts of Russia. 4) The length of the day and night at different latitudes changes according to the seasons of the year. 5) The specific natural features of Russia depend not only on the land, but on the sea as well. 6) The seas bring moisture to the land and affect its temperature moderating both summer heat and winter cold. 7) The sun is the source of heat energy for many natural factors at work on our planet.
Exercise 6. Give English equivalents.
Общая территория, сосредотачиваться, граничит с, население России, месторождение угля и нефти, безграничные пространства равнин, быть богатым чем-либо, располагать большими ресурсами, неисчерпаемые запасы.
Read the text and give a summary of it.
Mineral resources of Russia
The variety of mineral resources in Russia is a direct consequence of the variety of its geological structure. The reserves of our country contain colossal amounts of fuel which also serves as an important raw material for the chemical industry. Russia has greater -reserves of coal than any other country. Large reserves of high-quality coal have been found in the Kuzbas and Karaganda coal basins. Even greater coal reserves in Siberia (along the Tunguska River and the Lena River) are as yet untapped The Pechora (Vorkuta) coal basin in the North and the Sakhalin coalfields in the Far East are now being developed.
The country is very rich in oil reserves. The Volga-Urals oil-bearing basin is one of the largest.
The recently discovered oil deposits in Western Siberia may soon capture first place in terms of both deposits and output of oil.
Large deposits of natural gas have been found in the northern foothills of the Caucasus, the Volga area and especially Western Siberia Shules have been found in the Volga basin.
The country also disposes large reserves of peat. Russia is a very rich in ores-metallic and non-metallic. The world's largest iron deposits lie near the city of Kursk (the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly). There are vast iron ore deposits in the Urals, in Siberia and the Far East.
The main deposits of chromites and titanium ores are to be found in the Urals. Large quantities of copper ores have been discovered in Transbaikalia, the Urals; polymetallic ores have been found in the Altai; bauxites and nephelines (initial material used for the production of aluminium) occur in the Urals, on the Kola Peninsula and around Lake Ladoga; nickel ores on the Kola Peninsulas near Norilsk, in the Urals. Tin and rare metals have been discovered in the Trans-Baikal region, the Far East, whilst gold has been found in Yakutia and along the Kolyma River.
There is a great variety of non-metallic deposits, especially those which provide raw material for the chemical and building industries, arid fertilizers for agriculture.
RUSSIAN NATIONAL HOLIDAYS
Words and Word Combinations
Christmas - Рождество
Jesus Christ - Иисус Христос
Holy Bible - Святая Библия
Bethlehem - Вифлеем
wise men - мудрецы, волхвы
to worship - поклоняться
frankincense - ладан
myrrh - мирра
Easter - Пасха
commemoration - ознаменование, память
resurrection - воскресение
earthquake - землетрясение
to descend - сходить
tomb - гробница
to crucify - распинать
eternal - вечный
to pay tribute - отдавать дань
to pull one's leg - дурачить, обманывать
to fool - шутить, дурачить
to show signs - показывать признаки
to suspect - подозревать
lack of humour - отсутствие чувства юмора
January 1 - New Year's Day.
The New Year Holiday is very popular, especially with children. In every house there is a fir-tree. The presents are supposed to be sent by Father Frost (Santa Claus) and the Snow Maiden.
Happy people sitting around a festive table address New Year's greetings and good wishes to one another They are raising their wine glasses filled with sparkling champagne.
January 7 - Christmas
The Russian Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January. The holiday is connected with the wonderful birth of Jesus Christ as it is described in the Holy Bible.
On that day, about 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem. When Jesus was born, wise men from the East came to worship him. Theу gave him presents - gold, frankincense and myrrh.
That's why people nowadays try to please their friends and relatives giving them Christmas presents.
Easter is a very popular holiday in Russia in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus. Easter has no fixed date. It is held on the first Sunday after the date of the first full moon that occurs on or after March 21.
Here is how the Holy Bible describes Jesus Christ's resurrection. Suddently there was a great earthquake; and the angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled tack the stone from the door of the tomb and sat on it. And the angel said, "I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. He is not here; for he is risen".
That's why people nowadays greet each other on the Easter day by the words "Christ is risen!" And the expected answer is "He is risen indeed!" People also paint eggs and give them to one another as a symbol of eternal life.
March 8 - Women's Day
This is the day of paying tribute to women. On March 8, men give women flowers and presents, and do all the domestic work around the house and in the kitchen. In some countries this day is called Mother's Day and is celebrated in spring.
Jumorina is April Fools Day and takes place on April 1. On this day you can meet some one who will try to pull your leg. Even if he fools you, you aren't showing signs of bad temper. Otherwise, people will suspect you of the worst possible sin - a lack of humour.
The Victory Day
On the 9th of May Russian people as well as all progressive mankind celebrate the V-Day in commemoration of the brilliant historic victory of the Soviet Union over nazi Germany and its allies in Europe.
The Soviet people defended their freedom and independence, they saved not only their country but also many other nations in Europe from fascist slavery.
The Great Patriotic War continued for nearly four years (1941-1945).
Exercise 1. Ask your friend to tell you about the most popular national holidays in Russia.
Exercise 2. The British TV centre invites you to take part in the programme "Russian National Holidays". You are to speak on one holiday, but it must be your favourite one. Explain to the TV why you like it most of all.
CITIES OF RUSSIA
Words and word combinations to be remembered.
1) to found - основывать,
2) oak logs - дубовые брёвна,
З) tower -башня,
4) to install - устанавливать,
5) the Tzar Cannon - царь-пушка,
6) the Tzar Bell - царь-колокол,
7) the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts - Музей изобразительных искусств им. А. С. Пушкина,
8) the State Tretyakov Gallery – Государственная Третьяковская галерея,
9) research - научно-исследовательский,
10) artistic - художественный,
11) merchant - купец,
12) a patron of the arts - меценат,
13) to donate - передавать в дар,
14) to supplement - дополнять,
15) painting - живопись,
16) ancient Orient – Древний Восток,
17) ancient Egypt – Древний Египет,
18) antiquity - древности, антиквариат,
19) to rank second - занимать второе место,
20) plaster moulds - гипсовые слепки,
21) on the initiative of - по инициативе,
22) to feature displays - проводить выставки,
23) humanity - человечество,
24) to enjoy popularity - пользоваться популярностью,
25) to exhibit - демонстрировать, выставлять,
26) assets - имущество,
27) to undergo - претерпевать,
28) premises - помещение,
29) to acquire - приобретать,
30) theatre-doer - театрал,
31) to star - блистать (об артистах).
Exercise 1. Read the information about Moscow and the places of interest in Moscow.
Moscow actually began with the Kremlin. And it was founded in 1147, more than 800 years ago. The Kremlin had been rebuilt many times. Originally it was built of oak logs, and in 1367 Prince Dmitry Donskoy built a wall of white stone around the Kremlin hill. In a hundred years tsar Ivan III built new walls and towers of red brick as we see them today.
Originally the Kremlin was a fortress. The biggest tower of the Kremlin is called Spasskaya and it often serves as a symbol of the country. We can hear the bells of the clock of the Spasskaya tower by the radio. The clock had been built much later than the tower itself. The first clock was installed in 1625. The present clock was made in the middle of the last century.
The oldest tower of the Kremlin is Tainitskaya Tower. It was built in 1485. It had a secret well and an underground passage to the river.
Inside the Kremlin we can see many interesting things such as the Tzar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.
Moscow is the biggest city in Russia. Its population is about 9 million people. It is the seat of the Russian government, an important industrial and cultural center of the country, and it is also a city of students. There are several universities, scores of institutes and schools in it.
The TV tower in Moscow is the tallest in the world. Moscow is the capital of Russia and the largest cultural center of the country. In Moscow there are more than 80 museums many theatres and libraries, about 1000 parks.
The largest museums of Moscow are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery! The Tretyakov Gallery is a major research, artistic, culture and educational center in Russia and a museum of Russian art. Founded in 1856 by the merchant Pavel Tretyakov, a patron of the arts, as a private collection, it was donated as a gift to the city of Moscow in 1882. Later it was supplemented by collections from other museums and private citizens. The Treiyakovs Gallery has a rich collection of old Russian icons from the 11th-17th centuries, many examples of Russian painting from the 18th to the early 20th centuries.
The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow whose collection includes works of art of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, of antiquity and Western Europe, ranks second in size after the famous Hermitage in St.Petersburg. It was founded in 1912 as a museum of plaster moulds on the initiative of Ivan Tsvetayev, the father of the famous poetess Marina Tsvetayeva.
Moscow's Alexei Bakhrushin Theatre Museum, Mikhail Glinka Museum of Musical Culture and Polytechnical Museum, featuring displays illustrating humanity's technological progress throughout the centuries, enjoy great popularity.
Moscow museums have a big problem - lack of space. As a result, museums can exhibit only slightly over 10 per cent of their invaluable historic, cultural and scientific assets. The problem is being tackled on a scale. The Tretyakov Gallery old building is undergoing reconstruction together with preemies it recently acquired in the neighbourhood.
Moscow is a city of theatre-doers. Moscow theatres are famous all over the world. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Theatre. It was founded in 1776. Many outstanding singers, dancers, musicians starred on its stage.
Drama theatres and studies are also very popular in Moscow.
Exercise 2. Answer the following questions.
1) When was the Kremlin built? 2) The Kremlin had been rebuilt many times, hadn't it? 3) When did Prince Dmitry Donskoi build a wall of white stone around the Kremlin hill? 4) Originally the Kremlin was a fortress, wasn't it? 5) How was the biggest tower of the Kremlin called? 6) When was the first clock installed on the Spasskaya tower? 7) When was the present clock made? 8) Which is the oldest tower of the Kremlin? 9) What is the biggest cannon and bell in the world? 10) Moscow is the biggest city in Russia, isn't it? 11) What is its population? 12) Is the TV tower in Moscow the tallest in the world? 13) What is the second biggest city in Russia? 14) Who knows which is the biggest city in the world?
Exercise 3. Translate into English.
1) Москва началась с Кремля, и она основана в 1147 году 2) Мне говорили, что Кремль много раз перестраивали. 3) Первоначально он был построен из дубовых бревен, а в 1367 году князь Дмитрий Донской построил стену из белого камня вокруг Кремлевского холма. 4) Через сто лет царь Иван III построил новые стены и башни из красного кирпича. 5) Первоначально Кремль был крепостью. 6) Стены у него очень высокие и толстые. 7) Спасская башня - символ нашей страны. 8) Бой часов на Спасской башне мы слышим по радио. 9) Часы были сооружены позже, чем сама башня. 10) Первые часы были установлены в 1625 году. 11) Тайницкая башня - самая старая в Кремле. В ней был тайный колодец и подземный ход к реке. 12) Царь-пушка и царь-колокол самые большие пушка и колокол в мире. 13) Москва - самый большой город в России и резиденция Российского правительства. 14) Москва - город студентов. В ней несколько университетов, множество институтов и учебных заведений.
Exercise 4. Soon a quiz "Do you know Moscow" will be held in your group. Think of 5 interesting and original questions for the quiz.
Exercise 5. Recently you're got acquainted with a writer from Great Britain. He is writing a book about Moscow. Think of the museums and theatres in Moscow which are worth mentioning in the book.
Exercise 6. Your friend from USA dreams of becoming a theatrical critic. What theatres and theatrical museums in Moscow you'll advise him to visit and why?
Exercise 7. Discuss with your friend what places of interest in Moscow are the best ones for visiting.
Read and translate the text.
Of many towns and cities of our motherland there are some that like a mirror have reflected the character of our people. Among them the heroic city of Volgograd is something of a legend. It has a dramatic age-long history. Volgograd has changed its name three time: Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad and Volgograd.
The city was founded in 1589 as a fortress guarding the trade route along the Volga. It took its first name Tsaritsyn from the island on which it was originally built known as Sary-chin or Yellow Sands to the Tatars.
At the beginning of the 17th century Tsaritsyn was burnt to the ground and then rebuilt on the right bank of the river to strengthen the south-eastern boundaries of the country and protect the Volga trade route. Till the end of the 18th century it served as a bastion against the aggressive nomadic tribes. Tsaritsyn witnessed the Cossack freemen and peasants rise against the tsarism under the leadership of Yemelyan Pugachov.
Later the destiny of our state was decided at the walls of the city twice - back in the years of the Civil War and during the Great Patriotic war. During the Civil War in 1918 Tsaritsyn played an important role as a military, strategic and economic centre of the country.
After the Civil War the provincial town of Tsaritsyn (re-named Stalingrad in 1925) developed very rapidly. By 1940 Stalingrad was already a big industrial and cultural centre. On the eve of the Second World War it produced 40 percent of the country's tractors, over 30 percent of high-grade steel. It had 126 factories and plants, vast residential districts, many schools, libraries, theatres. By then the city's population had grown to about half a million. The peaceful life of the city was interrupted by the war.
It was one of the most severe fightings in the world history. The nazis dropped on the city a total of one million bombs weighing 100000 tons and fired several million artillery and mortar shell at it. But the defenders of the Volga stronghold fought to the last ditch and held out. The Stalingrad battle ended on February, 2 1943 in a defeat of the surrounded nazi army 330000 strong.
The victory over the nazi hordes made the hero-city world famous. The battle of Stalingrad largely determined the outcome of the war. Here on the banks of the Volga the defeat of fascism began. But the victory was won at a high price: thousands of young lives destroyed, thousands of hopes shattered, thousands of books unread and unwritten, thousands of tasks undone.
For the peoples of the world Stalingrad is a symbol of heroism and self-sacrifice, a monument to the struggle for peace and combat glory.
After the last shot of the battle had been fired and the gunpowder smoke dispersed, a chaos of destruction revealed itself.
But in a short period of time a modern town was reborn from the ruins to appear in all its majestic beauty. The city stretches for more than seventy kilometres along a high right bank of the Volga. It's population today is over 1 mln people. Volgograd is one of the biggest industrial, cultural and scientific centers in Russia. There are more than 150 industrial enterprises. Volgograd higher and specialised secondary educational establishments are attended by more than 40000 students. The city boasts of a professional drama theatre, a musical comedy theatre, a puppet theatre, a circus, the Palace of sports, the Central Concert Hall, a Symphony orchestra, a Philarmonic society, a Planetarium, Fine Arts Museum, a television centre, a lot of cinemas, an art school, many palaces of culture and clubs, libraries, children music schools, stadiums and sports grounds.
Volgograd is rich in the traditions of military glory. Many years have gone. But everybody pays tribute of respect to the defenders of our hero-city. On the Victory Day, the 9th of May, and on the 2nd of February, when the victory at Stalingrad is celebrated, meetings with war-veterans are held and torch-light processions march to the historical monuments to honour the memory of the heroes.
Memorise the following words and word combinations.
mirror - зеркало
fate - судьба
to reveal the character - проявить характер
to pay tribute of respect - отдать дань уважения
defender - защитник
defeat - разгром
fortress - крепость
to burn to the ground - сжечь дотла
to strengthen boundaries - укреплять границы
trade route - торговый путь
border - граница
to border on - граничить с
troops - войска
turning point - поворотный пункт
to carry out -проводить, осуществлять (работу, исследование и т.п.)
military glory - военная слава
torch-light procession - факельное шествие
to honour the memory - почтить память
to witness - быть свидетелем
destiny - судьба
Exercise 1. Find equivalents to the following expressions in the first and second paragraphs of the text.
Подобно зеркалу; отражать судьбу страны; героический город Волгоград; своего рода легенда; менять свое имя трижды; служить крепостью; поражение фашизма.
Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, paying attention to the suffixes.
Thousands of books unread and unwritten; thousands of tasks undone; Tsaritsyn was rebuilt; the city was renamed Stalingrad.
Exercise 3. Translate into Russian the following international words.
Character, tradition, military, symbol, symbolic figure, strategy, strategic, college, symphony, theatre, concert, club, veteran, period, modern, ruins, chaos, procession, drama, dramatic, comedy, circus, tradition, legend, monument, meeting, history, historical, hero, heroic, heroism, economy, economic, economical, culture, cultural, artillery.
Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks and translate the sentences into Russian.
1) The city was founded in 1589 as a ___________ guarding the trade routes.
2) At the beginning of the 17th century Tsaritsyn was ___________ and then rebuilt on the right bank of the river.
3) In 1925 Tsaritsyn was ___________ Stalingrad.
4) For the peoples of the world Stalingrad is a symbol of ___________ .
S) Here on the banks of the Volga ___________ of fascism began.
6) The victory was won at a high ___________ .
7) It was one the most ___________ in the world history.
8) The battle of Stalingrad largely determined ___________ .
9) Volgograd is one of the biggest ___________ .
10) The population of Volgograd is ___________ .
11) Volgograd is rich in ___________ .
12) The city boasts of ___________ .
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions to the text.
1) Volgograd has a dramatic age-long history, hasn't it? 2) When was it founded? 3) How, when and why was the city originally named and renamed? 4) What was the city like till the end of the 18th century? 5) When was the destiny of our state decided at the walls of the city? 6) Characterize the city by 1940. 7) The Stalingrad battle was one of the most severe fightings in the world history, wasn't it? What was its influence on the outcome of the war? 8) What price the victory was won at? 9) What is the population of Volgograd? 10) How long does it stretch along the Volga? 11) What does the city boast of today?
Exercise 6. Translate into English
1) Город-герой Волгоград является своего рода легендой. 2) В 17 веке Царицын был вновь выстроен на правом берегу Волги. 3) Наш город отразил судьбу страны и выявил характер нашего народа. 4) Поражение немецких войск под Сталинградом было поворотным пунктом Второй мировой войны. 5) Каждый год 2 февраля мы празднуем победу Советской Армии под Сталинградом. 6) Факельные процессии шествуют к памятникам, чтобы почтить память героев.
Exercise 7. What would you tell your guest from England about Volgograd?
Read the text and render it in English.
The battle of Stalingrad
One of the main objectives of the Hitlerites' offensive during the second World War was the Caucasus with its rich oil fields. The German strategy was to separate the Soviet troops in the Caucasus from using the Volga for river traffic. To carry out this strategic plan Hitler concentrated over forty divisions supported by tank units and aviation. In the Stalingrad area the nazis' plane and tank attack caused great damage to the city. Heavy street fighting was going on in the suburbs. Most of the buildings were ruined or burnt down. But the defenders of the city, fighting with unprecedented courage, checked the enemy's advance and a few months later launched a-counter-offensive.
After three months' heavy fighting the Soviet troops broke through the German fortified points and as a result of the breakthrough took prisoner the entire nazi garrison trapped in that area.
The victory won over the nazis in the battle of Stalingrad determined the outcome of the war. The heroism displayed by the Soviet officers and men in the battle on the Volga and the heroes who gave their lives defending their country will never be forgotten.
Memorise the following words and word combinations.
to fight - сражаться, бороться
fighting - бой
offensive - наступление
to separate smb. (smth.) from smb. (smth.) - отделять кого-либо (что-либо) от кого-либо (чего-либо)
to cause a great (a lot of) damage to smth. - наносить чему-либо большой ущерб
(heavy street) fighting was going on in the suburbs - (тяжелые уличные) бои велись в пригороде
to ruin smth. - разрушать, превращать что-либо в руины
to burn smth. down - сжигать что-либо (дотла)
courage - мужество
unprecedented courage - невиданное (небывалое) мужество
to check the enemy's advance - останавливать продвижение противника
to launch a counter - offensive - начинать контрнаступление
to fortify smth. - укреплять что-либо
breakthrough - прорыв
to take smb. prisoner - брать кого-либо в плен
to trap smb. - заманивать кого-либо в ловушку
to determine the outcome of the war - предопределить, решить исход войны
to display heroism - проявлять героизм
to win a victory over smb. - одерживать победу над кем-либо
to win a battle - выигрывать сражение
Imagine that you are a guide of a group of foreigners who have come to do the sights of the city. Make use of the information of the following text.
Sightseeing in Volgograd.
Volgograd today is a garden-city with beautiful streets and picturesque parks. There are a lot of places of interest in it.
The Square of Fallen Heroes is situated in the very centre оf the city. This name is associated with many events.
The square saw the first demonstrations and meetings of Tsaritsyn workers, and it was there in 1917 that Soviet power was proclaimed.
During the Great Patriotic War the Square of Fallen Heroes was a scene of fierce fighting. It was there that Field Marshal Paulus and his staff were taken prisoners in the basement of a department store in January, 1943.
Now the square of Fallen Heroes is twice as large in size. It looks more impressive too. In the public garden on the square there is a common grave crowned with an eternal flame and an obelisk. Lying under the granite slabs are the remains of those who had given their lives for the Homeland, for the happiness of all peoples on Earth. The grave is always heaped with fresh flowers and wreaths laid by tourists and visitors from various cities and countries.
The Square of Fallen Heroes is crossed by a new thoroughfare - Peace Street, lined with scores of monumental buildings. The street stretches as far as the Planetarium, a girt to the city from German people.
A broad Alley of Heroes leads from the Square of Fallen Heroes to the Volga.
The Volga embankment is the Volgograders' favourite promenade with its vast beds of gorgeous roses, fiery cannas and gladioli, a broad granite stairway, monumental columns, emerald green slopes. From the embankment there opens a fine view of the Volga, the biggest river of Europe. One can also see a breath-taking panorama of the opposite bank of the Volga.
The city's longest thoroughfare is Lenin Prospect. It runs through the entire length of the city which is 70 km long. Actually it connects all the city. The thoroughfare in 78 metres wide. It has a flower garden in the middle which abounds in slender poplars, branchy maples and elms, fragrant acacias and flowers. The central thoroughfare crosses Lenin Square.
During the days of the great battle the square was the scene of fierce fighting. The Soviet troops' dispositions were there for two months. On the square there stands the world famous Pavlov House which was held by a group of Soldiers for two months, beating off countless enemy assaults often supported by aircraft and artillery.
Right next to the Pavlov House there is a mill which, with its huge walls broken by shells and bombs, and empty black holes of windows, is a silent witness of the stubborn defence of the city. The people preserved the ruins of the mill as a reminder of what should never happen again.
Once in Volgograd one must visit the Mamayev Mound. Much blood had been shed there during the unheard - of 135-day battle for that strategic height. After the victory the entire territory of the Mound was from 500 to 1,250 fragments per square metre. Now the Mamayev Mound is crowned with a majestic monument to the heroes of the Stalingrad battle.
The Pantheon will definitely impress everybody. The names of the heroes who fought in the great battle are inscribed in gold on numerous plaques, and in the Hall of Combat Glory you will see portraits of those who performed the most spectacular feats. In the centre of the hall there burns the eternal flame. The sculpture "Mother in Grief", 12 metres high, towers over the Pantheon. The whole ensemble is crowned with the sculpture "Motherland", 52 metres high, striking for its tremendous size and expressiveness.
There are many museums in Volgograd. The Volgograd State Museum of Defence, situated in the centre of the city, is a place of great interest. Its displays are illustrative of the heroic struggle waged by the whole nation and by the people of Volgograd in the years of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. There are many interesting exhibits, documents, drawings, photographs and portraits in the five halls of the museum. In the sixth hall you will see the gifts from 40 cities of the world to Volgograd as a token of respect for its staunchness and invincibility, including the "Victory" statue from the Czechoslovak people, a sword from King George the Sixth of Britain, a message from US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other relics.
The Volga Hydroelectric Power Station is situated in the northern part of the city. From there one can go on excursion to Volzhsky, a sputnik-town of builders, power engineers and chemical workers.
Also associated with Volgograd is another structure - the Volga-Don Canal built in 1952. The canal, 101 kilometres long, has 13 locks. Besides being a major waterway, it is an excellent work of architecture framed in luxuriant greenery. One can take a 35-km Volga trip to the Canal by a motor launch: you will see the Volga in all its serene beauty, watch ships passing through the locks and finally speed down the Canal.
Volgograd is visited by many tourists. There is hardly a country whose representatives have not been to Volgograd. The people of Volgograd accord their guests cordial hospitably and readily tell them all about the city and its progress.
Список рекомендуемой литературы.
1. Учим английский. Сост. ВТК "Бизнес-книга". В З ч. Ч.З. М.: СП "Маркетинг-XXI", "АО "Полигран", 1991. 256 с.
2. Я хочу и буду знать английский. Под ред. Т. И. Арбековой. М.: "Телер", Петрозаводск: "ИнКА", 1993. 502 с.
3. S. Schmidt, K. Tarnovsky and I. Berkhin. A Short History of the USSR. Moscow, 1984.