A) Analyze the sentences underlined in Text A. Find subjects, predicates and secondary parts of the sentences. Define the part of speech they are denoted by
Учебно-методическое пособие № 149
УДК 811.111 (075.8) + 621.86
Рецензент: ст. преп. Н.Е. Дубовская (СПбГАСУ)
Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 149/ сост.: Л.Р. Данилова, Т.Н. Павлова; СПбГАСУ.-СПб., 2015.- 70 с.
Предназначено для аудиторных и самостоятельных занятий студентов I курса направлений подготовки 190109 – наземные транспортно-технологические средства, 190100 – наземные транспортно-технологические комплексы. В пособии использованы оригинальные тексты по строительным и дорожно-строительным машинам и оборудованию. Пособие предназначено для получения навыков перевода текстов по специальности со словарем и без словаря. Каждый урок включает тексты, фонетические, лексические и грамматические упражнения. Пособие включает словарный минимум с транскрипцией для правильного чтения труднопроизносимых слов.
© Л.Р. Данилова, Т.Н. Павлова, 2015
© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2015
Parts of Speech;
The Structure of the Sentence;
There + be;
Exercise 1. Work out the following sounds:
[x] man, handle, axle, actual, factor, value
[J] lever, machine, between, heat, means, receive, decrease, wheel
[R] task, faster, advantage
Exercise 2. Match the transcription to the words given below and define their meanings:
|1. [sIns]||1. amount||1. требовать|
|2. [rI'kwaIq(r)]||2. engine||2. разрабатывать|
|3. [q'maVnt]||3. friction||3. производительность|
|4. ['xktSVeIt]||4. develop||4. технический|
|5. [mI'kxnIk(q)l]||5. efficiency||5. трение|
|6. [I'fISqnsI]||6. power||6. мощность|
|7. [dI'velqp]||7. since||7. двигатель|
|8. ['paVq(r)]||8. actuate||8. так как|
|9. ['enGIn]||9. require||9. количество|
|10. ['frIkS(q)n]||10. mechanical||10. приводить в действие|
People have used some sort of appliances to help them with their work almost since prehistoric times. Long ago it was found that machines could perform work better and faster than any man.
A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. It normally requires some energy source ("input") and accomplishes some sort of work. Generally these devices decrease the amount of force required to do a given amount of work, alter the direction of the force, or transform one form of motion or energy into another.
In physics, a simple machine is any device that only requires the application of a single force to work.
The traditional list of simple machines is:
The inclined plane (N)
The wheel and axle (O)
The lever (T)
The pulley (U)
The wedge (V [single wedge]; X [double wedge])
The screw (Y)
The letters are used, because their shapes resemble the shapes of the simple machines. Simple machines are often used in combination as components of more complex always less than 100% efficient machines.
The mechanical advantage of a simple machine is the ratio between the force it exerts on the load and the input force applied. This does not entirely describe the machine's performance. Real machines are affected by such factors as friction and elasticity, so the actual mechanical advantage of a simple machine will usually differ from its theoretical value.
The mechanical efficiency of a machine is the ratio of the actual mechanical advantage (AMA) to the ideal mechanical advantage (IMA). Functioning physical machines are Modern power tools, automated machine tools, and human-operated power machinery complicate the definition of "machine" greatly. There are machines which receive mechanical energy to actuate operating members employed to change the properties, conditions, shape or position of the material to be handled.
Machines used to transform heat or other energy into mechanical energy are known as engines.
As a means to produce material wealth, machines are invaluable in realizing the process of production and increase many times over the productivity of human labour.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What device is called a machine?
2. What does a machine require to accomplish some work?
3. Why have people used mechanisms and machines since ancient times?
4. What is the mechanical efficiency of a machine?
5. What kinds of simple machines are there?
6. Why are machines invaluable in the process of production?
Exercise 4. Translate the following words into Russian:
Device, transmit, perform, source, require, amount, force, motion, advantage, ratio, friction, efficiency, actuate, handle, power, tool, means, develop, rate, dump truck, load (n., v.), power shovel, wheel, axle, pulley, wedge, screw.
Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English:
Клин, устройство, винт, передавать, шкив, совершать, рычаг, требовать, ось, источник, колесо, сила, экскаватор, движение, преимущество, грузить, самосвал, отношение, скорость, трение, инструмент, средство, производительность, приводить в действие, транспортировать, мощность.
Exercise 6. Match the following words (A) with their definitions (B):
1. something by which a result is brought about; a method, way or instrument
2. a bar used to lift or move a heavy object
3. an instrument used in doing work
4. something which is carried or supported, especially if heavy
5. anything useful or helpful
6. the rubbing of one thing against another, e.g. when two parts of a machine rub together and in this way waste power or energy
7. a round frame or disk which turns on an axle
8. a bar or rod on or with which a thing turns
9. a machine or tool which is used for a special purpose
10. to do a piece of work
Exercise 7. Define the part of speech of the following words:
Construction, operation, position, distance, importance, movement, connection, special, internal, feature, usually, conventional, motion, changeable, normal, homogeneous, section, various, completely, attachment, gravity, capacity, thickness, continuous, simultaneously, individual, driver, scraper, hydraulic, powerful, trencher, mainly, dimension, replaceable, rapidly, productivity, fulfilment, preparation.
Exercise 8. Use the following suffixes to form the new words from the words given bellow:
nouns: -tion(-sion), -ance(-ence), -ment, -ness, -ty, -ture;
adjectives: -al, -able, -ant(-ent), -ful, -less, -ous;
Construct, form, perform, transmit, require, change, thick, differ, structure, help, assist, act, vary, complete, power, depart, danger, bad, suit, move, apply, direct, quick, appear, create, use, allow, continue, smooth, excavate, operate, attach, fame, treat, connect, equip, fulfill, develop.
Exercise 9. Put the words in the correct order:
1. simple tools / ancient people / in / used / everyday / life / their
2. people / prehistoric times / have used / some / since / mechanisms
3. any man / work / perform / machines / can / than / better and faster
4. into / first people / one kind / energy / of / transform / another / couldn’t
5. three forms / necessary / simple mechanical systems / are / energy / of / only/ for
6. use / a lot of / we / today / machines
7. energy / mechanical work / transform / into / some machines
8. are used / to perform / of / machines / useful work
Exercise 10. Translate the sentences:
1. There are different types of cranes.
2. Since prehistoric times there have been some appliances to help people with their work.
3. There are machines which transform energy into mechanical work.
4. There will be some new bridges in our city.
5. There were some difficulties in operating a new giant crane.
6. There is a new tower crane at this building site.
7. There was an exhibition of new tractors last month.
8. Some people consider there are only five simple machines.
a) Analyze the sentences underlined in Text A. Find subjects, predicates and secondary parts of the sentences. Define the part of speech they are denoted by.
b) Find in the text «there + to be» construction.
Exercise 12. Translate the following word combinations:
Energy conversion; useful work performance; advanced production methods.
Human labour productivity; horse power; an automatic concrete plant; a new transmission system; a complex control system; most machine elements; a steel structure; truck wheels.