From the History of Building
Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. At that time the greater part of our planet was covered with thick forests. Even in those days men found out ways of using wood as a building material. In some places they tied together tops of several trees and covered them with the hides (skins) of animals. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain and sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves.
The primitive people’s first houses were tents or mud-huts. Later on people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially, people learned the use of these sun dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years. Primitive buildings required no tools. The invention of tools permitted the cutting of stones and timber. Stone was the most convenient building material in countries where there was not much wood but plenty of stone.
The column has played an important part in the history of building. Most of the buildings of old times were based upon the column and beam method of construction.
About 4,000 years before our era the Egyptians possessed great constructional know-how (ability). They built simple houses by present standards. They used bricks, which in their primitive form were not burned, but were hardened by being dried in the sun. Since the Middle Ages, brickwork has been in constant use everywhere, in every sort of construction and in every architectural style. They made flat roofs because there was very little rain in Egypt. Their buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful. They also erected temples, palaces and tombs, because the ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid of Khufu, King of Egypt. We still admire their monuments, sphinxes and palaces.
Greek builders learned much from Egyptian builders. They also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful.
Greeks built houses with slanting roofs because the climate of these two countries differs greatly. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. Soon Greek builders were second to none in column making. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.
Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they are.
|mud-hut the column and beam method know-how (ability) to burn to harden slanting roof to be second to none||землянка колонно-балочный метод умение обжигать придавать твердость, прочность покатая крыша не иметь себе равных|
Контрольная работа № 2
Вариант № 2
I. Переведите предложения с модальными глаголами и их заменителями
1. Carol can sing very well. 2. Could you help me with repairing? 3. They may come soon. 4. You mustn’t go out today. 5. We have to work hard now. 6. He is to arrive on Monday.
II. Составьте рекомендации для друга, желающего построить свой дом. Употребите глаголы в повелительном наклонении:
to work hard, to make a design, to choose the right place, not to forget about the landscape, to choose building materials, to calculate money.
III. Перепишите и переведите письменно предложения и словосочетания, обратите внимание на многозначность предлогов.
1. The rain kept us in. 2. Keep off the grass! 3. She can keep nothing back from her friends. 4. Keep the dog out! 5. Did any cars go by? 6. If he goes by, I’ll tell him everything.