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Made in Space

This label «Made in Space» for industrial materials will proba­bly surprise no one in the not so distant future. They may include superconductors, new kinds of alloys, substances with peculiar magnetic properties, supertransparent laser glass1, polymers, plas­tics, and so on. Numerous experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations have paved the way2 to the development of methods and means of industrial production of new materials of better quality on board a spacecraft3. Experts estimate that within a few coming years industrial production of various materials will be started in space.

Conditions on board a space vehicle orbiting Earth greatly dif­fer from those on its surface. However, all of these conditions can be simulated4 on Earth, except for one — prolonged weightless­ness. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. A space flight is another matter: a satellite orbiting Earth is in a dynamic zero-gravity state, i.e., when gravity is cancelled out5 by inertia.

What can weightlessness be used for? Many well-known pro­cesses go on differently due to the absence of weight. The Archime­des principle is no longer valid and, consequently, stable-state6 liquid mixtures can be obtained, the components of which would immediately separate on Earth because of different density. In case of melts7 of metals, glasses or semiconductors, they can be cooled down to the solidification point even in space and then brought back to Earth. Such materials will possess quite unusual qualities.

In space there is no gravitational convection8, i.e., movements of gases or liquids caused by difference of temperatures. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of convection. Biochemists also have to deal with the worst aspects of convection, for example, in the production of superpure biologi­cally active substances. Convection makes it very difficult on Earth.

Following the launch of the first orbital stations the specialists started experiments aimed at proving the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the production of certain materials. In this country all orbital stations from Salyut 5 onwards were used for that purpose, as well as rockets. Since 1976 over 600 technological experiments have been carried out on board manned and un­manned space vehicles.

The experiments proved that many of the properties of the ma­terials obtained under the zero-gravity condition were much better than those produced on Earth. Besides, it has been established that it is necessary to develop a new science — physics of the weightless state — which forms the theoretical basis for space industry and space materials study. This science has basically been developed. The methods of mathematical modelling of the hydromechanical process under the zero-gravity condition have been created with the help of computers.

Special space vehicles will also be needed for industrial produc­tion of new-generation materials. Research has shown that the ac­celeration rate on board these vehicles must be reduced to the minimum. It was found that space platforms in independent flight carrying the equipment were most suitable for producing materials. These vehicles will have to use their own propulsion systems to ap­proach their base orbital station after a certain period of time. The cosmonauts on board the station can replace the specimens. Many new and very interesting projects are planned for orbital stations. Here is one of them. Convection does not allow to grow large pro­tein crystals on Earth. But it is possible to grow such crystals under the zero-gravity condition and to study their structure. The data obtained during the experiments can be useful for the work of labo­ratories on Earth in using the methods of gene engineering9. Thus, it may be possible to make new materials in space and also to obtain valuable scientific data for new highly efficient technologies on Earth.

Preparatory work for industrial production in space at a larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Western Europe and

Japan. It should be said that according to the estimates of Ameri­can experts production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars in the future.

Notes to the Text

1. supertransparent laser glass — сверхпрозрачное лазерное стекло

2. to pave the way — проложить путь

3. on board (a spacecraft) — на борту (космического корабля)

4. to simulate — моделировать, имитировать

5. to cancel out — уничтожать, уравновешивать

6. stable-state — устойчивое состояние

7. in case of melts — в случае расплавов

8. gravitational convection — гравитационная конвекция (перенос тепла под действием силы тяжести)

9. gene engineering — генная инженерия

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 17.Просмотрите текст 6А и ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is this text about? 2. Have you seen the label «Made in Space» anywhere? 3. Why can't certain materials be produced on Earth? 4. Can all the conditions on board a space vehicle be simu­lated on Earth? 5. When will it be possible to start industrial pro­duction of materials in space? What do you think about it? Can we start such production now? 6. Why can we obtain materials of better quality in space? 7. What equipment is needed for producing materials in space? 8. How will this equipment operate?

Упражнение 18.Составьте утверждения, выбрав правильный вариант со­гласно тексту 6А.

1. Many well-known processes go on differently in space due to

a) different density.

b) the presence of weight.

c) the absence of weight.

2. The components of stable-state liquid mixtures would sepa­
rate on Earth because of

a) high temperature.

b) different density.

c) different conditions.

3. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of

a) weightlessness.

b) solidification.

c) convection.

Упражнение 19.Найдите в тексте 6А модальные глаголы и их эквивален­ты. Замените эквиваленты соответствующими модальными глаголами.

Упражнение 20.Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол.

1. Do you live far? (Can, must) we meet here at 7 o'clock? — We certainly (may, can). — I'll see you later this evening, then. 2. Bill, would you help me? Sure, I'd be glad to help you. What (may, can) I do for you? 3. (Can, may) I take your pen? I've broken mine. 4. Do you know when Bob comes back from the University? I am afraid he (can, may) be very late. He has an examination to­morrow. He (can, must) study for the examination. 5. Do you have a stamp (марка)? — No, I'm afraid I don't. You (may, must) go to the post office for this. 6. I'm very much interested in envi­ronment problems. I think we (must, may) learn to live in har­mony with nature.

Упражнение 21.Укажите предложения с модальными глаголами, выра­жающими необходимость совершения действия. Переведите.

1. As telegraph wires couldn't be hung over the ocean, cables had to be laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. 2. In the next few years engineers are to develop computers of more than 2 billion operations a second. 3. A new kind of telephone may be called a video-phone. 4. One must know that we shall need a lot of special­ists that will be able to work and live in space for a long time. 5. To see distant objects clearly, one should change the focus. 6. Within a few coming years a quantity production of various materials is to begin in space. 7. Some liquid mixture components would immedi­ately separate on Earth because of different density. 8. It should be said that special space vehicles are necessary for industrial produc­tion of space materials. 9. Our group will be allowed to use new lab­oratory equipment next term. 10. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors.

Упражнение 22.Найдите предложения с эквивалентами модальных гла­голов to have to, to be to.

A. 1. Television has a great number of uses nowadays. 2. Morse discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they

could be sent as a sound. 3. That part of this country has become a highly industrial one. 4. Why couldn't you do it yesterday? — Be­cause I had to go home earlier than usual. 5. This important prob­lem had been solved by the end of 1980. 6. In the past messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship. 7. Some materials with useful qualities will have to be produced in space. 8. A historian has to study a lot of various facts to be able to reconstruct the far past.

B. 1. Such metals as iron, cobalt, nickel and some alloys are much more magnetic than any other substances. 2. In the next few years Russian engineers are to complete the work on supercom­puters. 3. The main aim of this article is to explain methods and means of space industrialization. 4. We are living in an electronic world. 5. A number of TV stations are to be linked up into a net­work. 6. Experiments for industrial production of materials in space are being carried out in many countries. 7. Weightlessness is created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. 8. The quality of these metal parts is to be very high. 9. It was found that the acceleration rate on board such vehicles was to be reduced to a minimum.


Упражнение 23.Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова, и пе­реведите их.

requirement, constituent, scientific, distance, agronomist, an­cient, density, differ, hardness, structural, various, magnificent, presence, property, culture, conductor, presentation, probably.

Упражнение 24.Напишите глаголы, соответствующие словам.

surprisingly, difference, equipment, mixture, coming, estima­tion, weightlessness, production, separately, development, move­ment, disappearance, functional.

Упражнение 25.Образуйте прилагательные от существительных.

magnet, industry, absence, speciality, weight, probability, orbit, dynamics, preparation, supertransparency, independence, gravita­tion, superpurity, difficulty, variety.

Упражнение 26.Переведите слова, учитывая значение префикса super-.

supercritical, superactive, supercooled, superalloy, superhard, superplastic.

Упражнение 27.Дайте для следующих слов:

а) синонимы

to start, movement, nowadays, quality, research, various, a means, manufacture, possess, to occur, consequently, numerous, spacecraft, to use, to substitute, certain;

б) антонимы

distant, to stop, few, to reduce, invaluable, unusual, dependence, minimum.

Упражнение 28.Выберите английский эквивалент русского предложе­ния из предлагаемых вариантов.

1. Он должен идти домой.

Не may go home. Не must go home. He had to go home.

2. Он должен идти домой в 5 часов.

Не must go home at 5 o'clock. He is to go home at 5 o'clock. He may go home at 5 o'clock.

3. Он может идти домой в 5 часов.

Не may go home at 5. Не can go home at 5. He must go home at 5.

4. Он должен будет идти домой раньше.

Не must go home earlier. He should go home earlier. He will have to go home earlier.

5. Ему следует идти домой.

Не should go home. He may go home. He had to go home.

6. Он может очень быстро ходить.

Не can walk very quickly. He will be able to walk very quickly. He could walk very quickly.

7. Ему разрешат идти домой после трех.

Не is permitted to go home after 3. He was permitted to go home after 3. He will be permitted to go home after 3.

8. Ему не нужно идти домой сразу.

Не is not allowed to go home at once. He could not go home at once. He needn't go home at once.

Упражнение 29.Заполните пропуски словами because или because of.

1. She must go by bus every morning ... she lives far from the institute. 2. The students cannot translate this text... it is difficult. 3. The planes could not leave the airport... the bad weather. 4. Our life has become easier ... the electricity. 5. Critics would say that the young people were too passive ... they watched TV so much.

Упражнение 30.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их.

lost, risen, pay, leading, struck, sat.

Упражнение 31.Переведите без словаря.

The first step in any industrialization project, for example, on the Moon should be preparation for plant construction. It is eco­nomically desirable to use local materials for this. It is well-known that metals form the most important group of engineering materi­als. One must know that they possess necessary mechanical and physical properties. They can be easily fabricated into various forms by a variety of techniques. They are hard, tough (пластич­ный), strong and temperature-resistant, a combination of proper­ties not available in any other materials. The properties of metals can be changed by. heat treatment so that the fabrication is much easier since the work pieces can have properties quite different from those needed in the final product.


Exercise 1.Answer the questions.

1. What condition on board a space vehicle can't be simulated on Earth? (prolonged weightlessness). 2. What eliminates gravity during a space flight? (inertia). 3. What can be the industrial use of weightlessness? (the production of new materials with unusual properties). 4. What industrial materials can be produced in space? (superconductors, new kinds of alloys, magnetic materials, laser glass, polymers, plastics, etc). 5. What is Russia's contribution to the development of methods and means of industrial material pro­duction in space? (over 600 technological experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations). 6. What are the results of these experiments? (much better properties of the materials ob­tained under the zero-gravity condition than those produced on Earth). 7. What is needed for industrial material production in space? (special space platforms).

Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts,

1. Experts estimate that within 1. for industrial production of
a few coming years new-generation materials at a

larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Europe and Ja­pan.

2. Numerous experiments on 2. very difficult on Earth.

3. They may include

4. In space there is no gravita­tional convection

5. Convection makes the pro­duction of some materials

6. But in zero-gravity condi­tions it is possible

7. It should be said that research and preparatory work

3. i.e. movement of gases or liq­uids because of difference of tem­peratures.

4. to grow large crystals and to study their structure.

5. super and semiconductors, metals, glasses, superpure biologi­cally active substances, etc.

6. the industrial production of various materials is to begin in space.

7. the Russian manned and un­manned space vehicles and space stations proved the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the pro­duction of some materials.

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