Today’s astonishing computers

1. Not long ago computers were not very reliable and comparatively slow in operation. Since then, several generations of complex electronic computing equipment have been developed, each being significantly better than the one before it. Almost every day a new use is found for these astonishing devices to help men.

2. We know a computer to be a complex electronic device that can store and process vast quantities of information. Following instructions, computing equipment will perform calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and provide the answers to a large variety of problems in a tiny fraction of time1. A computer is known to be the “heart” of an electronic data processing system2, other parts of equipment being auxiliary.

3. There are two types of computing equipment – digital3 and analogue. They work differently and yield different results. The digital computer is performing a much broader range of functions than the analogue.

4. The analogue computer produces analogues or parallels of the process to be described or the problem to be solved. Both digital and analogue computers must be programmed. This means they must be set up in such a way that they can produce a result from the information fed into them and the information itself must be organized so that it can be handled by the machines. These devices working by electronic impulses perform at fantastic speed and with great precision.

5. Nowadays computer makers are working at the problem of introducing small computers into our life.

V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What problem are computer makers working at nowadays?

Вариант 5.

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1.We know neutrino to have a rest mass (масса покоя) of about 30 electron-volts.

2.Conduction is known to be a process by which heat is transmitted through a substance by molecular activity.

3. All the changes of temperature and changes of state to be discussed are shown by a graph in figure (рисунок) 2.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. Working with machines, sharp tools, motors one must be careful.

2. The stream of electrons moving along the conductor is called electric current.

3. Powerful nuclear ice-breakers being built in our country, we began a new chapter in the history of Arctic exploration.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. If you had translated the article, you could have used valuable data in your work.

2. If the quality of the equipment were higher, the results of the experiment would be more accurate.

3. It would be impossible to explain chemical phenomena without using the laws of physics.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3 и 4-й абзацы.

Пояснения к тексту

1. to account for - объяснять

2. to put an end – положить конец

3. as early as – ещё.

The moon

1. The moon is the only astronomical body whose distance from the Earth can be measured in thousands of kilometers. Long before the dawn of written history the Moon was paid much attention to by man who was interested and attracted by the presence in the sky of a planet that was so clearly seen from the Earth.

2. In the middle ages the moon was supposed to have a smooth crystalline surface like a mirror and that the dark spots on the Moon were accounted for1 by the fact that the Earth was reflected on its surface. However, with the help of the first little telescope that was turned by Galileo upon the Moon this conception was put an end2 to as early as3 1609. Galileo thought that he saw mountains and valleys, seas and continents on the Moon.

3. The view of the Moon has been obtained with the help of a series of automatic lunar stations named “Luna”.

4. Having been transmitted by these stations, the photos and panoramas have shown that the surface of the Moon is uneven and rugged, with many hills and cavities like volcanic craters, a few of them measuring some kilometers in diameter. A great number of stones lying on the Moon’s surface proved the lunar ground to be firm enough and it would not sink if it were stepped on, walked across or put some heavy weight upon. Man’s knowledge of the Moon is rapidly progressing, new data being constantly reported.

5. The mutual attraction of the Moon and the Earth for one another is accounted for by the force of gravitation. American astronauts landed on the Moon and brought specimens of Moon rock and a series of photographs for further study.

V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What is the mutual attraction of the Moon and the Earth accounted for?

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