Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration
Breathing is of vital importance for the preservation of life. Any interruption of breathing for a long time may cause death.
Air enters through the nose and the nasal cavities. A mucous membrane and cilia warm and moisten the air and filter out foreign bodies.
Then the air passes the pharynx (throat), where the adenoids and the tonsils are located. The pharynx serves as a common way for food and air. Air reaches the larynx (voice box) and then trachea and bronchial tree (bronchi). The bronchial branches are called bronchioles. Each bronchiole has an alveolus (air sack) at the end. The thin walls of alveoli allow for he exchange of gases between them and the capillaries. The blood absorbs the oxygen from the alveoli and gives carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas) away, which is exhaled (breathed out). Then oxygen is carried to all parts of the body along with a protein (hemoglobin) in erythrocytes.
This process occurs in the lungs which occupy the major part of the cavity on both sides of the chest. The pleura envelopes the lungs. It is a double-folded membrane. The two lungs are not equal in size. The right lung is divided into three lobes and is a bit larger. The left lung is divided into two lobes. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal one and helps in the process of breathing (inspiration-breathing in and expiration-breathing out).
2.2 Enumerate the main stages of the process of breathing. Consult the text if necessary.
2.3 Answer the questions:
1. What do we need cilia for? 2. Where does the exchange of gases take place? 3. By what means is oxygen carried to all parts of the body? 4. What is the difference between the two lobes of the lungs? 5. What membrane separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal one?
3. Vocabulary exercises
3.1 Fill in:
1. Breathing is of vital importance for the ... . 2. ... warm and moisten the air and filter out foreign bodies. 3. Air reaches the larynx and then ... . 4. Each bronchiole has an ... at the end. 5. The thin walls of alveoli ... between them and the capillaries. 6. ... separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity and helps in the process of breathing.
3.2 Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents for:
vital importance; any interruption of breathing; may cause death; moisten the air and filter out foreign bodies; the nasal cavities; serves as a common way; bronchial tree; allow for the change of gases; absorbs the oxygen from the alveoli; occurs in the lungs; are not equal in size; is divided into two lobes; separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal one; helps in the process of breathing.
3.3 Find in the text English equivalents for:
дихання; слизова оболонка; зволожувати повітря; гортань; бронхіальне дерево; альвеола; кисень; вуглекислий газ; торакальна порожнина; видихати; бути життєво важливим; кожне переривання; спричиняти щось; давати можливість; ділитися на долі; відокремлювати; допомагати в процесі дихання.
3.4 Find the English equivalents for the Latin terms:
Nasus, і m. 2. Cavum, і n. 3. Mucosus, a, um. 4. Nasalis, e. 5. Membrana, ae f. 6. Oxygenium, і n. 7. Carbo, onis m. 8.
Thoracalis, e. 9. Abdominalis, e.
(a — oxygen; b — abdominal; c — thoracic; d — carbon; e —cavity; f— nose; g — mucous; h — nasal; і — membrane)
3.5 Say if it is true or false:
1. Breathing is of vital importance for the preservation of life.
2. Interruption of breathing for a long time can't cause death.
3. A mucous membrane and cilia warm and moisten the air and filter out foreign bodies.
4. The pharynx serves only as a way for air.
5. The blood absorbs the carbon dioxide from the alveoli and gives oxygen away, which is exhaled (breathed out).
6. The two lungs are equal in size.
7. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal one and helps in the process of breathing.
3.6 Fill in the blanks with the words given below and translate the following sentences:
1. A patient has difficulty in ... . 2. When one breathes normally not all ... are opened. 3. The respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and ... . 4. Each bronchus leads to a separate ... . 5. When one ... , the external intercostal muscles contract and lift the ribs. 6. ...passes from the blood into the lungs and is breathed out. 7. The tonsils are masses of … .
(breathes in; lung; bronchi; alveoli; breathing; lymphatic tissue; carbon dioxide )
3.7 Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Дихання - життєво важливе для збереження життя.
2. Права легеня поділяється на дві долі і трошки більша
3. Тонкі стінки альвеол дозволяють відбуватися обміну газів.
4. Процес дихання відбувається в легенях.
5. Кожна бронхіола має альвеолу на кінці.
6. Слизова оболонка та війки респіраторного епітелію зігрівають і зволожують повітря і відфільтровують чужорідні тіла.
7. Кров всмоктує кисень з альвеол і віддає вуглекислий газ.
3.8. Read and translate the additional text:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection. It is spread through inhaling tiny droplets of saliva from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person. TB mainly affects the lungs. However, the infection can spread to many parts of the body, including the bones and nervous system.
Typical symptoms of TB include: a persistent cough, weight loss, night sweats.
The bacteria responsible for TB are very slow moving, so TB develops slowly in the body. You may not experience any symptoms for many months or even years after being infected.
Three things can happen if you are infected with TB:
1) Your immune system (the body’s natural defense against infection and illness) kills the bacteria and you have no further symptoms. This happens in most cases.
2) Your immune system cannot kill the bacteria, but manages to build a defensive barrier around the infection. This means that you will not have any symptoms, but the bacteria will remain in your body. This is known as latent TB.
3) Your immune system fails to kill or contain the infection and it slowly spreads to your lungs. This is known as active TB. If it is not treated, an active TB infection can be fatal. It can damage the lungs to such an extent that a person cannot breathe properly.
With treatment, a TB infection can usually be cured. Most people will need to take a long-term course of antibiotics, which usually lasts for at least six months.
2. Answer the questions to the text:
1. What is tuberculosis? 2. What are the typical symptoms of TB? 3. What does TB mainly affect? 4. What can happen if you are infected with TB? 5. How is TB treated? 5. What do you know about an active TB infection?
-lу usual звичайний usually звичайно
month місяць monthly щомісяця
Перекладіть українською мовою:
active — actively, quick — quickly, easy — easily, cold — coldly, week - weekly, first — firstly, day — daily, bad — badly, part — partly, slow — slowly, warm — warmly.
Ступені порівняння прислівників
|Види||Основна форма||Вищий ступінь||Найвищий ступінь|
|Багатоскладові||slowly||more slowly||most slowly|
Перекладіть речення українською мовою, звертаючи увагу на сполучення прислівників the more ... the better —чим більше ... тим
1. The better you study, the more you know. 2. The longer my father worked at the plaint, the more he liked it. 3. The more you read, the better you know. 4. The sooner you start, the sooner you will finish.
Самостійна робота №7
1. Read and translate the text: