I. Translate the words and word combinations in brackets into English.

Translate the sentences:

a) A refinery takes crude oil and transforms it into (бензин) and hundreds of other useful products.

b) Inside the distillation tower, (жидкие и газообразные вещества) separate into components or (фракция) according to weight and boiling point.

c) The conversion method is called (крекинг) because it uses heat and pressure to "crack" heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones.

d) Some refineries have (установки для коксования) which use heat and moder­ate pressure to turn residuum into lighter products and a hard, coal like substance that is used as an (промышленное топливо).

e) To meet government standards refining involves ( очистка, смешивание с присадками) and otherwise improving products.

II. Give equivalents to the following word combinations:

Moderate pressure, high-performance driving, vapor pressure, patented perfor­mance additive, low-value fraction, cost effectively convert, heavy weight gas oil, a high boiling point, heat exchanger, chemical reaction, tarlike fraction, to upgrade crude oil, heavy equipment, automated control room, a useless byproduct.

III. Translate the following text into Russian:

How Oil Refineries Work When crude oil arrives at an oil refinery, it contains water and salt that must be removed The oil is heated under pressure and the water and salt are allowed to settle, sometimes with the help of an electrostatic precipitator. The desalted oil is heated again and fed into a distillation tower, where much of it evaporates into gas. Gases move up the tower toward its cooler top while liquids drip down the tower toward its hotter bottom. Liquids collected at various heights in the tower contain different mixtures of petroleum molecules. Further distillation of the residual liquid and gases from the first distillation are performed in second distillations at low and high pressures respectively.

The results of the distillations are a variety of different hydrocarbon mixtures, from petroleum gases and gasolines at the volatile, small molecule end to heavy lubricating oils and asphalts on the non-volatile, large molecule end. These mixtures are further processed and blended to create finished petroleum products. Gasolines are extensively processed to raise their octane numbers.

IV. Translate into English:

Перегонка - это процесс, при котором сырую нефть необходимо разделить на 5-6 компонентов (фракций). Данный процесс происходит в ректификацион­ной колонне, которая позволяет проводить эту операцию постоянно, затрачивая минимальное количество труда, оборудования и энергии в виде топлива и тепла. Внутрь колонны подается сырая нефть, а выходят углеводородные газы в виде газа, бензина, нафты (лигроин), керосина, газойля и плюс внутри собираются тя­желые осадки.

Попытаемся понять, что происходит внутри колонны. Первый элемент, не­обходимый для работы колонны - насос, перекачивающий сырую нефть из вне­шнего резервуара в систему. Сначала нефть проходит через печь, где нагревается, до температуры порядка 385o С. При такой температуре более половины нефти испаряется. Полученная смесь жидкости и паров подаётся снизу в ректификаци­онную колонну.

Внутри колонны имеется набор тарелок, расположенных на разных уровнях. В тарелках проделаны отверстия. Благодаря этим отверстиям пары нефти под-

нимаются вверх. Отверстия в тарелках снабжены специальными устройствами, называемыми барботажными колпачками (jet caps). Эти колпачки обеспечивают прохождение паров нефти через слой жидкости толщиной до 10 см, находящейся в тарелке. Бульканье газа через слой жидкости и составляет суть ректификации.

V. Translate into Russian:

Safety considerations

Safety. Inadequate desalting can cause fouling of heater tubes and heat exchang­ers throughout the refinery. Fouling restricts product flow and heat transfer and leads to failures due to increased pressures and temperatures. Corrosion, which occurs due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, naphthenic (organic) acids, and other contaminants in the crude oil, also causes equipment failure. Neutralized salts (ammo­nium chlorides and sulfides), when moistened by condensed water, can cause corrosion. Overpressuring the unit is another potential hazard that causes failures.

Health. Because this is a closed process, there is little potential for exposure to crude oil unless a leak or release occurs. Where elevated operating temperatures are used when desalting sour crudes, hydrogen sulfide will be present There is the possibil­ity of exposure to ammonia, dry chemical demulsifiers, caustics, and/or acids during this operation. Safe work practices and/or the use of appropriate personal protective equipment may be needed for exposures to chemicals and other hazards such as heat, and during process sampling, inspection, maintenance, and turnaround activities.

Depending on the crude feedstock and the treatment chemicals used, the waste­water will contain varying amounts of chlorides, sulfides, bicarbonates, ammonia, hy­drocarbons, phenol, and suspended solids. If diatomaceous earth is used in filtration, exposures should be minimized or controlled. Diatomaceous earth can contain silica in very fine particle size, making this a potential respiratory hazard.

VI. Be ready to answer questions on the text and talk about the refinery



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