IV. Translate the following text into Russian

Just like the family motor boat, an aircraft carrier propels itself through the water by spinning propellers. Of course, at about 21 feet (6.4 meters) across, a carrier's four bronze screw propellers are in a very different league than a recreational boat's. They also have a lot more power behind them. Each propeller is mounted to a long shaft which is connected to a steam turbine powered by a nuclear reactor.

The carrier's two nuclear reactors, housed in a heavily-armored, heavily restricted area in the middle of the ship, generate loads of high-pressure steam to rotate fan blades inside the turbine. The fans turn the turbine shaft, which rotates the screw propellers to push the ship forward, while massive rudders steer the ship. The propulsion system boasts something in excess of 280,000 horsepower (the Navy doesn't release exact numbers).

The four onboard turbines also generate electricity to power the ship's various electric and electronic systems. This includes an onboard desalination plant that can turn 400,000 gallons (-1,500,000 liters) of saltwater into drinkable freshwater every day| - that's enough for 2,000 homes.

Unlike the old oil-boiler carriers, modem nuclear carriers don't have to refuel regularly. In fact, they can go 15 to 20 years without refueling. The trade-offs are more expensive power plant, a longer, more complicated refueling process (it takes several years) and the added risk of a nuclear disaster at sea. To minimize the risk of such a catastrophe, the reactors inside a supercarrier are heavily shielded and closely monitored.

V. Be ready to talk and discuss the general structure of a ship


USS Nimitz's catapult 1

When the plane is ready to go, the catapult officer opens valves to fill the catapult cylinders with high-pressure steam from the ship's reactors. This steam provides the necessary force to propel the pistons at high speed, slinging the plane forward to generade the necessary lift for takeoff. Initially, the pistons are locked into place, so the суlinders simply build up pressure. The catapult officer carefully monitors the pressure level so it’s just right for the particular plane and deck conditions. If the pressure is too low, the plane won't get moving fast enough to take off, and the catapult will throw it into the ocean. If there's too much pressure, the sudden jerk could break the nose gear right off.

When the cylinders are charged to the appropriate pressure level, the pilot blasts the plane's engines. The holdback keeps the plane on the shuttle while the engines generate considerable thrust The catapult officer releases the pistons, the force causes the holdbacks to release, and the steam pressure slams the shuttle and plane forward. At the end of the catapult, the tow bar pops out of the shuttle, releasing the plane. This totally steam-driven system can rocket a 45,000-pound plane from 0 to 165 miles per hour in two seconds! (a 20,000-kg plane from 0 to 266 kph)

VI. Translate the following text into English:

Корабельные самолеты по конструкции подобны сухопутным, но и имеют су- щественные отличия. Особенности их конструкции связаны с размещением, взлетом и посадкой на летной палубе, имеющей относительно небольшие размеры.

Современные корабельные самолеты подразделяются по способу взлета на : катапультные, вертикального взлета и короткого (трамплинного).

Корабельные самолеты катапультного взлета взлетают с помощью паровой катапульты, которая обеспечивает разгон самолета до требуемой скорости, а садятся на палубу, использую тормозной гак и аэрофинишёр. Таким образом, корабельный Са­молет оснащен новым элементом конструкции - убирающимся тормозным крюком-гаком, который дополнительно предполагает усиление конструкции хвостовой части

фюзеляжа. Само­леты данного типа имеют небольшую

взлетную и посадочную скорость.



Whether you buy from a dealer or private party, always inspect the vehicle thoroughly before bringing it to a mechanic for a final inspection. You don't have to be an expert to give a car a good, revealing going-over. You can learn a great deal just by using your eyes, ears, and nose. Dress in old clothes and bring along a friend to help you. Do your inspection in broad daylight on a dry day or in a well-lit garage. The car must be parked on a level surface and shouldn't have been driven for at least an hour benfore you take a look.


First, walk around the car and see if it's standing level. If it sags to one side, it may have broken springs or another suspension problem. Bounce each corner of the car up and down. If the shock absorbers are in good shape, the car should rebound just once or twice and not keep bouncing up and down. Then grab the top of each front tire and tug it back and forth. If you feel play in it or hear a clunking sound, the wheel bearings or suspension joints may be shot.

Body condition. Check each body panel and the roof, looking for scratches, dents, and rust. The gaps between the panels and surrounding surfaces should be uniform. Ex­amine the lines of the fenders and doors. Misaligned panels or large gaps can indicate either sloppy assembly at the factory or repair.

The easiest way to find out if the car has been in an accident is to ask the owner. But you should still take a look for yourself. Paint color and finish should be the sameeverywhere. A repainted body panel might not quite match the original in color or gloss. It's very hard for a body shop to duplicate the texture and finish of a factory's baked-on paint. Look for differences in color on the outside edges of panels. A repainted panel may even look more mirrorlike than the original, but the paint may not weather the same or last as long.

Sometimes a repair is obvious. Other times, you'll have to peer closely, moving your head slowly to catch the light. If you think a dent may have been patched up, use a magnet to see if it sticks to the suspect area. If a dent was filled with plastic body filler, the magnet won't stick. (This test won't work if the car has plastic or fiberglass body parts, such as are found on a Saturn or Chevrolet Corvette.)

Look for signs of body repair on the sills around door openings, the hood, and trunk lid. If parts of the car have been repainted, there may be signs of "overspray," or paint adhering to the rubber seals around the body openings. Look carefully at the underside of the hood and trunk lid for signs of damage or repair.

Minor cosmetic flaws are no cause for concern, but rust is. Look particularly for blistered paint or rust spots around the wheel wells and rocker panels (the sheet metal beneath the doors) and the bottoms of the doors themselves. Use a flashlight to look inside the wheel wells for rust and corrosion caused by salt.

Open and close each door, the hood, and the trunk. Do they ride freely on their hinges and close properly? Gently lift and let go of each door, particularly the driver's door. If the door is loose on its hinges, the car has seen hard or long use. Also inspect the rubber seals around all openings to be sure they're intact. Loose, deteriorated, or missing rubber can create water leaks, drafts, and wind noise.

Lights and lenses.Have your friend stand outside the car and confirm that all lights are working. Try out both low-beam and high-beam headlights, the parking lights, the; turn signals, and any ancillary lights, such as fog lights. Make sure all the light lenses are intact and not cracked, fogged with moisture, or missing.

Tires. You can tell a lot from the tires. If the car has less than, say, 30,000 miles on the odometer, it should probably still have its original rubber. If a car with low miles on the odometer has new tires, be suspicious. Turn the front wheels all the way to right or left, so you can get a good look at them. All four should be the same brand and size (except on a few performance cars, which use different sizes on the front and rear). If there is a mix of the brands or sizes on the car, ask why.

Tread wear should be even across the width of the tread. It should also be the on the left and right sides of the car. Ask if the tires have been rotated front-to-reargu- larly. If not, the wear is usually more severe on the drive wheels.

An aggressive driver tends to put heavy wear on the outside shoulder of the tire, at the edge of the sidewall. If the shoulder is badly worn, assume that the car has been driven hard.

Check the tread depth, either with a tread-depth tool (available at auto-parts stores) or with a penny. To be legal, tires must have at least 1/16 inch of tread. If you don't have a tread gauge, insert a penny into the tread groove, with Lincoln's head down. If you can see the top of the head, the tire should be replaced.

On each tire, lightly stroke the tread with the flat of your hand. If you feel raised areas, the tire was not aligned properly. That symptom could point to a simple malad­justment or a costly suspension repair; have your mechanic check it out. Tires with that sort of wear will tend to make the steering wheel vibrate at highway speeds.

Examine the sidewalls for scuffing, cracks, or bulges, and look on the edge of each rim for dents or cracks. A hard impact with a pothole or curb could have knocked a tire out of alignment or damaged a tire, rim, or suspension part.

Brake discs.Check the rotors on disc brakes. Most cars have disc brakes in front and drum brakes in the rear; some have disc brakes all around. With a flashlight, peer through the front wheel rims. The rotor discs should be smooth, with no deep grooves.

Don't worry about traces of surface rust on the discs. After your test drive, when you've used the brakes, the discs should look clean and smooth.

Glass. Look carefully at the windshield and other windows to make sure there are no cracks. A small bull's-eye from a stone hit on the windshield may not be cause for alarm, though you should point it out as a bargaining chip. Cracks in the windshield

often grow worse over time and can lead to a costly repair.


Odor. When you first open the car door, sniff the interior. A musty, moldy, or mildewy smell could indicate water leaks. Be diligent here because water leaks can be very hard to find and fix. Remove the floor mats, and feel and sniff for wet spots on the carpet beneath. If there's doubt, find another car.

Pedal rubber. The rubber on the brake, clutch, and gas pedals gives an indication of use. A car with low miles shouldn't show much wear. If the pedal rubber is worn through in spots, it indicates high miles. If the clutch-pedal rubber is badly worn, it may mean the driver is in the habit of riding the clutch, which puts a strain on it and the gearbox.

Instruments and controls. Start the car and let it idle. Note if it's hard to start when cold. Note too whether the engine idles smoothly. Then methodically try out every ever switch, button, and lever. Check all the doors and their locks, and operate the window If there's a sunroof, open and close it. Try the interior lights, overhead dome light, any an reading lights, and the lighted vanity mirrors on the sun visors. Honk the horn.|

Turn on the heater full blast and see how hot it gets, how quickly. Switch on the air the a conditioning and make sure it blows cold. If there are seat heaters, turn them on and see how warm they get.

Try the sound system. Check radio reception on AM and FM, and try loading, playing, and ejecting a tape or compact disc if there is a tape or CD player.

Seats. Try out all the seats even though you may not plan on sitting in the rear. The driver's seat typically has more wear than the passenger's, but it shouldn't sag. The upholstery shouldn't be ripped or badly worn, particularly in a car that's supposed to have low miles on it. Try all the driver's-seat adjustments, along with the steering height-and-reach adjustment, to make sure you can have a good driving position.


Take its temperature. A healthy air-conditioning system should produce cold air within a few minutes. Turn it on with the temperature set to full cold and the blower at medium speed. Then keep it running when you road-test the vehicle. Be wary if the air coming through the dash vents turns warm and stays that way. While the problem could be minor - a faulty switch or excess moisture in the system, for example - a shift cold air to warm could mean an expensive repair bill down the road.

Know what's in there. A decal on the underside of the hood should reveal which refrigerant the factory installed or whether the vehicle was retrofitted with something else.

Unfortunately, decals can't tell you whether the original system was properly main­tained or how well any retrofits were performed. That's why the surest way to know which air-conditioning system a vehicle has and what shape it's in is to have it checked by an air-conditioning specialist. An air-conditioning shop can use an electronic leak detector and trace dyes, if needed, to find any leaks. The shop can also inspect the system to see if it contains more than one refrigerant. Refrigerant mixes pose added problems and expense because purging them requires special equipment. And while both R-12 and R-134a can be recycled, blends must be collected and shipped off-site for reclamation - another expensive procedure to go through. Few shops are equipped to service systems with contaminated refrigerant, which alone makes the vehicle worth less. Mixes are also a telltale sign that the system was leaking and probably wasn't fixed before the other refrigerant was added. Worse, if the system has been filled with propane or some other flammable gas and it leaks into the passenger compartment, the gas may cause a fire or an explosion.

If the compressor needs replacing, the new one that goes in will probably be R-134a-compatible anyway, so it makes sense to switch to the new refrigerant. A special­ist can tell you for sure and give you an estimate that you can use as a bargaining chip to lower a used vehicle's price. Then again, if the cost to repair or convert represents a significant portion of that price - and the owner won't discount it accordingly - you may want to pass on the vehicle and continue your search.


The trunk is another place to use your nose as well as your eyes. Again, sniff an look for signs of water entry. See if the carpeting feels wet or smells musty. Take up the trunk floor and check the spare-tire well for water or rust.

Check the condition of the spare tire. (If the car has alloy wheels, the spare-tire rim is often plain steel.) With many minivans, pickups, and sport-utility vehicles, the sp tire may be suspended beneath the rear of the vehicle. You'll have to get down on your knees to examine it. Also make sure the jack and all the jack tools are present and accounted for.


If the engine has been off for a few minutes, you can do most under-the-hood checks. Look first at the general condition of the engine bay. Dirt and dust are normal, but watch out if you see lots of oil spattered about, a battery covered with corrosion, or wires and hoses hanging loose.

Wiring. Feel the crinkly, plastic-armored covering on electrical wires. If the covering is brittle and cracked, the wires have overheated at some point. Look for neat plastic con­nectors where wires run into other wires, not connections made with black electrical tape.

Hoses and belts. Try to squeeze the various rubber hoses running to the radiator, air conditioner, and other parts. The rubber should be supple, not rock-hard, cracked, or mushy. Feel the fan belt and other V-belts to determine if they are frayed.

Fluids. Check all the fluid levels. Dipsticks usually have a mark indicating the proper level. The engine oil should be dark brown or black, but not too dirty or gritty, the oil is honey-colored, it was just changed. White spots in the oil cap indicate water is present. Transmission fluid should be pinkish, not brown, and smell like oil, with no "burnt" odor. It shouldn't leave visible metal particles on your rag - a sign of serious problems. With most cars, you're supposed to check the automatic-transmission fl with the engine warmed up and running. On some, the transmission-fluid dipstick has two sets of marks for checking when the engine is either cold or warm. Also check the power-steering and brake-fluid levels. They should be within the safe zone.

Radiator. Don't remove the radiator cap unless the engine has cooled off completely. Check the coolant by looking into the plastic reservoir near the radiator. The coolant should be greenish, not a deep rust or milky color. Greenish stains on the radiator are a sign of pinhole leaks.

Battery.If the battery has filler caps, wipe off the top of the battery with a rag, then carefully pry off or unscrew the caps to look at the liquid electrolyte level. If the level is low, it may not mean much, or it may mean that the battery has been working too hard. Have a mechanic check it out.


Spread an old blanket on the ground, so you can look under the engine at the pavement. Use a flashlight. If you see oil drips, other oily leaks, or green coolant, it’s not a good sign. If you can find the spot where a car was habitually parked, see if that of the garage floor or driveway is marred with puddles of oil, coolant, or transmission fluid. Check the ground beneath the fuel tank for fuel drips from the fuel-filler tube and gas tank.

Don't be alarmed if some clear water drips from the car on a hot day. It's probably just water condensed from the air conditioner.

Examine the constant-velocity-joint boots behind the front wheels. They are round black rubber bellows at the ends of the axle shafts. If the rubber boots are split and leaking grease, assume that the car has or shortly will have bad C-V joints-another item that's costly to repair.

Feel for any tailpipe residue. If it's black and greasy, it means the car is burning oil. The tail-pipe smudge should be dry and dark gray. Look at me pipes. Some rust is normal. Heavy rust is sometimes normal but could mean that a new exhaust system might be needed soon.


If you're still interested in the car, ask to take it for a test drive. Plan to spend at least 20 minutes behind the wheel, to allow enough time to check the engine's cooling system and the car's heater and air conditioner.

Comfort. Make sure the car fits you. Set the seat in a comfortable driving position and attach the safety belt. Make sure that you're at least 10 inches away from the steering wheel and that you can still fully depress all the pedals. Typically, seats fit some bodies better than others, so make sure the seat feels right for you. Make sure that you can reach all the controls without straining, that the controls are easy to use, and that the displays are easy to see.

Steering. With the engine idling before you start your test drive, turn the steering wheel right and left. You should feel almost no play in the wheel before the tires start to turn.

Once under way, the car should respond to the helm quickly and neatly, without lots of steering-wheel motion. At normal speeds, the car should maintain course without constant steering corrections.

If the wheel shakes at highway speed, suspect a problem with wheel balance or the front-end alignment, which is easily fixed, or with the suspension, which may not be. Likewise, if the car constantly drifts to one side, suspect that a tire is underinflated or that there is some suspension problem - something to have a mechanic check.

Engine and transmission. The engine should idle smoothly without surging or sputtering, and accelerate from a standstill without bucking or hesitating. When you accelerate up a hill, you shouldn't hear any pinging or clunking. The car should be able to keep up with highway traffic without endless downshifting.

With an automatic transmission, don't confuse smoothness with slippage. When you accelerate, there should be no appreciable hesitation between the engine's accelera­tion and the car's. If there is, it's an almost sure sign of transmission wear - and a costly fix down the road.

With a manual transmission, the clutch should fully engage well before you take your foot all the way off the pedal. If there isn't at least an inch of play at the top of the pedal's travel, the car may soon need a new clutch.

Brakes. Test the brakes on an empty stretch of road. From a speed of 45 mph, apply the brakes hard. The car should stop straight and quickly, without pulling to one side and without any vibration. The pedal feel should be smooth and linear, and stopping the car shouldn't take a huge effort. If the car has antilock brakes, you should feel them activate with a rapid pulsing underfoot when you push hard on the brake. (It's easier to make the antilock braking system activate on a stretch of wet road.)

Try two or three stops; the car should stop straight and easily each time. Then pull into a safe area, stop, and step firmly on the brake pedal for 30 seconds. If the pedal feels spongy or sinks to the floor, there may be a leak in the brake system.

Look, listen, feel. At a steady speed on a smooth road, note any vibrations. You shouldn't feel shuddering through the steering wheel, nor should the dashboard shake or the image in your mirrors quiver noticeably.

Drive at 30 mph or so on a bumpy road. You want a compliant, well-controlled, quiet ride. If the car bounces and hops a lot on routine bumps and ruts, it may mean the car has suspension problems or the car's chassis wasn't designed well in the first place. Listen, too, for rattles and squeaks-they're annoying to live with and often difficult to track down and fix.




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