The geographical position
- What area does Russia cover?
- Russia, or the Russian Federation, is the largest state of the new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It covers a total area of over 17 million square kilometers.
- What seas is Russia washed by?
- In the north the country is washed by the Arctic Ocean and its seas: the Barents, Chukchee, East Siberian, Kara Laptev, and White Seas; in the south by the Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas; in the east by the Bering Sea, the Sea of Japan, and Okhotsk Sea; in the west by the Baltic Sea.
- Is Russia one of the largest countries in the world?
- Yes, it is. Russia encompasses within its territory immense differences in climate, economic conditions and cultural traditions. It is one of the largest administrative areas in the world.
- How long does a flight from Moscow to Magadan take?
- The immensity of the Russian Federation is hard to imagine. A flight from Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours.
- How many countries does Russia border on?
- Russia borders on fourteen countries including the former republics of the USSR, which are now independent states.
- What kind of mineral resources does Russia have?
- Russia is rich in mineral resources. It has deposits of coal, oil, natural gas, iron, gold, nickel, etc.
- What is the population of Russia?
- The population of Russia is about 150 million people. Over 80 per cent of them are ethnic Russians. 70 per cent of the population live in the cities.
The physical features
- What are the longest rivers in Russia?
- Russia is a land of long rivers and large lakes. The north Dvina, the three mighty Siberian rivers: the Ob, the Lena and the Yenisei, and the Amur rank with the Nile and the Amazon among the world’s longest rivers.
- What is the role of the Volga?
- The largest of all Russia’s rivers is the Volga. This river is a major transport route from the north to the south and a source of hydroelectric energy. It rises north of Moscow in the Valdai Hills.
- What do you know about Lake Baikal?
- The three largest lakes in Russia are Baikal in South-Eastern Siberia and Ladoga and Onega in Northern Russia. The Baikal is the world’s most ancient lake and the deepest one. It contains one-fifth of the world’s fresh water.
- What can you say about the relief of Russia?
- The relief of Russia is mostly flat. Russia is located in two plains: the Great Russian Plain and the Western Siberian Plain.
- Is the Elbrus the highest mountain in the Russian Federation?
- There are three main mountain chains in Russia. The Caucasus is a range of mountains, which extends from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain in the Caucasus is a range of mountains in the Caucasus, in the Russian Federation and in the whole Europe is Mount Elbrus.
- What are the Urals famous for?
- The Urals extend from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes. This mountain chain divides the European and Asiatic parts of Russia. The Urals are famous for their valuable minerals and gemstones.
- How long does winter last in the different regions of Russia?
- There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia. Russia is one of the world’s coldest and most northern countries. Winter lasts five months in St Petersburg (from November to March), but up to nine months in Siberia, with snow falling even in May and frosts starting in August.
- Can you name the main vegetation zones in Russia?
- Corresponding to climate they are: the tundra, the taiga (or pine forests), mixed forest, steppe, semi-desert. Each vegetation belt has its own flora, fauna and natural resources.
- What was the economical position of Russia in the former USSR?
- Russia was the most populous state of the former USSR and also the wealthiest one. It produced 78 per cent of all its natural gas, 60 per cent of steel, 80 per cent of timber and 91 per cent of oil. It also has one of the world’s largest fishing industries.
- What industries and crafts were encouraged in Russia under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great?
- The history of Russian Industry goes back to the middle of the seventeenth century. The development of new industries and crafts – metal working textiles, brick making and china manufacture – was encouraged under Peter the Great. During the reign of Catherine the Great, the Urals became the focus for iron industry, and Russia became the world’s largest iron producer.
- What do you know about Russian economy in the second part of the 19th century?
- After 1870 the fast railway engineering in Russia was stimulated by industrial boom. Some deals were made with western companies to develop Russia’s immense oil resources. By 1903 Russia had been the world’s largest oil producer.
- When was Russia one of the biggest grain producer and exporters?
- Before the Revolution Russia was one of the world’s largest grain producers and exporters.
- Was the quality gap between home and western products an important factor for economical reforms in Russia?
- Yes, it was. By 1980s the quality gap between home and western products could no longer be ignored and called for reforms.
- What was planned to do in the energy sector before the Chernobyl disaster?
- Before the Chernobyl disaster it was planned that an expanded nuclear programme could help the conservation of other energy resources.
ASKING THE WAY
IN A CITY
|traffic light||светофор||department store||универмаг|
|kindergarten||детский сад||barber’s||парикмахерская (мужская)|
|post-office||почта||railway station||железнодорожный вокзал|
|river terminal||речной вокзал|
|to straight to go along past across up down to walk||по направлению к прямо идти, ехать вдоль мимо через вверх вниз идти пешком|
|to go by bus (car)||ехать на автобусе (машине)|
|to take a bus (taxi)||сесть на автобус (такси)|
|to get off a train (bus)||сойти с поезда (автобуса)|
|to cross||переходить (пересекать)|
|to turn right (left)||поворачивать направо (налево)|
1. Tell your address.
My address is 8, Sadovaya Street, Samara.
2. What district do you live in? What is situated near your house?
There is a hospital, a school and a cinema nearby. But there is no post-office nearby.
3. Ask the way how to go to:
school, b) the department store, c) the cinema, d) church, e) central library, f) hospital, g) theatre, h) barber’s, i) railway station.
Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the post-office?
4. Look at the plan of the city. We are in place marked by a cross. Where can we get if we follow the arrows?
5. Insert the necessary words.
1. Go to the traffic light. Turn right and go straight on to the crossing. 2. Cross the street. You are in front of the … .
3. Go to the traffic light. Cross the street and go straight on. Turn right. Go along the street and then turn left. The … is on the left.
4. Go to the traffic light. Turn left. Take the second street on the left. 5. Go along the street. The … is on the left.
6. Go to the traffic light. Cross the street and turn right. Go past the church and turn left. Then turn right and go to the square. At the square turn right. The … is the second building on the right.
6. Make up a dialogue according to the situation.
Your friend is coming. He is already at the railway station and he is phoning you. Explain the way how to get to your house. Here is a beginning of a phone talk:
- Hello, Peter. This is Ben.
- Oh, hello, Ben. Where are you?
- I am at the railway station.
7. Read the dialogues and dramatize them.
- What are your plans for today?
- Nothing special. Why?
- Let’s go sightseeing.
- With great pleasure.
- Excuse me, Officer, how can I get to Oxford Street?
- Go straight ahead and then turn to the right. It’s not far.
- Thank you.
- Excuse me, how can I get to the London Museum?
- I’m afraid I can’t help you. I am a stranger here.
- Where is the bus stop?
- It’s over there on the corner
– Where shall we get off?
- At the next stop.
– This bus will take us to the National Gallery. Get on, please.
- Are you sure? We would better ask the conductor.
– What is the fare to Trafalgar Square?
- It’s two shillings.
- Here you are.
– Are you getting off at the next stop?
- Yes, I am.
– I hate to drive a car in such jams.
- Me too. It’s better to go by tube (by metro).
– It’s my first visit to Moscow. What places of interest to interest do you advise me to see?
- First of all, I advise you to visit Red Square and the Kremlin. Then you should visit the Tretyakov Picture Gallery and the Pushkin Museum of fine arts.
- Thank you for your advice.
8. Learn the given below expressions by heart and use them in your speech.
|Где находится…?||Where is…?|
|Как найти…?||How can I find…?|
|Как пройти в…?||How can I get…?|
|Как быстрее пройти в…?||What’s the shortest way to…?|
|Где ближайшая остановка автобуса?||Where is the nearest bus-stop?|
|Где переход?||Where is the crossing?|
|В эту сторону?||This way?|
|Напишите, пожалуйста, адрес||Write down the address please|
|Это далеко?||Is it far?|
|Как попасть в центр города?||How can I reach downtown?|
|Где я могу купить билеты на…?||Where can I buy tickets for (the) (a)…?|
|Сколько стоит проезд в…?||What’s the fare for the…?|
|Сколько остановок до…?||How many stops are till…?|
|Где мне нужно…?||Where shall I…|
|Извините, разрешите пройти||Excuse me, let me pass please|
|Отвезите меня…||Take me to the…|
|Я очень спешу||I am in a hurry|
|Где бюро находок?||Where is the lost and-found office?|
|Я не понимаю, я иностранец||I don’t understand, I am a foreigner|
|Позвоните в посольство (консульство, гостиницу)||Call Embassy (Consulate, the hotel)|
1. Read and translate the text.
East or West, home is best.
There is no place like home.
Why do people travel?
It goes without saying that modern life is impossible without rest. Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel for many reasons: they want to see other countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. They travel both in their town country and abroad. Inside every country there are a lot of tourist firms ready to help you with your trip around the world. Needless to say that it is always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
As the proverb says, “ tastes differ” so people spend their holidays in different ways. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city to visit zoos, museums and art galleries, look at shop windows and dine at exotic restaurants. On the contrary, city dwellers usually prefer a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walk, bathe, and laze inthe sun.
Most travelers and holidaymakers take either a camera or a video camera with them and take pictures of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, various flowers, animals and birds. And years later these photos will remind them of the unforgettable happy impressions they had.
The scientific and technological progress of the 20th century has allowed people to overcome time and great distance. Now you can go to the place of your destination: by air, by sea, by train, by car. If you are an adventurer you can travel on foot, on horseback, by bicycle, by hitchhiking. All means of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages, that’s why people choose one according to their plans, destination, time and money.
|It goes without saying||само собой разумеется|
|all over the world||во всем мире|
|the ruins of ancient towns||руины древних городов|
|to enjoy picturesque places||любоваться живописными местами|
|just for a change of scene||просто для смены обстановки|
|to be abroad||находиться за границей|
|needless to say||нет нужды говорить|
|to discover new things||узнавать что-то новое|
|different ways of life||различные образы жизни|
|to listen to different musical rhythms||слушать различные муз. ритмы|
|as a proverb says||как гласит пословица|
|tastes differ||о вкусах не спорят|
|in different ways||по-разному|
|in the country||в сельской местности|
|a city dweller||горожанин|
|on the contrary||напротив / наоборот|
|a quiet holiday||спокойный отдых|
|by the sea||у моря|
|by sea||морем, по морю|
|with nothing to do but||ничего не делая, а только|
|to laze in the sun||нежиться на солнце|
|either a camera or a v/camera||или фотоаппарат, или видеокамера|
|to take pictures||делать снимки, фотографировать|
|whatever you like||все, что хотите|
|the sights of a city||достопримечательности|
|to remind of||напоминать|
|unforgettable impressions||незабываемые впечатления|
|to overcome time and great distance||преодолевать время и расстояние|
|the place of destination||место назначения|
|on horseback||верхом на лошади|
|by train, by plane, by ship, by car||на поезде, самолете, корабле, машине|
|by bicycle, by hitch-hiking||на велосипеде, автостопом|
|means ( ways) of travelling||способы путешествия|
|to have advantages / disadvantages||иметь преимущества / недостатки|
|that’s why||вот почему|
|according to (smth)||согласно чему-либо|
2. Make sure you know these expressions.
to wait for, to go without saying, to listen to, for many reasons, to lie in the sun, for a change, to go to somewhere, in different ways, to look at, for holidays, to make plans for, on business, to help with on the contrary, to get to and back, by the sea, to get from to, in the mountains, to see off, on foot, to prepare for, by train, to leave for, according to, to leave at, to be in time, to stay at.
3. Fill the proper prepositions in.
1. They are leaving … London in an hour.
2. Everything is prepared … the departure.
3. I prefer travelling … bicycle to travelling … foot.
4. My father travels a lot …business.
5. Is travelling … air exciting?
6. She will leave … Kharkov tomorrow.
7. You can wait … a train in a waiting room.
8. Let’s go … England … a change.
9. Can you help me … my luggage.
10. My parents are going to get …. the country and … during a week.
11. We will see you … at the bus stop.
12. I can’t see you … tomorrow … many reasons.
13. The steamer has arrived … time.
14. We usually stay … the hotel in Moscow.
15. When they were leaving … Kiev we saw them … at the airport.
1. It goes without saying that modern life is impossible … rest.
2. They travel … many reasons.
3. Needless to say that it is always interesting to listen … different musical rhythms.
4. So people spend their holidays … different ways.
5. People like to go … a big city to visit zoos.
6.… the contrary city dwellers prefer a quiet holiday … the sea or … the mountains … nothing to do but walk and laze … the sun.
7. You can go … the place … your destination: … air, … sea.
8. People choose one way of travelling according … their plans, destination.
5. Continue the following sentences from the text:
1. There is no place …
2. It goes without saying that …
3. They travel both …
4. Those who live in the country …
5. Most travelers and holidaymakers …
6. And years later these photos …
7. The scientific and technological progress of the 20-th century …
8. If you are an adventurer …
9. Inside every country there are a lot of tourist firms …
10. On the contrary, city dwellers …
11. All means of traveling have …
6. Find the beginning of the following sentences in the text:.
1.… home is best.
2… modern life is impossible without rest.
3.… to discover new things, different ways of life.
4.… with nothing to do but walk, bathe and laze in the sun.
5.… to overcome time and great distance.
6… that’s why people choose one according to their plans and destination.
7… by air, by train by car.
8… spend their holidays travelling.
9… to help you with your trip around the world.
10… or just for a change of scene.
11…spend their holidays in different ways.
7. Rewrite the sentences translating Russian words and expressions.
1. Само собой разумеется, that modern life is impossible without rest.
2. Millions of people по всему миру spend their holidays travelling.
3. They travel по многим причинам: they want to see other countries, modern cities and руины древних городов, любоваться живописными местами or just для смены обстановки.
4. They travel как и in their country and заграницей.
5. Внутри every country there are a lot of tourist firms ready to help you with your trip по всему миру.
6. Нет нужды говорить that it is always interesting узнавать что-то новое, different образы жизни to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to различные музыкальные ритмы.
7. Как гласит пословица «о вкусах не спорят» so people spend their holidays in different ways.
8. Those who live в сельской местности like to go to a big city для того чтобы посмотреть в витрины магазинов и пообедать at exotic restaurants.
9. Напротив, горожане usually prefer a quiet holiday у моря or in the mountains, ничего не делая, а только walk, bathe and нежиться на солнце.
10. Years later these photos will напомнят them незабываемые happy впечатления they had.
11. The scientific и технологический прогресс has allowed people преодолевать время и расстояние.
12. Now you can go к месту назначения by air, by sea, by train, by car.
13. If you are искатель приключений you may travel on foot, на лошади, by bicycle, автостопом.
14. All способы путешествия have their преимущества и недостатки, поэтому people choose one согласно their plans, destination, and money.
8. Answer the questions to the text:
1. How do people spend their holidays?
2. What are the reasons they travel?
3. What do people discover during travelling?
4. How do people who live in the country and in the big cities prefer to spend their holidays?
5. What can help people to keep the unforgettable memories of their travelling?
6. Who can help people to travel around the world?
7. What has allowed people to overcome time and great distance?
8. What are the ways of travelling?
9. Are there any disadvantages of these ways of travelling?
10. How do people choose this or that way of travelling?
9. Match the pairs of synonyms.
By rail, by sea, by road, comfortable;
to start, voyage, to discover, shortcoming;
to gain the height, to take pictures, picturesque, beforehand;
to check (tickets), land, coast, to visit places of interest.
In advance, by ship, cosy, to fly higher and higher, to take off, to control, an earth, a trip, to go sightseeing, by car, to photograph, disadvantage, colourful, to find out, seashore, by train.
10. Answer the questions using the words in the right column.
|How do we call a person who helps us with our luggage?||a return ticket|
|How do we call a sleeping place in a train?||a waiting-room|
|What kinds of trains do you know?||be sea -sick|
|Where do you buy tickets?||a tourist agency|
|Where can you wait for a train if we come to the platform too early?||a port|
|How many people can travel in a compartment at a time?||to book tickets|
|What do some people feel when the sea is not calm?||a suit case|
|How do we call a ticket to the place of our destination and back?||an electric train|
|How do we call a place where ships arrive?||a time - table|
|Where do we keep all the necessary things during the journey?||a berth|
|Where do we address when we want to make a trip to different countries?||a ticket office|
|How do we call a board with the date and time of arrivals and departures?||Have a pleasant journey! Good luck! Farewel! I wish you good speed.|
|What should we do if we want to have tickets in advance?||4 persons at a time|
|What do we say to people whom we see off?||a porter|
|a passenger train|
|a local train|
|a fast train|
|a goods train|
|a through train|
11. Translate into Russian using THERE IS/THERE ARE construction.
- Есть много причин, по которым я не еду на Чёрное море.
- На перроне стоит поезд.
- На столе лежали билеты на поезд.
- Осенью не будет вечерней электрички до Малаховки.
- Существует много разных способов путешествия.
- Есть ли авиабилеты до Новосибирска?
- Было только 2 свободных места в вагоне 1 класса.
- Есть только один способ собрать деньги на поездку.
- По-моему нет ничего лучше, чем путешествие на машине.
- Будут ли экскурсии по городу на следующей неделе?
- Я уверен, что во время этой поездки будет много приключений.
- Есть ли вагон-ресторан в проходящем поезде?
- В моём купе больше никого не было.
- В вагоне оставалось ещё одно место, и мы взяли с собой собаку.
- В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.
12. Learn these phrases by heart. Put them into the sentences and then dramatize the microdialogues.
On the contrary! It is out of the question! What a good idea!
With pleasure! Needless to say that…It goes without saying …
Yes, that’s true. Quite agree with you. Nothing of the kind!
What a bore! It is an open secret… You don’t say so!
Honestly speaking… I haven’t got the slightest idea! Congratulations!
1. – Where are the tickets for a ship?
- ….Last time I saw them on the table.
2. – Let’s go on hike on Sunday.
3. – You know, Pete has gone on business to Warsaw again.
- …..! He is a very busy man.
4. – To my mind, we should go to N. by bus, not by train. It’ll take us about
And we won’t have to change in M.
5. - This summer I made a tour of France.
- ……! It might be very exciting!
6. - We are short of money now. So, we shall travel by sea. It is cheaper
than travelling by air.
7. - In my opinion, traveling by plane is the most dangerous way of travel
- ……! It is much more dangerous to travel by car or to walk across the street.
8. --I think , travelling by bicycle or on foot does man’s health a lot of good.
- ….. But I prefer travelling by car to travelling by bicycle.
9. - Just imagine! My wife has won a pass to Sochi in the “Magic Field“.
13. Give your own ideas about travelling, its advantages and disadvantages. Use the information of the main text, exercises and the table below.
|1. It is exciting to travel by …||1. Some people find it boring.|
|2. It is instructive …||2. You have to change.|
|3. With a … you have speed, and comfort, and pleasure combined||3. You can forget to clip tickets.|
|4. It is romantic …||4. It is very dangerous nowadays …|
|5. I love the sights of a ship with its many decks, cabins and state-rooms||5. Travelling by /on … takes too long.|
|6. Travel by car is a more personal experience, for there you can drive -yourself.||6. In towns traffic “jams” are usual things.|
|7. You can go as fast or as slowly as you wish, stop when and where you choose…||7. Some people feel sea-sick (air-sick).|
|8. It does people’s health a lot of good.||8. It does people’s health a lot of harm.|
|9. You feel the real joy of speed…|
14. Read the following compositions and answer the questions.
1. From Lucy’s composition:
Last summer I was in Sweden. I stayed with my friends and they often took me to see beautiful hills and mountains at the sea-side. I lived in a small fishing port. Many people started their tour of the country there, and so did I. I had a wonderful time in Sweden.
2. From Jan’s composition:
… You see, I am not English, so it was interesting for me to visit London. I often got up very early and went sightseeing. I saw the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, the Tower. I enjoyed looking at these beautiful buildings and learning the history of the country…
3. From Jane’s composition:
… Last month I went to Japan. It was great! I was like being in a fairy-tale! I went there by plane with a group of our students. It took us many hours to get there, but I wasn’t tired. In Tokyo we stayed in a hotel and enjoyed ourselves seeing places there. Then we made a tour of the country and had a very good time, of course…
1. Where was Lucy last summer?
2. Did she stay at her friends’ or at a hotel?
3. Where did she live in Sweden?
4. Why was it interesting for Jan to visit London?
5. What did he often do when he visited London?
6. What did he see there?
7. Last month Jane went to Japan, didn’t she?
8. Did she like the trip?
9. Did she go there by plane or by ship?
10. Where did she stay in Tokyo?
11. Where did the students go after Tokyo?
15. Make up a story about your own holidays using these questions as a plan.
1. When did your holidays begin?
2. Where did you go for your holidays?
3. Who did you go there with?
4. How did you get there?
5. How long did it take you to go there?
6. Where did you stay?
7. What did you do there?
8. Did you have a good or a bad time?
9. How long did it take you to get back?
10. Did you go back by the same means of transport?
11. Did you have a good rest after your classes?
16. Make dialogues with your group-mates asking them the questions above.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of 4 parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of the largest island called Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland.
The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244,000 square kilometers; it is the 75th place among other countries in the world. The population is over 56,5 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The capital of the country is London.
The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western part of the country is mountainous and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and center) is a vast plain, which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. It is mild the whole year round.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of iron and steel products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centers are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centers of Europe. Education is not free, it is very expensive.
The United Kingdom is a monarchy and the Queen is the head of the state. But in practice, it is ruled by the elected government with a Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are 3 main political parties in Great Britain: Labor, the Conservative and the Liberal parties.
|to be situated - располагаться||to vary - отличаться|
|to be ruled by – управляться||to influence - влиять|
|to be washed by - омываться||to consist (of) – состоять (из)|
|to be called – называться||to occupy – занимать|
|to be known – быть известным||electronics – электроника|
|isle=island – остров||chemicals – химикаты|
|territory – территория||textile – текстиль|
|population – население||aircraft – авиация|
|country, land – земля, страна||capital – столица|
|navigation – судоходство||surface - поверхность|
|equipment – оборудование||plain – равнина|
|industry – промышленность||shipbuilding – кораблестроение|
|mountains – горы||tradition – традиция|
|machinery – машинное оборудование||custom - обычай|
|lake – озеро||queen - королева|
|producer – производитель||parliament- парламент|
|exporter – экспортер||Prime Minister – премьер-министр|
|product – товар||monarchy – монархия|
|iron – железо||government - правительство|
|steel – сталь||chamber – палата|
|the head of the state- глава государства||party – партия|
|northern – северный||mountainous- горный|
|southern – южный||urban – городской|
|western – западный||vast- огромный|
|eastern – восточный||highly developed – высокоразвитый|
|elected – избираемый||labour – лейбористская|
|conservative - консервативный||liberal - либеральный|
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Объединенное королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
England – Англия
Scotland – Шотландия
Wales – Уэльс
Northern Ireland – Северная Ирландия
Europe – Европа
1. Find the Russian equivalents to the following English words and phrases.
To occupy the territory, to vary greatly, to be called, urban, highly developed country, to be known as, chief industries, educational centers, to consist of, world’s largest producers and exporters, to be situated on, the population, the head of the state.
Называться, основные отрасли промышленности, располагать на, высокоразвитая страна, крупнейшие мировые производители и экспортеры, быть известным как, население, сильно различаться, городской, образовательные центры, глава государства, занимать территорию, состоять из.
2. Read the text and find:
a) the endings of the sentences
1. England, Wales and Scotland occupy …
2. The territory of the United Kingdom is …
3. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and …
4. It is known as one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of …
5. The most famous educational centers are …
b) the beginnings of the sentences
1. … is situated on the British Isles.
2. … is mountainous and is called the Highlands.
3. … are the Severn and the Thames.
4. … of the country is shipbuilding.
5. … and the Queen is the head of the state.
a) the pairs of antonyms.:
|mountains southern eastern Highlands urban conservative||Lowlands rural plane northern western liberal|
b) ) the pairs of the synonyms: