General revision exercises on the non-finite forms of the verb

1. Use the gerund or the infinitive of the verb in brackets. Insert prepositions where necessary.

1. I regret (to miss) the show.

2. I regret (to say) I am not coming.

3. He is quite able (to take care) of himself.

4. He is capable (to do) things you would least expect of him.

5. He would not stop (to ask) questions until he thought he was clear about everything.

6. We called after him, but he did not even stop (to turn) his head.

7. I don't like your way (to talk).

8. This is not the way (to talk).

9. It was very useful (to hear) the different opinions.

10. It's no use (to argue) when the matter is settled.

11. You can hardly count (to find) everything as you would like it to be.

12. He felt they were hiding something from him, and he demanded (to tell) the truth.

13. I'll give you a chance (to try) your hand at it.

14. Shall we have a chance ever (to see) you here again?

15. His time was up, but he still went on (to talk).

16. After saying a few words about the author himself, the lecturer went on (to speak) of his works.

17. I need spectacles (to read).

18. The print is too small; I need a magnifying glass (to read) it with.

2. Translate the following into English using the gerund or the infinitive. (The verbs in brackets are to be used as predicates.)

1. (to remember, to forget): а) Вы не забыли опустить письмо, которое я вам дал? b) Сунув руку в карман, он обна­ружил там письмо, которое он забыл опустить, с) Едва я прочел первые строки, как вспомнил, что я уже где-то читал эти слова, d) Я совсем забыл, что одолжил кому-то свой словарь, и долго искал его на полках.

2. (to suggest, to offer): а) Случай оказался серьезным, и врач предложил созвать консилиум. b) Видя наши затруднения, он предложил выручить нас.

3. (to keep promise, to show promise): а) Выполнил ли он свое обещание заняться этим делом? b) Он обещает скоро стать одним из лучших шах­матистов нашего клуба.

4. (to go on): а) Во второй главе автор продолжает описывать экономическое положение страны. b) Во второй главе, после краткого анализа экономики страны, автор описывает современную политическую обстановку.

5. (couldn't help, couldn't but): а) Его искусство не могло не вызвать восхи­щения. b) Кто бы ни видел его картины, не мог не восхищаться его искусством.

6. (to propose): а) Экскурсовод предложил начать осмотр выставки с автобусной поездки по ее территории. Ь) Насколько известно, они намеревались выехать во второй половине дня.

7. (to think): а) Мы полагали начать обследова­ние завода с этого цеха. b) Я не мог даже и думать о том, чтобы оставить его одного в таком состоянии.

3. Complete the following using the gerund or the infinitive.. Insert prepositions where necessary.

1. There is no ... ,

2. There is not much ....

3. ... is out of the question.

4. ... would have been a mistake.

5. It is no good ... .

6. It is very good ,.. .

7. His duty was ... .

8. His work was ... .

9. There is no reason ... .

10. There is no need ... .

11. Your television set does not need ... .

12. You needn't ... .

13. He was looking for an opportunity ....

14. I don't think there can be any opportunity ... .

15. Then the article goes on ... .

16. In spite of the late hour they went on ....

17. They were in a hurry, they could not stop ... .

18. He was struck by the beauty of the scenery; he could not stop ... .

19. I am used ... .

20. When a student I used ... .

21. I can't bear ....

22. They couldn't afford

23. What about your report? Have you finished ... ?

24. On hear­ing the footsteps he ceased ... .

25. He began ... only when the noise subsided.

26. We never intended ....

27. No matter how often I tried ... .

28. The weather looks like ... .

29. The climate seems ... .

30. It was very nice ... .

31. My job is ... .

4. State whether the -ing form is a participle, a gerund, or a verbal noun.

1. Looking back upon that time was like remembering some­thing that had happened long ago, when he was much younger. (J.S.)

2. Looking back upon that time, I thought that all might have been different had it not been for the interference of my parents.

3. Dave lived there like a rent-paying tenant, his comings and goings being of small concern to the others. (A.S.)

4. The distraught Jenny, sitting by her sleeping child, was at last made to realize, by its peaceful breathing, that all danger was over. (Th.D.)

5. She left off ringing, and, sitting down at the top of the stairs, buried her face in her hands. (Glsw.)

6. With a sudden tightening of the muscles he became aware of a figure walking noiselessly beside him. (H.W.)

7. There was the sound of rocking a chair in the room, and of a woman singing. (R.G.)

8. He cursed himself for having come, and at the same time resolved that, happen v/hat would, having come, he would carry it through. (J.L.)

9. Through spaces of the unfinished house, shirtsleeved figures worked slowly, and sounds arose — spasmodic blockings, the scraping of metal, the sawing of wood. (Glsw.)

10. Having ex­hausted all the possible combinations of his vocabulary, the sailor quieted down to hard thinking. (J.L.)

11. An old clock kept with its ticking a jealous record of the seconds slipping away for ever from its old master.

12. Stephanie walked slowly across the campus enjoying the Saturday afternoon luxury of walking without hurry­ing. (A.S.)

13. Sitting at the empty table made him feel sorry for himself. (Sit.)

5. Insert not or without before the -ing form, thus using a par­ticiple or a gerund.

1. ... speaking the language, he was questioned through an interpreter.

2. She never did a thing ... asking somebody's advice.

3. The man was holding forth, ... paying attention to the attempts to interrupt him.

4. I left him alone, ... wanting to distract him from his work.

5. ... having recognized me, she passed by ... answering my nod.

6. The girl looked innocently about her, ... realizing what the joke was.

7. They could not see each other ... immediately losing their temper.

8. ... waiting for an answer, he turned round and walked out.

9. I tried to catch his eye but he sat motionless, ... looking in my direction.

10. They jumped at the proposition, ... thinking of the consequences.

11. The wind had been blowing for many days ... seeming to stop.

12. The young man asked me all kinds of questions ... concealing his curiosity.

13. I stood as if petrified, ... believing my eyes.

14. He never signed a paper ... having thoroughly read it through.

15. The door stood ajar, and we entered ... knocking.

6. Use the appropriate form of the infinitive or participle of the verb in brackets.

1. (to switch on) the light, he pulled down the curtains.

2. (to switch on) the light, you have only to reach out your hand.

3. He took up the glass carefully, not (to spill) a drop.

4. He took up the full glass, not (to spill) a drop.

5. He received a letter (to inform) him of their new address.

6. They sent him a letter' (to inform) him of their new address.

7. She winced (to remember) the pain.

8. She strained her memory (to remember) the date.

9. It was an answer (to expect).

10. An answer came, but it was not the answer (to expect).

11. A new canal was built (to connect) the two rivers.

12. (to take) his glass from the table he held it away from him (to scrutinize) the colour.

13. He is not a man easily (to move) by tears.

14. He was a sentimental man, easily (to move) by tears.

15. There is a man (to wait) for you.

16. There is a man (to see) you.

17. He stopped short as if (to take aback).

18. He shaded his eyes with his hand as though (to protect) them from the blazing sun.

19. She smiled to herself as if (to remember) something funny.

20. (to see) from afar, a beacon must be high and powerful.

21. (to see) from afar, the beacon was an unfailing guide for ships at sea, whatever the weather.

22. They had tried many other methods, finally (to return) to the initial one.

23. They had tried many other methods only (to return) to the initial one.

7. Translate what is given in brackets using the infinitive or participle.

1. He raised up his head а) (с удивленным видом); b) (чтобы посмотреть, кто вошел); с) (и увидел, что кто-то наблюдает за ним).

2. We have many people а) (которые нам помогают); b) (которые могут нам помочь).

3. а) Не settled at the new place (и уже не покидал его); b) (Обосновавшись) at the new place, he never left it.

4. The scientists brought back from the expedition some pictures of deep water fishes (невиданных ранее). 5. That is one of the greatest discoveries (когда-либо сделанных чело­векам).

6. a) The first party of the goods (посылаемых) to the fair has arrived; b) (посланных) to the fair is on the way to the port of delivery; с) (которые будут посланы) to the fair is ready for transportation.

7. a) I shiver (при одной мысли об этом); b) I shivered (подумав об этом).

8. а) Не must be a great authority on the subject (раз он написал) such a book; b) He was a great authority on the subject (проработав) in the field for so many years.

9. His was a wisdom а) (которая приобретается) only through experience; b) (которая может быть приобретена) only through experience.

10. a) How many rooms are reserved for the delegates (прибывающих) for the conference? b) There are some more delegates (которые должны .прибыть) for the conference; c) These rooms are occupied by the delegates (прибывшими) for the conference.

8. Combine or paraphrase the following sentences using non-finite forms of the verb (give several variants where possible).

1. He tore the envelope open and took out the enclosed letter. He turned it several times in his hand and put it back unread.

2. When Andrew was reinforced by this information he immedi­ately went down to the hall and rang up his wife.

3. We took a cab; we wished to be among the first who would greet the guests.

4. We came to the party; we found everybody gathered.

5. He wanted me to speak in public; he insisted on it.

6. He had examined every little exhibit in the museum. He now had a complete idea of the poet's life.

7. Martin poured out the wine clumsily and spilt some of it on the table cloth.

8. I did not stay in the country long enough. I don't know the customs of the people.

9. I hope you will remember this once and for all. You won't make me remind you of it.

10. They did not wish to meet anybody; they went round the house and entered it from the back lest they should be observed.

11. Every other minute he would push up his sleeve and look at the watch.

12. He reads into the early hours of the morning. This habit of his will have its say on his health one fine day.

13. When he saw me in this dress he burst into laughter. He couldn't help it.

14. If such machines are applied in agriculture, they will save farmers much time and labour.

15. He kept on reading; he did not answer. It seemed that he did not hear my question.

16. The man registered the newcomers, that was his job.

17. They made the garden shady; they had planted more trees in it.

18. He did not suspect a trap. He readily accepted the offer.

19. When I was examining the post mark, I noted that the communication had been sent Thursday last.

20. You will not recover soon if you don't take regular treatment.


1. Pick out the conjunctions and state whether they are coordi-native or subordinative; in the case of subordinative conjunctions name the type of clause they introduce.

1. A vague remembrance stirred in Andrew's mind as soon as he had looked at the cottage. (A.C.)

2. Daphne kept the promise she had given herself, and it was only when she had finished her coffee that she allowed herself to glance into the corner of the dining room, but — alas — it was empty.

3. And Clyde, as he followed Mr. Whiggam, was thinking what a wonderful place Mr. Gilbert Griffiths enjoyed. No doubt he came and went as he chose — arrived at the office late, departed early. (Th.D.)

4. But most of all he (Lanny) would miss Celia, for they had done many things together; shared so much fun and excitement, (P.A.)

5. In the very midst of these terrors, I was placed in a situation so ridiculous that even then I had as strong a sense of its absurdity as I have now. (Ch.D.)

6. While Becky Sharp was on her own wing in the country Amelia lay snug in her home of Russel Square; if she went into the world, it was under the guidance of the elders, nor did it seem possible that any evil could befall her or her cheery, comfortable home. (W.Th.)

7. "If you can arrange facilities for me, so that I can get information on this person, it will be very helpful," said Cain. (D.C.)

8. Eddie rubbed himself a peephole on the frosted pane so he could see the last of Chicago. (D.C.)

9. The more Cain looked at the whole thing, the more ridic­ulous it seemed. (D.C.)

10. "I tell you this," said Sommerville, "because it will do you good to think of your wife while you're behind bars." (D.C.)

11. Stephanie rose from the counter and walked outside with the idea of following Ruby to the hospital, but changed her mind for fear she might miss her oft the way. (A.S.)

12. Hanson said: "I told her because she was secretary of the school didn't give her any business taking over the functions of the State Educational Committee." (A.S.)

13. Then Stephanie went on to the People's School where she took Pledger's class along with her own, since Pledger had gone with Dave to the wage conference. (A.S.)

14. Margot Sommerville had pledged her­self from the moment she learned her husband was being released on bail, not to discuss the case unless he invited her opinion. (A.S.)

15. "Supposing you were to find yourself discharged from the faculty, what would you do?" asked Margot. 16. "Follow a thing through, once you have started it," said the Old Man. (D.C.)

2. Pick out coordinative conjunctions and state their type.

1. When he (Lanny) felt like a walk or a climb or a swim Celia was always there and ready. (P.A.)

2. Peace preaches for itself — not only in the Soviet Union but even in places where the warmongers hold pulpits, the press and the platforms. (A.J.)

3. I found myself on deck. I don't know how I got there, or what possessed me to go there, but there I was. (Ch.D.)

4. Lanny moved steadily, looking neither left nor right, neither slackening nor hastening his footsteps. (P.A.) 5. Tant Sannie from next door knocked and entered, saying, "I know you are not baking today, so I thought I would bring these cookies." (P.A.)

6. Each time a man fell it was with the firm belief that he would rise no more; yet he did rise, and again, and again. (J.L.)

7. But if the job was not important to Pledger himself, he knew how important it was to all the others, for to them it was a mark of victory. (D.C.) S. "I suppose that I shall be treated most contemptuously. Still I must bear my hard lot as well as I can," thought Rebecca. (W.Th.}

3. Insert the appropriate conjunction.

1. a) We decided to do our bit of work separately ... discuss each other's part when it was ready, (and, but), b) We tried to do our bit of work together ... soon decided to divide it for each to do his part separately, (and, but).

2. The war took away all his friends . .. relatives. He remained quite alone without friends . . . relatives, (and, or).

3. He did not understand anything of what was going on around him .. . did he try to ... nobody bothered to make him care, (and, nor).

4. a) I couldn't find an answer to my question ... in books ... in lecture halls, (either ... or, neither ... nor), b) ... the books I read ... the people I spoke to could give me an answer to my question, (either ... or, neither ... nor).

5. a) Much was said ... in favour of ... against the project, (neither ... nor, both ... arid), b) Nothing was said ... in favour of ... against the project, (neither ... nor, either ... or), c) He spoke of the project in a round about way ... in favour of ... against it. (either ... or, neither ... nor, both ... and).

6. a) It was late, ... everybody felt tired, (so, and), b) It was late, ... we agreed to break till to-morrow, (so, and), c) We agreed to break till to-morrow, ... it was already late, (so, for, and).

4. Analyse the meaning of the conjunctions given in bold type and state what clauses they introduce.

1. Now he leaned forward, and spoke as one who was used to a large audience.

2. That's what I think of as I go about the streets of London. (R.G.)

3. Though by no means unexpected, the telegram made Mr. Bunting's pulse quicken as no telegram had done for months. (R.G.)

4. I thought I recognized him, but dulled as my mind was, I could not recall his name.

5. Child as he (Oliver; was, he was so desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery that he asked the master for some more gruel.

6. His English was fluentsince he had been in the country since he was sixteen and had married an English wife. (A.Ch.)

7. Whileher father proceeded with the description of the queer little place he had lived in, she looked up at him and saw the same odd expression of his sensi­tive mouth.

8. While she loved managing people forcing them to do what she herself thought right and fit, she achieved her purpose by persuading them that what she wanted them to do was exactly what they wanted to do themselves. (A.B.)

9. The important question, to my mind, is the actual smuggling itself. Once the books are safe in Bologna, it's a comparatively simple matter to circulate them. (V.)

10. Once in bed, Jon continued to hold his mothers hand. (Glsw.)

11. "The dog won't comeback." "He will," she cried; "He won't leave me. He loved me, if he was savage and terrible." (K.C.)

12. Indeed, if there were anything to tell, I would tell it to you; but there is no use in talking about these things. (V.)

13. I should like to know if there is anything to stop this noise.

14. Then, is your suggestion, signora, thatwe should issue satirical pamphlets, or attempt to run a comic paper? (V.)

15. On many streets there was such a silence that it seemed the heart of the city had ceased to beat. (R.P.)

16. He could see nothing out­side except thatthe small electric lamp opposite was not lighted. (H.W.)

17. It was with some difficulty that Rip found the way to his own house. (W.I.)

18. Nowthat there was really a fair chance of success, it must not be missed. (V.)

19. Here is the key to my library thatyou may make use of my books when I am absent.

5. Combine the following sentences so as to make them either complex or compound using the conjunctions given in brackets. (Make the necessary changes.)

1. I did not read the book to the end. It was not very interest­ing, (because, therefore).

2. We left early. We wanted to reach the village before sunset, (so that, so).

3. You are not in earnest. You speak in such a careless and indifferent manner, (if, or [else]).

4. The expedition may be dangerous. I shall take part in it. {although, nevertheless).

5. The road was very muddy. The car would not move, (so ... that, for).

6. State whether the words given in bold type are conjunc­tions, pronouns or adverbs.

1. You must promise me to take a thorough rest whenyour vacation begins this summer. (V.)

2. She could not tell whenhe would come and if he would come at all.

3. That was the epoch in Soames' life whenhe had been living down the disgrace of being deserted by his first wife. (Glsw.)

4. He had often promised himself a visit to where the old Forsytes came from. (GJsw.)

5. The first person upon whom Arthur's eyes fell as he entered the room where the students' little gatherings were held, was his old play­mate, Dr. Warren's daughter. (V.)

6. June would at least know something about those two; whether they were still at Wansdon, or where they were. (Glsw.)

7. Young Jolyon asked the Inspector to tell himwhat happened, and the latter detailed such facts as were known. (Glsw.)

8. From Chamonix they went on by the Tete-Noire to Martigny, where they stopped to rest, as the weather was stiflingly hot. (V.)

9. Before Arthur had been a month in the prison, the mutual irritation had reached such a night that he and the colonel could not see each other's faces without losing their temper. (V.)

10. The announcement by Michael thatFleur would be bringing Kit home the next morning, caused Soames to say; "I'd like to have a look at that part of the world... Don't say anything to Fleur I'll let her know when I get down to Nettlefold." (Glsw.)

11. Montanelli's voice was rather low, but full and resonant, with a silvery purity of tonethat gave to his speech a peculiar charm. (V.)

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