What does this question mean? Why did the official ask it?
I considered for a moment. ‘Sure, why not?’ I said. ‘I’ll have four pounds of potatoes and some mangoes, if they are fresh.’
Instantly, I could see that I had misjudged my audience. He looked at me with one of those slow, dark expressions that you never want to see in a uniformed official, but especially in a US Customs and Immigration officer.
Why did the customs official begin to get angry?
Luckily he appeared to conclude that I was just incredibly stupid. ‘Sir,’ he enquired more specifically. ‘Are you carrying any items of fruit or vegetable?’ ‘No, sir, I’m not,’ I answered at once, and gave him the most respectable look I believe I have given anybody in my life. I left him shaking his head. I am sure that for the rest of his career he will always be telling people about the idiot who thought he was a greengrocer.
Why do you think the author gave the customs official a very respectful look?
The same thing happened another time when I was talking to my neighbor about a disastrous airline trip which had left me stranded overnight in Denver. ‘Who did you fly with?’ he asked.
What does the question really mean?
‘I don’t know,’ I replied. ‘They were all strangers.’ He looked at me with an expression of panic.
‘No, I meant which airline you had flown with,’ he said. Soon after this my wife ordered me to stop making jokes with him, as our conversations were giving him migraine.
Why didn’t his neighbor understand his answers?
b) Make a glossary. Choose seven words to remember.
c) Answer the questions:
1. What do you think these people’s problem was?
2. What should people do to avoid misunderstanding?
3. Can you remember any situations like that which happened to you?
Vocabulary and Grammar
Task 11.Make as many word combinations as you can:
Task 12.Put the following nouns into the correct column:
news, luggage, goods, money, belongings, progress, clothes,
advice, headquarters, resources, cash, valuables, furniture,
equipment, premises, police
|nouns used only in the singular||nouns used only in the plural|
Task 13.Find the word with the most general meaning in each line:
1) contract, certificate, license, document, declaration
2) computer, telephone, equipment, fax-machine, Xerox
3) control, examine, inspect, check
4) terminal, station, port of entry, airport
5) suitcase, rucksack, handbag, box, baggage
6) camera, X-ray machine, technology, metal detector, fiberscope
7) transport, aircraft, train, truck, ship
8) duty, payment, penalty, fine, tax
9) passenger, customer, broker, trader
10) ask, answer, explain, consult, inform, communicate
Task 14. Put the words in the correct order.
1) they/ uniform/ always/ wear.
2) don’t/ English/ speak/ at work/ I.
3) he/ abroad/ on business trips/ goes/ often.
4) passenger’s baggage/ customs/examine/ officers.
5) contraband/ find/ we/ sometimes.
6) with/am/ polite/ customers/ I/ always.
7) you/ do/ computer/ special/ use/ programs?
8) like/ outdoors/ doesn’t/ to work/ she.
9) on the night shift/ do/ work/ you/ often?
10) work/ machine/ doesn’t/ X-ray/ this.
11) passengers/ customs/ through/ pass/ always/ control.
12) help/ to detect/ drugs/ dogs.
13) check-point/ modern/ our/ got/ computers/ has.
14) department/ that/ duties/ and/ collects.
15) business/ customs officers/ health/ protect/ public/ and.
Task 15.Find as many words from the topic as you can.
Task 16.Make a written translation of the text and think about the title for it.
“I saw an advertisement for *HM Revenue and Excise and thought that it sounded really interesting. I joined HM Revenue and Excise as an administrative assistant doing general support work. I did that job for three years. When I got my promotion to administrative officer, I worked on the project which involved the simplification of the paperwork for the import and export of goods. I had to handle telephone enquiries. It was very challenging work and there was never a dull moment. After two years I applied for the Investigation division and was fortunate enough to get the job. It was a good opportunity to broaden my experience. My current job as a control officer is tough, but very interesting. The main part of my job is to help traders to understand the regulations and to ensure if they are following the correct procedures. I feel that I am part of the Team and that what I am doing is worthwhile.
*Before 2005 the department was called HM Customs and Excise.
Task 17.Think of a profession. Try to guess what professions your partners have in mind. The following YES/NO questions may help you:
1. Do you work indoors / outdoors?
2. Do you work in shifts?
3. Do you wear uniform?
4. Do you deal with …?
5. Do you use any special tools?
6. Do you meet a lot of people?
7. Do you have to speak foreign languages?
8. Do you have to go on business trips?
9. Do you need any special skills/education?
10. Is your profession prestigious / well-paid?
Task 18.Complete the sentences.
1. The Customs is the state body which …
2. The duties of the customs officer include …
3. If you want to be a customs officer you should …
4. A person can’t be a customs officer if …
Task 19.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being a customs officer. Make a list:
|It is prestigious…||Customs officers have to work in shifts …|
Task 20.Get ready to speak on the topic. Use the vocabulary ofthe unit.
Task 21. What sort of personality characteristics are most important for:
- a customs officer / - a flight attendant? Mark three of the following:
decisive stable sympathetic
independent brave authoritative
emotional strong friendly
self- disciplined kind fair
supportive firm reliable
Compare your choices with your partner.
Task 22.If you were unemployed would you take a job in:
a factory a hospital a Customs warehouse
a bank a shop a scientific research centre
a bakery a library an Internet café
a restaurant a theatre the Customs Academy
a school an airport a police station
See if your answers are the same with your partner’s and if you answered «maybe» say what it would depend on. What jobs would you hate to do and why?
Task 23. What would be your ideal job?
§ What are the most important aspects of job satisfaction for you?
§ Describe some personal and physical qualities that a person needs for this job?
§ What qualities are essential for this job? Cross out the ones you think you don’t possess and therefore may have to work on.
Discuss your answers to these questions with your partner and give an
explanation for your choice.
Task 24. Think of any job and imagine it is yours. Imagine 5 things you did yesterday as part of your job and write them down. Read out your story to your partner. See if he can guess what your job is.
Task 25. Discuss with your partner the following: what sort of personal characteristics do you think are the most important for a customs officer? Mark three of the following (using one for the most important, then two and three).
Task 26. Role -play.
a) You are a customs officer. Answer these questions for a school leaver interested in a career in the Customs.
1. What qualities does a Customs officer need?
2. Why do you think it is a difficult science to study?
3. Which subjects should I study if I want to be a Customs officer?
4. What career opportunities are there for someone who has studied Customs matters?
5. Do all Customs officers do the same kind of the work?
6. What type of work is being done in Customs in Russia?
7. Why do some people say career prospects in the Customs Service are very good?
8. Why do you say a career in the Customs Service could be very exciting in future?
b) Discuss your answers in class.
Task 27.Group work. In groups decide on a job vacancy, e. g. a customs officer, a dog handler, a customs broker, etc. Three students then role play the job interviewers. One is sympathetic, one aggressive and one is neutral. The other students role -play the applicants. Several people are interviewed for the same job. The interviewers then discuss them, comparing their abilities. The group can decide who gets the job.
|the Customs Service||таможенная служба|
|customs warehouse||таможенный склад|
|customs check-point||таможенный пост|
|to work in shifts / overtime||посменно / сверхурочно|
|indoors /outdoors||в помещении / на открытом воздухе|
|to wear uniform||носить форму|
|law, legal act||закон|
|to apply||зд. применять|
|to clear||зд. оформлять|
|to deal||иметь дело с чем/кем-либо|
|transport means||транспортное средство|
|canine enforcement team (К-9)||бригада кинологов|
|drug detector dog||собака, обученная находить наркотики|
|to pass through||проходить через|
|to process documents||оформлять документы|
|to inspect syn. to examine, to search, to check, to control, to rummage||досматривать|
|to break law||нарушать закон|
|to charge, to impose||налагать|
|personal and professional conduct||личные и профессиональные качества|
|to interdict||предотвращать, задерживать|
|fair trade||честная торговля|
|traffic of smuggling||провоз контрабанды|
|career prospects||перспектива карьерного роста|
|staff, employees, personnel||штат; сотрудники|
|the Russian Customs Academy||Российская таможенная академия|
|Border guards||пограничная служба|
|Tax police||налоговая полиция|
|Federal Security Bureau||Федеральная Служба Безопасности|
|department, section, desk, group||oтдел|
|luggage (Br E), baggage (Am E)||багаж|
|Investigations department||следственное управление|
|to import / export; import /export||ввозить/вывозить; ввоз/вывоз|
|to fill in (to fill out - Am E)||заполнять|
|to weigh/ weight||взвешивать/вес|
THE HISTORY OF CUSTOMS
Task 1. Read and translate the text.
The current Russian word tamozhnya appeared in the times of Mongol-Tatar yoke. The word tamga, in Tatar, meant “a customs tax; an official who collected it; and the stamped seal or a statement showing that it had been paid”. The Russian Customs Service, however, predates the Mongol-Tatar yoke (1237-1480). Thus, we can say that Russia has had a Customs Service in some form during the past 1000 years.
Even in the times of Kievan Rus, taxeswere collected for the transportation of goods through the frontiers of individual princedoms. Each market had its tamozhnya and the right to collect duties could be purchased from the State. That right was often given to powerful merchants.
The first Russian Customs Statute was handed down in 1667. It was strict towards foreigners, who were allowed to trade only in frontier towns on pain of confiscation. A special tsar’s certificate was required for trading further inside the country. Such protectionism went on for most of the next 300 years. Every tsar, from Peter the Great to Nicolas II, approved laws limiting the import of foreign goods and defending Russian producers.
For almost all of its history the Customs Service has been much more than a force for keeping out contraband. In fact, it has been a powerful administrative body, and customs business has always been considered important and prestigious.
* * *
A number of well-known people both in Russia and abroad worked for the Customs and contributed to its development.
The Russian tsar Alexei Mikhailovitch was the head of the Russian state for more than 30 years (1645-1676). It was the time when the main state institutions were formed. He did a lot to develop customs laws. For example, he initiated customs reformsby issuing the Decree “On levying customs duties on goods in Moscow and other cities”. Besides, he signed the New Trade Statute (1667) which was based on the previous legislation and suggestions, made by Russian merchants. It was the first attempt to arrange customs procedures.
The well-known Russian poet Gavriil R. Derzchavin combined his literary activities with his work as President of Commerce Board in 1794-1803. He was engaged in foreign trade and customs business and took part in working out customs tariffswhichcame into effectin 1800.
Alexander N. Radishev, the famous Russian writer, also worked for the Customs and was appointed the head of St.Petersburg Customs House.
Dmitry I. Mendeleev was a great Russian chemist and a public figure. In 1891-1903 he was Head of the Commission in charge of customs tariffs. He was sure that protectionist tariff would serve the development of the country as it not only regulated export and import but also stimulated industrial production. He was one of the first to discover the laws ruling customs business.
Nowadays Russia has the world’s longest border to police and has a modern, multi-functioning Customs Service. It carries out the same functions as the Customs of other countries: fiscal function, regulation of foreign trade, law enforcement, keeping of customs statistics on foreign trade, etc.
Working on the text
Task 2. Look at these words and answer the question.
Is there anything special about the way we should read and pronounce them?
through foreign write export chemist either
right sign wrong import technology
Task 3. Find in the text the words that follow the verbs below:
a) to initiate
b) to levy
c) to regulate
d) to stimulate
e) to discover
f) to be engaged in
g) to work out
h) to issue
i) to collect
j) to approve
k) to combine
l) to form
Task 4.Find the words or phrases in the text which mean the following:
a) to be involved in some activity
b) to start
c) to collect by authority
d) to choose for a post
e) to find out
f) the laws
h) tax on certain goods
i) to come into force
Task 5.a) Give the Russian equivalents of the following:
b) Explain the meaning of the underlined expressions. See Conversational formulas.
- the development of customs law;
- to initiate reforms;
- ”On levying customs duties”;
- to be based on previous legislation;
- to arrange customs procedures;
- to come into effect;
- to predate ;
- powerful merchants;
- to hand down;
- to keep out contraband;
- a public figure
Task 6. Complete the sentences.
1. The Russian tsar Alexei Mikhailovitch initiated customs reforms …
2. It was the first attempt …
3. He was sure that protectionist tariff …
4. It was based on previous legislation and …
5. He was one of the first to …
Task 7. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.
1. The word tamga meant a customs tax.
2. The Russian Customs Service appeared in the times of Mongol-Tatar yoke.
3. In Kievan Rus, no taxeswere collected at the frontiers of individual princedoms.
4. Collecting duties was the only function of the Customs.
5. The first Russian Customs Statute was handed down in the XVII century.
6. The customs legislation has always been loyal to foreign traders.
7. The New Trade Statute of 1677 was worked out by D.I.Mendeleev.
Task 8. Answer the questions.
1. When did the word tamozhnya appear?
2. What did the word tamga mean?
3. Who was given the right to collect duties?
4. How long has Russia had the Customs Service?
5. When was the first Russian Customs Statute handed down?
6. Where were foreigners allowed to trade?
7. When were the main Russian state institutions formed?
8. What reform did Alexei Mikhailovitch initiate?
9. What was the New Trade Statute based on?
10. What was Commerce Board engaged in?
11. What did D.I.Mendeleev think about the protectionist tariff?
Task 9.a) Complete the text with suitable prepositions if necessary.
British Customs service can also boast _____ some famous people who worked for the customs.
The Poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was an excise officer _____ 1789 _____ 1796. Excise officers visited _____ local traders, calculated the amount of money due and issued vouchers stating the amount payable. It was hard work with daily rounds _____ foot or horseback. They worked full day or _____ shifts. Because of the high level of duty _____ spirits, control _____ whisky and gin production was very important.
The excise collector made his rounds eight times _____ a year collecting duty ______ a wide area. They usually set up an office _____ an inn where tradesmen paid the duty. It was a dangerous job: _____ collectors were often attacked and robbed.
b) Answer the questions:
1. What kind of work did Robert Burns do at the Customs?
2. Why did customs officers visit local traders?
3. Why was the control of whisky and gin production so important?
4. Where did excise collectors set up their offices?
5. Why was excise collectors’ job so dangerous?
Task 10. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Он работает посменно, не так ли?
2. Кто разрабатывал этот таможенный тариф?
3. Эта комиссия занимается вопросами внешней торговли и таможенного оформления.
4. Когда он был назначен начальником таможни?
5. Он много сделал для развития таможенного законодательства.
6. Протекционистский тариф стимулирует развитие промышленного производства.
7. Новый торговый устав ввел новые правила провоза товаров через границу.
8. Акцизный чиновник выписал квитанцию с указанием суммы, подлежащей оплате.
9. Если ты станешь таможенником, то будешь иметь дело с таможенными платежами.
Task 11.a) Look up the words in a dictionary.Read and translate the text.
HISTORY OF SMUGGLING IN THE UK
The history of smuggling dates back to the Middle Ages and reached its peak in the reign of James I. Smuggling was easy because the customs officers were unable to cope with it adequately as on land they were far too few, and at sea, their ships were slow and less easy to handle. In addition, many of smugglers worked in large armed bands.
With the passing time, methods of smuggling were changing, and the smugglers no longer relied on large armed ships fighting their way through, handing over their contraband to armed gangs. Instead they sank their valuable goods near the shore, when the danger threatened, and picked them up later, or stored them in caves. When contraband was landed, it had to be hidden until it could be disposed of. Many of the old inns were very convenient for it.
The White Horse Inn at Gorleston, Norfolk, was the headquarters of a smuggling gang. Riding officer Hacon was appointed to that area, and he went straight to the White Horse and announced that he was going to put down smuggling with a firm hand.
Captain Legatt waged fifty guineas that he would deliver 100kg of smuggled tobacco at the officer’s house without his knowledge within fourteen days. Hacon accepted the challenge and put on extra guards. There was much interest among the town people.
Several days passed and nothing happened. Ships came and went, but there was no sign of tobacco.
Once a little schooner came in. Three men came ashore in a boat. Only one of them spoke a little English and it seemed that a man on the ship was very ill. The next day a message was sent ashore that the man was dead. A funeral procession was formed because the dead man had wished to be buried there.
Meanwhile the fourteenth day was drawing to a close. People were beginning to laugh at the smugglers. Then the Captain appeared and shook hands with Hacon.
“Well,” he said. “You owe me fifty guineas, I think.
“The boot is on the other foot*”, said Hacon with a smile.
“I think you’ll find the tobacco ready for you at home”, said Legatt. “That poor dead sailor who wished to be buried here – well, you go home and have a look – and keep the coffin as a small present”, and he roared with laughter.
* как раз наоборот
b) Make a glossary. Choose seven words to remember.
c) Answer the questions:
1. Why was smuggling easy at that time?
2. What difficulties did customs officers have?
3. What methods did smugglers use?
4. What arrangement was made between Officer Hacon and Captain Legatt?
5. How did Captain Legatt win fifty guineas?
* * *
1. Have the methods of smuggling changed in any way since those times?
2. What modern methods of detecting contraband do you know?
Task 12.a) Complete the sentences with the following phrasal verbs:
|to rely on to cope with to hand over to pick up to put down|
1. This computer can __________ huge amount of data.
2. The violence was __________ by the police and the army.
3. Many people now __________ the Internet for news.
4. I’ll take my things to the Left Baggage Counter and _____ them _____ later.
5. The police officers were ordered to __________ their guns.
b) Make your own sentences with these phrasal verbs.
Task 13.a) Revise the grammar rules on Comparatives and Superlatives.
b) Copy out the adjectives from Text 2 and complete the table.
c) Write five sentences to compare the work of customs officers in the past and nowadays.
Vocabulary and Grammar
Task 14. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1. Customs tariff (to work out) in 1795 but it (to come) into effect only in 1800.
2. After the New Trade Statute (to sign), customs procedures (to establish).
3. Before he (to appoint) Head of St.Petersburg Customs House, A.N.Radishev (to work) for Commerce Board.
4. G.R.Derzhavin (to work) at the Customs tariff for two years when Paul I
(to decide) to abolish it.
5. He (to be sure) that protectionist policy (to stimulate) industrial production.
6. He (to work) for the Customs for 15 years. Then he (to retire).
7. While he (to collect) customs duties for 20 years, he (to attack) several times.
8. When he (to think over) the customs tariffs he (to come) to the conclusion that it (to serve) the development of the country.
9. It (to be) clear that he (not to be able) to pay the amount of duty, that the excise officer (to state) in the voucher.
Task 15.a)Revise the grammar and put the words into the proper category:
baggage, declaration form, alcohol, work, cargo, equipment, procedure, tool, currency, job, car, employee, ship, reform, ruble, attempt, public, responsibility
|MUCH (- / ? ) A LOT OF ( + ) LITTLE / A LITTLE||MANY ( + / - / ? ) FEW / A FEW|
b) Complete the text. Use LITTLE / FEW / A LOT OF. Make necessary changes.
For those of you who watch what you eat. It’s a relief to know the truth after all those conflicting medical studies.
1. The Japanese eat very __________ fat and suffer __________ heart attacks than the British or Americans.
2. The Mexicans eat __________ fat and suffer __________ heart attacks than the British or Americans.
3. The Japanese drink very __________ red wine and suffer __________ heart attacks than the British or Americans.
4. The Italians drink __________ wine and suffer __________ heart attacks than the British or Americans.
5. The Germans drink __________ beer and eat __________ sausages and fats and suffer __________ heart attacks than the British or Americans.
CONCLUSION: Eat and drink what you like. Speaking English is apparently what kills you.
c) Ask questions using MUCH / MANY, FEW / LITTLE and the following words:
1) tobacco /to carry
2) false passport / to confiscate
3) wine / to import
4) suitcase / to take
5) money / to spend
6) traveler / to check
7) alcohol / to sell
8) bottles of perfume / to buy
9) time / to wait
10) tax / to collect
11) dollars / to find
12) gold item / to conceal
Task 16.a) Read and translate the text.
When a Buick Le Sabre entered the customs control zone, a customs officer asked the driver routine questions. Since the driver was nervous, the officer selected him for an intensive inspection. Customs drug detector dog “Bo” alerted to the presence of narcotics. The officers searched the car and found 14 heroin-filled bundles. Special agents arrested the driver and he was accused of a failed smuggling attempt.
b) Study the table and ask 10 questions to the text:
|Customs officers detained the traveler.||Customs officers detained a traveler.|
|Who detained the traveler? – Customs officers did.||Who did customs officers detain? – A traveler.|
|The X-ray will reveal contraband.||The X-ray will reveal contraband.|
|What will reveal contraband? – The X-ray will.||What will the X-ray reveal? -Contraband.|
c) Give the gist of the story.
Task 17.a) Read the introduction to the exercise.
Being a customs officer you will frequently deal with the public. Generally, the “public” we serve are passengers, traders, ship and aircraft crews, shipping agents, etc. These people will classify anything that you do or say to them as typical for the Customs Service. You have, therefore, to meet certain standards of behavior and appearance.
As far as behavior is concerned, the code known as “Seven C’s”, is worth bearing in mind.
b) Match left and right.
|1. Command attention||C||a) Never be vague. The more clearly you formulate your questions, the more precise information you will get.|
|2. Courtesy||b)Remember that you are the first line of defense against smugglers and revenue offenders.|
|3. Control the situation||c) You should aim to be the person in charge of any situation.|
|4. Clear questions||d) In difficult situations remain as cool as possible. This often has positive effect on irate traders, angry passengers, etc.|
|5. Careful examination||e) Nobody knows it all: however, the combined knowledge and experience of a group of officers will usually provide an answer to most problems.|
|6. Consult colleagues||f) You will frequently be handling other people’s property. You are expected to act as efficiently as possible with due tact and respect for their effects.|
|7. Clean hands||g)The use of such words as “Sir” or “Madam” can often work wonders.|
c) Write five provisions for the code of behavior : - for students;
- for teachers
- for travelers.
Task 18. a) Study the information in the table.
|EFFECTIVE||successful, working in the way that was planned||ineffective||effectiveness|
|EFFICIENT||working well without wasting time, money, or energy||inefficient||efficiency|
b) Choose the right words from the table or their derivatives to complete the sentences.
1. Training is often less __________ than expected.
2. This new device is very __________ for screening
3. You have to find an __________ way to organize your work.
4. They argued about the __________ of a controlled delivery.
5. The government is working out __________ measures to cure unemployment.
6. Much will depend on the __________ of the stuff.
7. Students have to learn to communicate __________.
8. An _________ use of natural resources is the challenge of the XXI century.
Task 19.Make a written translation of the text and think about the title for it.
The custom of Customs comes from England and dates back to Anglo-Saxon times. Shortly after the Norman Conquest, when the French began filling England with their wine, kings decided they were entitled to five percent of whatever wine came in. King Ethelred set up a collection post for ships sailing the Thames past King’s castle.
So, a national Customs Service was established in 1203 and a duty of 1/5 was charged on all imports and exports. All the delivered goods had to be landed at approved ports, inspected and measured, so that the correct amount of duty could be fixed and collected. Luxuries like silk were taxed, but so were everyday necessities such as soap and tea. The rates of duty were determined by the King. Import duties became a fact of life and since more articles had become liable to duty, the first known Book of Rates was produced in England in 1507.
Task 20.Speak about the history of Russian Customs using the information below and some of the verbs from the box:
|to set up to found to adopt to come into force to approve to form to sign to celebrate to publish to establish to hold to create to become to appear to exist|
1137 - First Customs House in Novgorod
1653 - First Trade Statute
1667 - First Customs Code
1928 - Customs Code of the USSR
1953 - First International Customs Day - January 26
1991 - Decree “On the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation”
1985 - October 25 - Russian Customs Officer’s Day
1993 - Decree of the President setting up the Russian Customs Academy
2010 - The customs union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan
Task 21.Complete the sentences using the Infinitive:
1. To work for the Customs is to . . .
2. When you work for the Customs it is important to . . .
3. Customs officers try to . . .
Task 22.Get ready to speak on the topic. Use the vocabulary ofthe unit.
Task 23. Comment on the following:
“If we open a quarrel between the past and the present we shall find that we have lost the future.” (W.Churchill)
“History is philosophy learned from examples.”
Task24. Say why M. Lomonosov, D.Mendeleev, Y.Derzhavin, S.Vitte deserve to be mentioned in the book about the history of Russian Customs?
Task 25. Write down five words that best describe the history of Russian Customs. Compare your list with your partner’s words. Participate in the class discussion of the words.
Task 26.Matching. The teacher will give you articles and headlines from English language newspapers. Work in groups matching each headline to its story.
Task 27. Complete the following proverbs and give their Russian equivalents.
1. A friend in need _______________________.
2. Actions ______________________words.
3. _______________________ that ends well.
4. As you make your bed __________________.
5. East or West, __________________.
6. __________________ before you leap.
7. Make _______________ while the sun______.
8. ________________ never come alone.
9. Old _____________ are not be caught_______.
10. Second thoughts are _____________________.
11. Birds of feather ________________.
Use these proverbs in short situations of your own.
|customs tax||таможенная пошлина|
|an official||официальное лицо|
|to collect||взимать, забирать|
|stamped seal||печать на документе|
|transportation of goods||перевозка грузов|
|frontier towns||приграничные города|
|merchant; merchandise||купец; товар|
|the Russian Customs Statute||Российский таможенный устав|
|on pain of confiscation||под угрозой конфискации|
|foreign goods||иностранные товары|
|powerful administrative body||мощный административный орган|
|to contribute||вносить вклад|
|state institutions||государственные учреждения|
|to develop customs laws||разрабатывать таможенное законодательство|
|to initiate||начать, инициировать|
|to issue the Decree||издать указ|
|Trade Statute||Торговый Устав|
|Commerce Board||торгово-промышленная палата|
|to work out customs tariffs||разрабатывать таможенные тарифы|
|to come into effect||вступить в силу|
|a public figure||общественный деятель|
|to be in charge of||стоять во главе; быть ответственным за|
|to police||охранять, контролировать, патрулировать|
Task 1.Read and translate the text.
The customs areas include the following:
The assessment and collectionof duties and taxes have always been one of the main functions of the customs service. In fact, collection of the revenue is the responsibility with which the customs usually started. Throughout its history the customs has supplied the federal budget with the revenue necessary for investment in the economy and in the country’s basic infrastructure, i.e. new schools, roads, hospitals.
Merchandise classification is the foundation on which duty collection occurs. All goods entering the country should be classified by use of the established numerical coding system. Most countries are now adopting the Harmonized System of Classificationwhich, in case of uniform application, can help improve the classification of goods and prevent losses of duty collection.
Cargo shipments entering the country are to be supplied with the necessary documents, for example, commercial invoices, certificates of quality, certificates of origin and others. The cargo declaration is a basis for goods valuation and assessment of duty. Undervaluation can result in underpayment of duties.