Obligation and Likelihood


Exercise 235.

Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs must, have to or be to.

1. You___(not tell) him about it. It's a secret. 2. It looks like rain. You___(take) your raincoats. 3. You ___(not talk) so loudly here. 4. In his youth he ___ (work) from morning till night to earn his living. 5. He ___(wait) at the station till it stopped raining. 6. The secretary informed us when the manager___(come). 7. They___(leave) on Saturday, but because of the delay with their visas they___(book) tickets for Monday. 8. They___(not tell) him anything about it before they

get further instructions. 9. He___(leave) for London that night. 10.___I (do) it all by myself? 11. It was too late to change their plans and they___(put up) with it. 12. You___(not prepare) all this work, I will help you. 13. Stay here till she is free. I think you___(not wait) long. 14. We___(conduct) a series of experiments this week. 15. Remember that we___(be) at this place not later than noon.

Exercise 236.

Choose the correct variant.

1. His German is very poor. He must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 2. His German is very good, he must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 3. His German is considerably improved, ho must (study/be studying/have studied) hard during hi» holiday. 4. He must (study/be studying/have been studying) German these two years, his German is rather rich and fluent. 5. She must (have taken/be -faking/have been taking/ a bath at that moment that's vhy she did not answer your call. 6. She must (be/be being/ have been) at home now, we saw her leaving the office. 7. She must (be/be being/have been) at home, she can't go away because there is no one to look after her sick mother. 8. You must always (think/be thinking/have thought) twice before you say anything. 9. Now he must (think/ be thinking/have thought) of what she has said. 10. He knows they are coming. They must (write/be writing/ have written) to him of their arrival in due time. 11. She must (play/be playing/have been playing) the piano now. 12. The foreigner must (understand/understood/have understood) me, for he nodded his head. 13. Where is Sara? I haven't seen her for a long time. — She must (stay/be staying/have stayed) at her friends'. She wanted to spend July with them. 14. He must (get/be getting/ have got) all he needed, otherwise he would have come again. 15. We must (meet/have met/have been meeting) somewhere before.

Exercise 237.

Open the brackets and use the proper infinitive after the verb must.

1. Look! All people in the street are going with their umbrellas up. It must (rain). 2. He has changed his job. He must (follow) your advice, 3. He must (fall) ill. Otherwise he would have come to the party. 4. Where is Michael? He must (be) here by now. — He lives in the country. He must (miss) the train. 5. What a dreadful noise! What is the matter? — Our neighbors must (quarrel) again. 6. Nobody must (notice) that he was not used to speaking in public. 7. The criminal must (be) very careful. He did not leave any fingerprints. 8. We are late, I am afraid. Ann must (wait) for us. 9. He must (forget) that he promised to come. 10. They must (write) a composition for two hours. They must (be) tired. 11. You must (misunderstand) me, I did not want to hurt your feelings. 12. Nobody must (see) him enter. Everybody startled when he came in. 13.1 hear someone's steps outside. She must (go). 14. You may find him in the garden. He must (read). 15. It is impossible to change anything. One must (take) things as they are.

Exercise 238.

Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb must.

Example: I am sure they have changed the time. — They must have changed the time.

1. They are in Greece. I am sure they are enjoying themselves. 2. She is an experienced teacher. I am certain she has been working at school for at least twenty years. 3. They have probably finished painting the house. 4.1 feel sure she is at home. 5. Probably they have already passed the frontier. 6. She is sure he is playing cards with his friends. 7. She is not very young, as she seems to be. I think she is nearly forty. 8.1 think you have visited this place before. 9. He has to do a very urgent task. I feel sure he is working now. 10. He is so absent-minded. I am sure he left the letter unanswered. 11. You know he is a good tennis player. He is no doubt has won this match. 12.1 shan't bother you any longer; no doubt you feel tired of my talking after a tiring day. 13. It is clear that they are expecting somebody. 14. She was obviously upset by something; I never saw her so nervous. 15. The youth is probably reading something funny. He is smiling all the time.

Exereise 239,

Choose the right variant.

1. He wants us to obey him. We____exactly what he says.

a) have to do

b) must to do

c) are to do

2. Mrs. Sparred ____very beautiful when she was young. She has a fine face.

a) was to be

b) must have been

c) must be

3. You____so late. You should leave after dinner.

a) are not to stay

b) must not have stayed

c) must not stay

4. Something____. He____at seven,

a) must happen, must come

b) must have happened, had to come

c) must have happened, was to have come

5. Yesterday's rain spoiled my shoes completely and I___new ones.

a) had to buy

b) must have bought

c) was to buy

6. Which of them____the documents?

a) must have brought

b) have to bring

c) was to bring

7. The only thing he knew for certain was that he ____them.

a) must not meet

b) hasn't to meet

c) is not to meet

8. You can't come in. You___a catching disease like that.

a) must not have

b) don't have to have

c) aren't to have

9. There__._ a garden once.

a) was to be

b) must have been

c) must be

10. We___in. The weather is changing,

a) must go

b) must have gone

c) are to go

Exercise 240,

Translate into English using the verb must and its equivalents.

l Он, должно быть, слышал об этом. 2. Этот дом, должно быть, построен в начале столетия. 3. Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока вы ее не закончите. 4„ У них, вероятно, сейчас урок. 5. Не огорчайся, он, должно быть, сделал это случайно. 6. Он, вероятно, сейчас спит. 7, Я ищу этот дом вот уже полчаса и нигде не могу его найти. Должно быть, она дала мне неправильный адрес. 8. Мне не пришлось делать этот чертеж. 9. Он, вероятно, не успел закончить работу к пятнице и был вынужден потратить на нее все вы­ходные, т„к. ее нужно было закончить к понедельни­ку. 10 Она, должно быть, не полила сад. Земля очень сухая. 11с Выбора не было, и им пришлось согласить­ся. 12. Она, должно быть, ждет нас дома. 13. Она дол­жна ждать нас дома. 14 Ей, наверное, не сказали, что мы уже вернулись, 15, Ей пришлось извиниться, хотя это и было неприятно.


Exercise 241.

Open the brackets and give the correct form of the verb after need.

l. The vegetable garden needs (water). 2. The TV needs to be (fix). 3. They need (come) here at three o'clock. 4. The cottage needs to be (repair). 5. She needs (prepare) harder for her exams. 6. The lawn needs (cut). 7. You need (book) a ticket beforehand. 8. Granny needs to be (look after). 9. The walls need to be (paper). 10.1 need (get) this book somewhere.

Exercise 242.

Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Pay attention to the use of the particle to.

worry leave
carry come
talk help
tell go
phone ask

Example: All is agreed and understood between us,so you needn't___about it any more. —

All is agreed and understood between us, so you needn't worry about it any more,

You don't need___there. — You don't need to go there.

1. You needn't___here by yourself. You may send someone else. 2. She doesn't need___bags by herself: there are porters at the station. 3. You don't need___ about her; she is quite able to take care of herself. 4.1 don't need___you how important it is. 5.1 needn't ___him. He will tell me everything himself. 6. You needn't___me again, I never forget my promise. ?. She doesn't need___to the library; I have got this book. 8. They needn't___for the airport so early; I will give

them a lift. 9.1 can do it by myself. You needn't___ me. 10. You don't need___to her. I have already told her everything.

Exercise 243.

Choose the right variant.

1. He says I (mustn't/needn't) do it. He has already done it. 2. You (needn't/mustn't) carry your driving license with you. 3.1 can show my student's card, and I (mustn't/needn't) pay to get in. 4. I've hurt my knee and the doctor says I (mustn't/needn't) play football for two weeks. 5. Copies (needn't/mustn't) be done without permission. 6. He is a very discreet person, you (needn't/ mustn't) be afraid of telling him anything. 7. He (needn't/mustn't) be said twice. 8. You (needn't/mustn't) answer the question if you don't want to. 9. It's a non­smoking carriage. You (needn't/mustn't) smoke here. 10. She (needn't/mustn't) go to bed so late. Has she forgotten the doctor's instructions?

Exercise 244,

Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with either didn't need (to) 01 needn't have (done).

1. You___ (go) into so many details. The report was too long. 2, She got up late because she was alone and she____(cook) breakfast for the whole family. 3. We ___(hurry): she wasn't ready yet. 4. He___(return) to the office so he took a taxi and went home. 5.1___ (take) a bus because Martin gave me a lift. 6. We___ (come) so early. Now we must wait. 7. She___(go) shopping so she went straight home. 8. You___(make) this remark, I am sure he felt hurt. 9. She was on holiday and she___(wake up) early. 10. He___(spend) so much money. Does he remember that he's got children?

Exercise 245.

Translate into English using the verb need.

1. Зря ты сказал Майку об этом. 2, Егэ не надо оо этом спрашивать. 3. Мне нужна ваша помощь. 4. Зря ты учил текст наизусть (by heart); учитель его не спрашивал. 5. Вечером температура упала, и он ре­шил, что ему не нужно идти к врачу. 6. Разве ты не видишь, что ему надо подстричься? 7. Зря он отка­зался от приглашения. 8. Вы купили машину толь­ко год назад. Неужели ее надо красить? 9. Мне нуж­но наладить (fix) компьютер. 10. Джону не надо было ехать в Лондон, и он решил провести выходные в Брайтоне.


Exercise 246.

Match the parts of the sentences.

1) My room is in a mess a) He should always turn them on in the dark

and my friends are otherwise he may have an accident.

coming to visit me tonight.

2) You haven't paid your b) You ought to go on a. diet.

monthly rent yet Friday is

the last day you can do it.

3) Tom drives the car c) You should ring her up and apologise.

without headlights.

4) Anna's library book is d) She ought to give up smoking.

due today.

5) I've put on weight e) He should go to the dentist's.


6) I am afraid, I was rude f) You ought to put it in order.

to Kate yesterday.

7) I've got urgent work g) You should record the film. Have you

and my computer does not work, got a VCR?

8) He has a bad toothache, h) You ought to go to the

bank till Friday and pay it

9) I have a test tomorrow i) You should phone Nick He's got clever on fingers

but there is a film. TV I've wanted

to see so much.

10) She has a bad cough but j) She ought to return her books today

she goes on smoking. if she doesn't want to pay a fine.

Exercise 247.

Read the situations and write sentences with should (shouldn't) haoe or ought to (ought not to) have,

Example: He had a test this morning. — He didn't do it well. He should have studied more last night.

1. She didn't take a taxi. She was late for the wedding. 2.1 didn't eat at home. Now I'm hungry. 3. She bought a TV set last month. Now she regrets doing that. Her children watch it day arid night. 4. He signed a contract without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he has no right to make any amendments there. 5. Mary sold her house. That was a mistake because now she spends a lot of money to rent an apartment. 6.1 enjoyed the party last night a lot. Why didn't you come? 7, The driver in front of me stopped suddenly and I smashed into the back of his car. It was not my fault. 8. The boy went out without the doctor's permission Now he is much worse. 9. When we arrived at the hotel there were no free rooms. We hadn't reserved one. 10. It was not a good idea for Tom and Mary to get married. Now they quarrel all days long.

Exercise 248.

Choose the right variant.

1. She looks bad. She should (be/have been) more careful about her health. 2. You shouldn't (miss/have missed) the chance. It was a brilliant opportunity for you. 3.1 think the policeman was right. She shouldn't (exceed/have exceeded) the speed. 4.1 ought to (bring/ have taken) the opera glasses. Now I see nothing. 5. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control/ have controlled) his temper. 6. They should (clear/have cleared) up the problem long time ago. 7.1 ought not (to stay/have stayed) there long. The party was a failure. 8. You should (shave/have shaved) this beard of yours!

9. She should (be/have been) more attentive. Didn't she see a car on the right? 10. It's a secret. You ought not to (reveal/have revealed) it to anybody.

Exercise 249.

Choose the right variant.

1. Don't argue with her, you___her age.

a) need respect

b) have to respect

c) ought to respect

d) are to respect

2. You___it long ago.

a) must do

b) should have done

c) needn't have done

d) are to do

3. This is serious; you___at it.

a) haven't to laugh

b) should not laugh

c) don't have to laugh

d) must not have laughed

4. There___an interesting concert last night, but I didn't feel well and___home.

a) had to be, had to stay

b) should be, was to stay

c) must be, ought to stay

d) was to be, had to stay

5. According to the rules a football player___the ball with his hands.

a) must not touch

b) need not touch

c) don't have to touch

d) must not have touched

6. The situation was dangerous. You___frightened.

a) should have got

b) must have got

c) have to get

d) need have got

7. We ___ to write and thank them for their hospitality.

a) must not forget

b) must not have forgotten

c) shouldn't forget

d) don't have to forget

8. Why___I know where he is?

a) should

b) must

c) need

d) ought

9. They___more polite.

a) need have been

b) should have been

c) must have been

d) are to have been

10. You___so much noise or you'll wake up the baby!

a) must not make

b) must not have made

c) needn't have made

d) don't have to make

Exercise 250.

Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with must, have to, be to, should, need, ought to (in ноте cases you may have several variants)

1. He ___(not go) to court because the case was dismissed. 2. If I'm late, I'll ___(take) a taxi. 3. The young___(respect) the old age. 4. The conversation grew awkward. She felt that something ___ (do), or else the party would break up. 5. They___(meet) tomorrow, so you___(not make) an appointment to see him. 6, You ___(have) a visa to enter a foreign country. 7. You___ (try) and be more punctual. 8. Why are you so late? — I ___(change) a tyre. 9. You___(not shout), I am not deaf. 10. They___(cross) the English Channel now.

Exercise 251.

Translate into English using modal verbs.

1. Тебе следовало позвонить ему вчера. 2. Ему не следовало говорить с ней таким тоном (tone). Его тон, должно быть, и обидел (hurt) ее. 3. Это должно было произойти. Всем известна его забывчивость (forget-fulness). 4. Она должна была выяснить все до того, как начинать работу. Теперь ей нужно многое переделы­вать. 5. Ей следовало принести все документы давным-давно. Теперь слишком поздно. 6. Детям нельзя смот­реть фильмы ужасов, 7. Мне их проводить (see off)? — Нет, не нужно. Мне придется сделать это самому, 8. В чужой стране необходимо приспосабливаться (adapt oneself) к новым условиям жизни, 9. Зря ты купил это пальто. 10.Мы, должно быть, не заметили его в этой толпе (crowd). 11 „Нам не надо было спешить, поэтому мы решили пойти пешком. 12. Почему я дол­жен это делать?

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