CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE. 43. Speak about your own experience of the computer use
43. Speak about your own experience of the computer use. You should use in your statements the expressions below:
|§ I (don’t) think we should …||§ It would be better to …|
|§ I (don’t) agree||§ I like …/ I quite like …/ I really like …|
|§ I (don’t) think it’s a good idea to||§ It is important to …|
|§ A good way to … is to … /The best way to … is to …||§ I don’t mind …|
|§ Well anyway…/ I mean …/ Frankly …/ At least …||§ I’ve never heard of it. I haven’t read/seen it.|
|§ I/we think it’s a mistake to …||§ It’s not worth it / It’s worth …ing|
|§ I don’t like …/ I don’t like … at all||§ I quite liked it. I didn’t think much of it.|
|§ There’s nothing wrong in …ing|
Speak about the role of computers in our life. Try to touch on as many fields of their application as you can.
45. Learn the information about business letters:
THE BUSINESS LETTER
Деловая переписка на английском языке осуществляется в соответствии с определенными правилами, закрепленными традициями. Основными требованиями к стилю делового письма на английском языке являются ясность, сжатость, вежливость, а также стандартизованность, официальность и точность.
Деловое письмо на английском языке обычно содержит следующие обязательные части:
|1. The Letterhead — Заголовок (включающий место написания письма) 2. The Reference Line — Указание на ссылку 3. The Date — Дата отправления письма 4. The Inside Address — Внутренний адрес 5. The Greeting/Salutation — Обращение/приветствие 6. The Body of the Letter — Содержание письма 7. The Ending — Заключительная формула 8. The Signature Block — Блок подписи По мере необходимости в письме указываются дополнительные четыре элемента: 9. The Attention Line (if any) — Указание на конкретное лицо (если есть) 10. The Subject Line (if any) — Указание на общее содержание письма (если есть) 11. The Enclosure (if any) — Приложение (если есть) 12. CC Notation (if any) — Указание на рассылку копий (если есть)|
Начальные фразы письма
§ (We) thank you for the letter of … / dated…/ which we received… — Спасибо за письмо о …/от…/ которое мы получили…
§ We are obliged for your letter of… — Весьма благодарны за Ваше письмо…
§ We wish to inform you that… — Сообщаем Вам, что…
§ I am writing to acknowledge receipt of your letter — я пишу, чтобы подтвердить получение вашего письма
§ We acknowledge your letter of… — Подтверждаем получение Вашего письма
§ We are in receipt of your letter of… — Мы получили Ваше письмо от…
§ In connection with our letter… — В связи с нашим письмом…
§ In confirmation of your cable of…/ of our telephone conversation… — В подтверждение Вашей телеграммы…/нашего телефонного разговора…
§ In reply/ answer/ response to you letter of … — В ответ на Ваше письмо…
§ With reference/ Referring to our letter of … we wish to inform you… — В соответствии с нашим письмом … мы сообщаем Вам, что…
§ With further reference to… — Далее в соответствии с ….
§ We learn from your letter that … — Из Вашего письма нам известно, что…
§ Your letter enclosing/stating that …/ asking us to do … has been (considered/ given proper attention) – Ваше письмо, включающее…/утверждающее…/ с просьбой… было (рассмотрено/ рассмотрено с надлежащим вниманием)
§ We are pleased/ glad to inform/ advise you that… — Мы с удовольствием сообщаем Вам, что…
§ We have pleasure in informing / offering you… — Мы с удовольствием сообщаем/ предлагаем Вам…
§ We have to remind you that… — Хотелось бы Вам напомнить, что…
§ We offer apologies in answering your letter/ We apologize for a delay with the answer – Просим извинения за задержку с ответом…
§ Please, accept our apologies for — Примите, пожалуйста. наши извинения за…
§ We are sorry we are unable to meet your request – К сожалению, мы не можем удовлетворить Ваши требования…
Завершающие фразы письма
§ We are looking forward to hearing from you – Ждем ответа от вас…
§ We would appreciate your cooperation on this matter — Мы будем благодарны за сотрудничество по этому вопросу…
§ Thank you in advance for your cooperation — Заранее благодарим вас за помощь…
§ Awaiting your prompt reply — В ожидании скорейшего ответа.
§ We assure you that… — Заверяем Вас, что…
§ Please, inform us / let us know in the shortest possible time – Известите нас / Дайте нам знать/ как можно скорее…
Заключительные формулы вежливости
§ Sincerely — искренне ваш
46. Read and translate the following samples of business letters:
|April 2001 Japan Center for Michigan Universities 110 MSU International Center E. Lansing, MI 48824 To Whom It May Concern: Please accept this letter as verification that Mr. And Mrs. Smith are preferred clients at America Bank. Their account balances are in excess of $5000. If additional information is needed, please contact America Bank Customer Services at 1-888-999-0000. Sincerely, Alan Greenspan America Bank Customer Service|
|6123 Farrington Road Apt. B11Chapel Hill, NC 27514January 11, 2005 Taylor, Inc. 694 Rockstar Lane Durham, NC 27708 Dear Human Resources Director: I have just read an article in the News and Observer about Taylor's new computer center just north of Durham. I would like to apply for a position as an entry-level programmer at the center. I understand that Taylor produces both in-house and customer documentation. My technical-writing skills, as described in the enclosed resume, are well suited to your company. I am a recent graduate of DeVry Institute of Technology in Atlanta with an Associate's Degree in Computer Science. In addition to having taken a broad range of courses, I served as a computer consultant at the college's computer center where I helped train computer users on new systems.I will be happy to meet with you at your convenience and discuss how my education and experience match your needs. You can reach me at my home address, at (919) 233-1552, or at [email protected] Sincerely, Raymond Krock|
47. Compose your own samples of business letters. Use the following phrases:
§ We would like to know whether …
§ Please inform us …
§ We shall/should be obliged if you will/would kindly inform us …
§ We shall appreciate it if you (will) inform us …
§ We would ask you to inform us …
§ We are interested to know whether you have considered …
§ Would you please send us …
§ Could you please send us …
§ We should be obliged if you would confirm that …
§ Would you kindly send us …
§ We have pleasure in enclosing our Order No …, and would ask you to return the duplicate to us, duly signed, as an acknowledgment.
To sound more persuasive, use one of the following phrases:
§ We must ask you to open a letter of credit not later than … with the (London Bank) …
§ It is absolutely essential that you open a Letter of Credit not later than …
48. Compose your own samples of business letters using the phrases of appreciation:
§ We look forward to receiving your reply/hearing from you soon.
§ Your cooperation will be appreciated.
§ Your cooperation will be truly/greatly appreciated.
§ Your cooperation and understanding will be appreciated.
§ Your prompt reply will be appreciated
§ We will appreciate receiving this information as soon as possible.
§ We will appreciate receiving these data by 30 March.
49. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Мы получили Ваше письмо, датированное 10 февраля.
2. Подтверждаем получение Вашего письма от 26сентября, посланное электронной почтой.
3. Мы искренне ценим то, что Вы разместили Ваш заказ у нас.
4. Благодарим Вас за Ваше письмо от 15 мая, с которым Вы послали нам Ваш каталог электронного оборудованием.
5. Мы хотели бы информировать Вас о том, что продукция, заказанная Вами по Контракту № 347/SL, готова к погрузке на борт корабля.
6. Нам приятно сообщить Вам, что теперь мы открыли филиал нашей компании в Вашем городе по адресу: …
7. Пожалуйста, отсылайте все Ваши запросы менеджеру филиала, господину Д. Стюарту.
50. All the parts in this letter are mixed up. Put them in order:
|§ Yours sincerely||§ Re: Enquiry for National Dresses|
|§ Attention: Mr N. Conshiwan||§ International Trading Company|
|§ Please send us your catalogue with sizes and colours of female and male national clothes of Thailand.||§ We are opening a shop of national Asian dresses and fabrics in one of our hotels.|
|§ 3 August, 2003||§ Thailand|
|§ P. Morgan Your Ref:||§ Dear Mr N. Conshiwan|
|§ Intercontinental Hotel Group||§ Manager Our Ref: PM/ma|
|§ Bangkok||§ Telephone: 487-6591|
|§ Telex: 79436||§ Telefax: (039) 3673|
Imagine that you are Managing Director of the Philips Company. Write a letter introducing your company, organization, etc. Advertise your goods and/or your services. Persuade your partner that the goods manufactured by Philips meet the demands of the customers and the prices you sell them at are in line with the world prices.
52. Write letters of about 70 to 100 words on each of the topics given below:
1. You are President of a university’s Friendship Club. You’re planning to organize a scientific conference on cross-cultural communication. Write invitations to some famous experts in Culture Science asking them to give talks on customs and traditions of indigenous peoples of Siberia.
2. You are planning your visit to Britain. Write a letter inquiring about a hotel/room reservation. The name of the hotel has been given you by the Hotel Association. You need one double room with a bathroom and one single room. Do not forget to ask them about the cost of accommodation or for a booklet specifying inclusive terms of full board, and remember to indicate the time of your arrival in London.
|Pre-Text Exercises Word Building Active Vocabulary Text 10 A. What is Electricity? Text 10 B. Electric Power Generation Text 10 C. More Facts About Electricity Text 10 D. Electric Motors Text And Vocabulary Exercises Conversational Practice The Business Letter Writing Practice|
1. Choose the correct word to fill the gaps:
1. She left ___ the afternoon without saying good bye.
a) in; b) on; c) at.
2. Monty arrived ___ a cold winter day and we were very glad to see him.
a) at; b) on; c) in.
3. ___ last he remembered all the facts and wrote them down not to forget them again.
a) in; b) on; c) at.
4. They went to Paris ___ train because they liked it.
a) by; b) on; c) in.
5. The weather was rather warm and we decided to go ___ a walk.
a) at; b) on; c) for.
6. He knew a lot of poems and liked to recite them ___ memory.
a) for; b) from; c) on.
7. We didn’t know what to do ___ these circumstances and asked him for advice.
a) under; b) at; c) by.
8. They always keep everything ___ secret.
a) on; b) at; c) in.
7. He was going along the forest picking ___ all the mushrooms he saw.
a) on; b) at; c) up.
8. Ring me ___ when you come home. I’ll be waiting for your call.
a) up; b) on; c) over.
9. This face was strange ___ me and I couldn’t recall it at all.
a) on; b) to; c) at.
2. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases in English:
|§ electricity||§ electric current||§ generator|
3. Fill in the gaps with a suitable word to complete the sentences:
1. Maxwell defines electricity as a ___ physical quantity.
2. The properties of charged bodies ___ such that the charge of one body may be equal to that of another.
3. Faraday investigated the nature of electricity and frequently used the ___ «quantity of electricity» to refer to quantities of electric charge.
4. The nucleus contains positively charged particles ___ protons and uncharged particles called neutrons.
|call||is calling||called||had called|
5. Power is a basic part of nature and it is one of our ___ widely used forms of energy.
6. An electric power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machine ___ an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy to power.
|drives||drove||to drive||had driven|
7. Dictionaries often define electricity as «a fundamental entity ___ nature consisting of negative and positive kinds.»
8. If a charged particle moves through a constant magnetic field, its speed stays the same, but its direction is ___ changing.
4. Translate the following words analyzing their word-formation model:
Completely, impossible, mysterious, different, communication, conductor, magnetism, magnetic, generator, arrangement, endlessly, remarkably, fundamental, longer, harder
5. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type:
Progress– progressive, direction – directionless,simple – simplicity,importance– important,technology– technological – technologically,to construct– construction — to deconstruct – deconstructive,to limit – to delimit,certain – uncertainty,security – insecurity
6. Translate the following complex words:
Fireplace; postcard; meanwhile; well-established; post-graduate; undergraduate; multi-coloured; straightforward, full-time; waterpower; hydroelectric; high-pressure; fan-like; electromagnetic; electromagnet; windmill; sunlight; semiconductor; doorbell; single-phase
7. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:
|cell –батарея (solar cell — солнечная батарея) charge – заряд circuit – цепь(electrical circuit – электрическая цепь) coil — катушка to conduct — проводить current –ток (alternating current — переменный ток; direct current – постоянный ток) device — устройство frequency — частота insulator —изолятор to generate –производить||level – уровень to measure — измерять power —мощность, энергия to push– выталкивать repulsion – отталкивание pressure — давление resistance — сопротивление source –источник (source of electricity — источник электричества) to transmit — передавать voltage — напряжение wire — провод|
8. Read the text below to learn about electricity, conductors and electrical circuits:
Text 10 A
What is Electricity?
Electricity completely surrounds us. For most of us modern life would be impossible without it. Here are just a few examples:
§ Throughout your house, you probably find electric outlets where you can plug in all sorts of electrical appliances.
§ Most portable devices contain batteries, which produce varying amounts of electricity depending on their size.
§ During a thunderstorm, there are huge bolts of electricity called lightning that shoot down from the sky.
§ On a much smaller scale, you can get a shock from static electricity on dry winter days.
§ It is easy to create electricity from sunlight using a solar cell; or you can create electricity from the chemical energy in hydrogen and oxygen using a fuel cell.
So what is this mysterious stuff that we call electricity? Where does it come from, and why is it able to do so many different things? The electricity that we get from power outlets and batteries can power all different kinds of devices. The fact is that electricity can be used in a thousand different ways. For example:
§ Electric motors turn electricity into motion.
§ Light bulbs, fluorescent lamps and LEDs* turn electricity into light.
§ Computers turn electricity into information.
§ Telephones turn electricity into communication.
§ TVs turn electricity into moving pictures.
§ Speakers turn electricity into sound waves.
§ Stun guns turn electricity into pain.
§ Toasters, hair dryers and space heaters turn electricity into heat.
§ Radios turn electricity into electromagnetic waves that can travel millions of miles.
§ X-rays machines turn electricity into X-rays.
It is hard to imagine modern people living without electricity. In electricity’s absence, we end up reverting back to fireplaces for heat, wood-fired stoves for cooking, candles for light and the slide rules for computation. To talk over long distances we are left with smoke signals and postcards. Electricity starts with electrons. You know that every atom contains one or more electrons; you also know that electrons have a negative charge. The electrons are tightly bound to the atoms. Wood, glass, plastic, ceramic, air, cotton ... These are all examples of materials in which electrons stick with their atoms.
Because the electrons don’t move, these materials cannot conduct electricity very well, if at all. These materials are electrical insulators. But most metals have electrons that can detach from their atoms and move around. These are called free electrons. Gold, silver, copper, aluminum, iron, etc., all have free electrons. The loose electrons make it easy for electricity to flow through these materials, so they are known as electrical conductors. They conduct electricity.
The moving electrons transmit electrical energy from one point to another. Electricity needs a conductor in order to move. There also has to be something to make the electricity flow from one point to another through the conductor. One way to get electricity flowing is to use a generator. A generator uses a magnet to get electrons moving.
There is a definite link between electricity and magnetism. If you allow electrons to move through a wire, they will create a magnetic field around the wire. Similarly, if you move a magnet near a wire, the magnetic field will cause electrons in the wire to move. A generator is a simple device that moves a magnet near a wire to create a steady flow of electrons.
One simple way to think about a generator is to imagine it acting like a pump pushing water along. Instead of pushing water, however, a generator uses a magnet to push electrons along. This is a slight over-simplification, but it is nonetheless a very useful analogy.
There are two things that a water pump can do with water:
§ A water pump moves a certain number of water molecules.
§ A water pump applies a certain amount of pressure to the water molecules.
In the same way, the magnet in a generator can:
§ push a certain number of electrons along
§ apply a certain amount of «pressure» to the electrons
In an electrical circuit, the number of electrons that are moving is called the amperage or the current, and it is measured in amps. The «pressure» pushing the electrons along is called the voltage and is measured in volts. So you might hear someone say, «If you spin this generator at 1,000 rpm, it can produce 1 amp at 6 volts».
One amp is the number of electrons moving (1 amp physically means that 6.24 x 1018 electrons move through a wire every second), and the voltage is the amount of pressure behind those electrons. Whether you are using a battery, a fuel cell or a solar cell to produce electricity, there are three things that are always the same:
§ The source of electricity will have two terminals: a positive terminal and a negative terminal.
§ The source of electricity (whether it is a generator, battery, etc.) will want to push electrons out of its negative terminal at a certain voltage.
§ The electrons will need to flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal through a copper wire or some other conductor. When there is a path that goes from the negative to the positive terminal, you have a circuit, and electrons can flow through the wire.
§ Electrical circuits can get quite complex. But at the simplest level, you always have the source of electricity (a battery, etc.), a load (a light bulb, motor, etc.), and two wires to carry electricity between the battery and the load. Electrons move from the source, through the load and back to the source.
Moving electrons have energy. As the electrons move from one point to another, they can do work. In an incandescent light, for example, the energy of the electrons is used to create heat, and the heat in turn creates light. In an electric motor, the energy in the electrons creates a magnetic field, and this field can interact with other magnets (through magnetic attraction and repulsion) to create motion. Each electrical appliance harnesses the energy of electrons in some way to create a useful side effect.
Notes on the text
*LED - light-emitting diode - светодиод, светоизлучающий диод, СИД
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
9. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
|§ электрические приборы||§ портативные устройства|
|§ меньший масштаб||§ солнечная батарея|
|§ отсутствие электричества||§ отрицательный заряд|
|§ электрические изоляторы||§ электрические проводники|
|§ связь между…||§ воображать|
|§ сила тока||§ напряжение|