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1. The constitution of the United Kingdom is made up of … .
2. The Executive power is exercised by … .
3. The United Kingdom’s supreme legislative body is … .
4. The United Kingdom doesn’t have a single unified judicial system … .
5. The essence of common law is … .
6. For electoral purposes Britain is divided into … .
7. General elections take place on … .
8. The UK is a multi-party system and it is sometimes called a two-anda-half party system … .
THE US SYSTEM OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT
Overview of the United States Government and Policies
1. the system of checks and balances — система сдержек и противо- весов
2. to be vested in the Supreme Court — быть возложенным на Вер- ховный Суд
3. the electoral college — коллегия выборщиков
4. judicial review — судебный пересмотр, судебный контроль
5. a major political party — главная политическая партия
6. voter-turn-out — явка избирателей
7. “winner-take-all” principle — принцип «победителю достается все»
8. to reign supreme — царствовать
Government of the United States is based on a written constitution. This constitution consists of a Preamble, seven Articles, and 27 Amendments. From this document, the entire federal government was created. It is a living document whose interpretation has changed over time. The amendment process is such that while not easily amended, US citizens are able to make necessary changes over time.
Three Branches of Government. The USA is a presidential republic. The US Constitution was adopted by Congress in 1787. The Constitution created three separate branches of government. Each branch has its own powers and areas of influence. At the same time, the Constitution created a system of checks and balances that ensured no one branch would reign supreme. The three branches are:
Legislative Branch. This branch consists of the Congress (the Senate and the House of Representatives) which is responsible for making the federal laws. The Congress can pass the law anyway if it gets a two-thirds majority votes. The President can veto (reject) it. Congress also plays an informative role. It informs the public about different and important subjects. Executive Branch.
The executive power lies with the President of the United States who is given the job of executing, enforcing, and administering the laws and government. The president is to carry out the programmes of the Government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress.
Judicial Branch. The judicial power of the United States is vested in the Supreme Court — the highest judicial organ of the state and the federal courts. Their job is to interpret and apply US laws through cases brought before them. Another important power of the Supreme Court is that of Judicial Review whereby they can rule laws unconstitutional. The Constitution is built on six basic principles: Popular Sovereignty; Limited Government; Separation of Powers; Checks and Balances; Judicial Review; Federalism.
Political Process. While the Constitution sets up the system of government, the actual way in which the offices of Congress and the Presidency are filled is based upon the American political system. The US exists under a two-party system. The two major parties in America are the Democratic and Republican parties. Sometimes, a special issue produces a third party, but the third party often loses strength. Parties perform a wide variety of functions. They act as coalitions and attempt to win elections.
Elections. In the United States elections are held at all levels including local, state, and federal. There are numerous differences from locality to locality and state to state. Even when determining the presidency, there is some variation with how the electoral college (a body of people representing the states of the USA, the system that is used in presidential elections) is determined from state to state. While voter-turn-out is barely over 50% during Presidential election years and much lower than that during midterm elections, elections can be hugely important.
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1. The Constitution of the USA consists of …
2. The Constitution created …
3. The President of the USA is given the job of …
4. The judicial branch of the government is the system of courts in the USA. Its job is …
5. The USA exists under a two-party system. Sometimes, a special issue produces a third party, but …
6. Elections are held in the United States at all levels …
Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. What is the United States of America?
a) an absolute monarchy
b) a federation of states
c) a presidential republic
2. What does the Constitution of the USA consist of?
a) a Preamble, ten Articles, thirty Amendments
b) a Preamble, seven Articles, twenty seven Amendments
c) statutes, customs, constitutional conventions
3. How many branches is the Government in the United States divided into?
4. How is the legislative branch of the Government called?
c) the Supreme Court
5. What branch of the Government has the responsibility to carry out the law?
a) the executive branch
b) the legislative branch
c) the judicial branch
6. What branch of the Government is the most powerful?
7. What is the highest executive power in the United States?
a) the President
b) the House of Representatives
c) the Senate
8. What does the judicial branch do?
a) makes and passes laws
b) interprets and applies US laws
c) executes, enforces and administers laws
9. What party system does the United States have?
a) a one-party system
b) a multi-party system
c) a two-party system
LEGAL SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD: