IV. Give Russian equivalents to the following English words and word combinations
2) applied science
3) analytical frame of mind
4) essential triangle
5) to compete with
6) large-scale enterprise
7) to cause harm
8) to meet the requirements
9) a factor of safety
10) reasonable solution
a) конкурировать с
b) аналитический склад ума
c) фактор безопасности
d) техника, машиностроение
e) прикладная наука
f) основной треугольник
g) разумное решение
h) удовлетворять требованиям
i) крупное предприятие
j) причинять вред
V. Match a word in A with its synonym in B:
2) to demand
3) to continue
5) to use
6) to rise
8) to attempt
9) at present
a) to go on
c) to employ
d) to require
f) to increase
j) to try
VI. Read the text and find English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations.
1) отрасль техники
2) практическое применение
3) вносить огромный вклад
4) с другой стороны
5) не отставать от изменений
6) по крайней мере
7) творческая способность
8) заниматься научным исследованием.
VII. Match the words with their definitions:
|1) engineer||a) a machine with moving parts that converts energy such as heat or electricity into motion|
|2) engine||b) careful study or investigation in order to discover new facts or information|
|3) engineering||c) a skilled person who designs, builds or maintains engines machines, bridges, railways, etc.|
|4) research||d) a thing made or adapted for a particular purpose|
|5) device||e) the practical application of scientific knowledge in the design, building and control of machines, roads, bridges, electrical apparatus|
VIII. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones with the right information from the text and discuss your answers with a partner.
1. The engineer typifies the twenty first century.
2. Engineeringis one of the most ancient occupations in history.
3. The work of an engineer requires three years of university study.
4. Engineering has become a profession as a result of the increase of scientific knowledge.
5. The technologist works with abstract things and abstract objects.
6. It is easy to find the proper Russian equivalent to the term «engineering».
7. Engineers should include a factor of safety in their design to reduce the risk of unexpected failure.
IX. Give your definition of the term «engineering»
X. Speak about the profession of an engineer using these prompts:
- to typify the twenty first century,
- to be engaged in research,
- analytical frame of mind,
- to keep up with changes,
- creative ability,
- the essential triangle,
- to make vast contribution in design and engineering,
- understanding of various processes and materials.
XI. Surf the Internet and find new information about the profession of an engineer. Make a note of it and bring your notes to the class.
I. Read the text and find answers to the following questions:
1. What is the origin of the word «engineer» ?
2. What task do engineers carry out?
3. What are the engineers’ responsibilities?
4. What are analytical and supervisory engineers responsible for?
5. What key themes are present in engineers’ work?
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics to develop solutions for technical, societal and commercial problems. Engineers design materials, structures, and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare («to contrive, devise») and ingenium («cleverness»).The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human needs and quality of life.
Design. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating, applying, and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% actively searching for information .Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. Their unique task is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result.
Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in testing, production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, and test output to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, and re-combining the components. They may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, and to control the efficiency of processes.