I. Translate into Russian. Definition of Management
Definition of Management
Management is based on scientific theories and today we can say that it is a developing science.
But knowledge of theories and principles doesn't provide practical results. It is necessary to know how to apply this knowledge. Practical application of knowledge in the management area requires certain abilities or skills. Here is an example:
Depending on its size, an organization may employ a number of specialized managers who are responsible for particular areas of management. A very large organization may employ many managers, each responsible for activities of one management area. In contrast, the owner of a sole proprietorship may be the only manager in the organization. He or she is responsible for all levels and areas of management.
What is important to an organization is not the number of managers it employs but the ability of these managers to achieve the organization's goals, and this ability requires a great skill.
In other words, management is the process of coordinating the resources of an organization to achieve the primary organizational goals.
Managers are concerned with the following main resources:
1. Material resources are physical materials and the equipment used by an organization to make a product. For example, cars are made on assembly lines. These assembly lines and the buildings that house them are material resources.
2. The most important resources of any organization are its human resources — people. Some firms believe that their employees are their most important assets. To keep employees content, a variety of incentives are used, including higher-than-average pay, flexible working hours, recreational facilities, lengthy paid vacations, cafeterias offering inexpensive meals, etc.
3. Financial resources are the funds the organization uses to meet its obligations to various creditors. A grocery store obtains money from customers and uses a portion of that money to pay the wholesalers from which it buys food. A large bank, borrows and lends money. A college obtains money in the form of tuition, income from its endowments, and federal grants. It uses the money to pay utility bills, insurance premiums, and professors' salaries. Each of these transactions involves financial resources.
4. Finally, many organizations increasingly find they cannot ignore information. External environment — including the economy, consumer markets, technology, politics, and cultural forces— are all changing so rapidly that an organization that does not adapt will probably not survive. And, to adapt to change, the organization must know what is changing and how it is changing. Companies are finding it increasingly important to gather information about their competitors in today's business environment.
It is important to realize that these are only general categories of resources. Within each category are hundreds or thousands of more specific resources, from which management must choose those that can best accomplish its goals. Managers must coordinate this complex group of specific resources to produce goods and services.
I. Translate into Russian.
Employ managers; a number (of); a variety (of); management area; the only manager; the owner of a sole proprietorship; levels and areas of management; to achieve the organization's goals; a great skill; human resources; tangible (material) resources; primary goals; employee; assets; recreational facilities; lengthy paid vacation; meet obligations; money; obtain money; income; insurance premium; salary; consumer market; survive; competitor; accomplish goals; produce goods and services; grant; wholesaler; endowment; utility; utility bills; borrow and lend money; salary; practical results.